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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073812

RESUMO

To reveal the role of oxygen vacancies in the solar water oxidation of α-Fe2O3 photoanodes, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties that are closely related to the water oxidation reaction of the α-Fe2O3 photoanode containing oxygen vacancies were investigated. Compared with the pristine α-Fe2O3 photoanode, the presence of surface oxygen vacancies can improve the water oxidation activity and stability of the α-Fe2O3 photoanode simultaneously, but the bulk oxygen vacancies have negative effect on the water oxidation performance of the α-Fe2O3 photoanode. In thermodynamics, our investigations revealed that the presence of surface oxygen vacancies narrows the space charge region width of the α-Fe2O3 photoanode, which could boost the charge separation and transfer efficiency of α-Fe2O3 photoanode during water oxidation. Since the surface property and hydrophilicity of α-Fe2O3 are modified owing to the presence of surface oxygen vacancies, the water oxidation kinetic of the α-Fe2O3 photoanode with surface oxygen vacancies is obviously boosted. Our findings in the present work provide comprehensive understanding in the thermodynamic and kinetic differences for the α-Fe2O3 photoanodes with and without oxygen vacancies for solar water oxidation.

2.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; : 101902, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indacaterol is one of the long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists, referred as first-line monotherapy for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease since 2011. Generic products are encouraged to benefit the large COPD patients in China, in which can provide more choices association with reduced cost and improve the quality of patient life. OBJECTIVE: The three-part study consists of two independent cohorts of thirty-six subjects, aimed to evaluate the bioequivalence (BE) of two indacaterol formulations in gastrointestinal (GI) absorption charcoal-block or non-block conditions. One pilot study performed in six healthy subjects to determine the blocking effect of a new charcoal-based regimen on GI absorption after orally inhalation of indacaterol. METHODS: Two BE studies were conducted with a randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover design in two independent 36-healthy-subject cohorts, equivalence in systemic and lung deposition was assessed after inhalation of a single dose of 150 µg indacaterol (test or reference formulation) alone or concomitant administration of charcoal. The charcoal-based regimen was improved by optimizing the dose and number of doses, and its blocking efficacy against GI absorption was assessed in a pilot study. Six healthy subjects received 9 g charcoal 10 min before, immediately after and 2 h after indacaterol (3 g/100 ml water × 3 times). Blood collected at predetermined time points up to 72 h. Plasma indacaterol concentrations were determined using HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated with non-compartment analysis. Equivalences were concluded if the 90% confidence interval (CI) for test: reference of Cmax and AUC0-t fell within the limits of 0.8-1.25. RESULTS: Indacaterol was undetectable in plasma samples in pilot study. The T/R ratio of the geometric mean Cmax and AUC0-t was 109.9% (90% CI, 106.1-113.8%) and 104.8% (90% CI, 101.5-108.1%) for charcoal-block subjects and 105.4% (90% CI, 99.8% ∼ 111.3%), and 101.0% (90% CI, 97.7%-104.4%) for non-block subjects. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that 150 µg indacaterol (+/- 9 g charcoal) was well tolerated in all subjects. The two formulations are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and absorption both in charcoal-block and non-block conditions. The improved charcoal-based regimen demonstrated to be effective and fully blockade of GI absorption of indacaterol.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048803

RESUMO

Loss of one or some specific miRNA-mediated regulation is closely associated with malignant progression of multiple myeloma (MM). But how these miRNAs work and what role the specific miRNA plays in this process of malignant progression remain unclear. It was found in this study that the expression of miR-129 was decreased in both MM cell lines and newly diagnosed MM patients. Further clinicopathological statistics showed that miR-129 was correlated with the isotype of MM patients. MiR-129 overexpression disturbed cell proliferation, cell cycle evolution and spurred apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. MAP3K7, a kinase able to activate NF-κB circuit, was found to be up-regulated in MM and contain a binding target of miR-129. In addition, lncRNA PCAT-1 functioned to sponge miR-129 and thereby lowered its expression. PCAT-1 knockdown eliminated the tumour-promoting effect caused by miR-129 inhibition, probably through repressing MAP3K7 and subsequent NF-κB activation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have discovered that increased expression of PCAT-1 could augment cell proliferation and cycle procession and inhibit apoptosis by down-regulating miR-129 via the MAP3K7/NF-κB pathway in MM.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015223

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence device mimicking human brains is the foundation for building future artificially neural networks. A key step to mimic biological neural systems is the modulation of synaptic weight, which is mainly achieved by various engineering approaches with materials design or modification of device structure. Here, we realized the modulation of synaptic weight of Ta2O5/ITO based all-metal oxide synaptic transistor via laser irradiation. Prior to the deposition of active layer and electrodes, fs-laser was induced to irradiate on the surface of insulator layer. The typical synaptic characteristics such as excitatory post synaptic current (EPSC), paired pulse facilitation (PPF) and long term potentiation (LTP) were successfully simulated under different laser intensities and scanning rates. Particularly, we demonstrated for the first time that laser irradiation could control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the Ta2O5 thin film, leading to the precise modulation of synaptic weight. Our research provides an instantaneous(<1s), convenient and low-temperature approach to improve synaptic behaviors, which would be promising for neuromorphic computing hardware design.

5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 49, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biotrophic fungi make intimate contact with host cells to access nutrients. Sugar is considered as the main carbon sources absorbed from host cells by pathogens. Partition, exchanges and competition for sugar at plant-pathogen interfaces are controlled by sugar transporters. Previous studies have indicated that the leaf rust resistance (Lr) gene Lr67, a natural mutation of TaSTP13 encoding a wheat sugar transport protein, confers partial resistance to all three wheat rust species and powdery mildew possibly due to weakened sugar transport activity of TaSTP13 by heterodimerization. However, one major problem that remains unresolved concerns whether TaSTP13 participates in wheat susceptibility to rust and mildew. RESULTS: In this study, expression of TaSTP13 was highly induced in wheat leaves challenged by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) and certain abiotic treatments. TaSTP13 was localized in the plasma membrane and functioned as homooligomers. In addition, a functional domain for its transport activity was identified in yeast. Suppression of TaSTP13 reduced wheat susceptibility to Pst by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). While overexpression of TaSTP13 promoted Arabidopsis susceptibility to powdery mildew and led to increased glucose accumulation in the leaves. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TaSTP13 is transcriptionally induced and contributes to wheat susceptibility to stripe rust, possibly by promoting cytoplasmic hexose accumulation for fungal sugar acquisition in wheat-Pst interactions.

6.
Physiol Plant ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020618

RESUMO

The biological functionality of many members of the 14-3-3 gene family is regulated via phosphorylation at multiple amino acid residues. The specific phosphorylation-mediated regulation of these proteins during cassava root tuberization, however, is not well understood. In this study, 15 different 14-3-3 genes (designated MeGRF1-15) were identified within the cassava genome. Based upon evolutionary conservation and structural analyses, these cassava 14-3-3 proteins were grouped into ε and non-ε clusters. We found these 15 MeGRF genes to be unevenly distributed across the eight cassava chromosomes. When comparing the expression of these genes during different developmental stages, we found that three of these genes (MeGRF9, 12, and 15) were overexpressed at all developmental stages at 75, 104, 135, 182, and 267 days post-planting relative to the fibrous root stage, whereas two (MeGRF5 and 7) were downregulated during these same points. In addition, the expression of most MeGRF genes changed significantly in the early and middle stages of root tuberization. This suggests that these different MeGRF genes likely play distinct regulatory roles during cassava root tuberization. Subsequently, 18 phosphorylated amino acid residues were detected on nine of these MeGRF proteins. A phosphomimetic mutation at serine-65 in MeGRF3 in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) slightly influenced starch metabolism in these plants, and significantly affected the role of MeGRF3 in salt stress responses. Together these results indicate that 14-3-3 genes play key roles in responses to abiotic stress and the regulation of starch metabolism, offering valuable insights into the functions of these genes in cassava. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062972

RESUMO

Rapid growth in U.S. unconventional oil and gas made energy more available and affordable globally, but brought environmental concerns, especially related to water. We analyzed water-related sustainability of energy extraction focusing on: (a) meeting rapidly rising water demand for hydraulic fracturing (HF), and (b) managing rapidly growing volumes of water co-produced with oil and gas (produced water, PW). We analyzed historical (2009-2017) HF water and PW volumes in ~73,000 wells and projected future water volumes in major U.S. unconventional oil (semiarid regions) and gas (humid regions) plays. Results show a marked increase in HF water use, depleting groundwater in some semiarid regions (e.g. by ≤58 ft [18 m]/yr in Eagle Ford). PW from oil reservoirs (e.g. Permian) is ~15× higher than that from gas reservoirs (Marcellus). Water issues related to both HF water demand and PW supplies may be partially mitigated by closing the loop through reusing PW for HF of new wells. However, projected PW volumes exceed HF water demand in semiarid Bakken (2.1×) and Permian Midland (1.3×) and Delaware (3.7×) oil plays, with the Delaware accounting for ~50% of projected U.S. oil production. Therefore, water issues could constrain future energy production, particularly in semiarid oil plays.

8.
J Pineal Res ; : e12640, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064655

RESUMO

Melatonin is a well-studied neurohormone oscillating in a 24-hour cycle in vertebrates. Phytomelatonin is widespread in plant kingdom, but it remains elusive whether this newly-characterized putative hormone underlies the regulation by daily rhythms. Here, we report phytomelatonin signaling, as reflected by changes in endogenous concentrations of phytomelatonin and expression of genes associated with biosynthesis of phytomelatonin (AtSNAT1, AtCOMT1 and AtASMT) and its receptor (AtPMTR1), shows 24-hour oscillations in Arabidopsis. The variation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging and expression of ROS-related genes significantly decrease in pmtr1 and snat and increase in PMTR1-OE seedlings, indicating the rhythmicity in phytomelatonin signaling is required for maintenance of ROS dynamics. Additionally, the ROS signaling feedback influences the expression of AtSNAT1, AtCOMT1, AtASMT, and AtPMTR1, suggesting the phytomelatonin and ROS signaling are coordinately interrelated. The pmtr1 mutant plants lose diurnal stomatal closure, with stomata remaining open during daytime as well as nighttime and mutants showing more water loss and drought sensitivity when compared with the wild type Col-0 plants. Taken together, our results suggest that PMTR1-regulated ROS signaling peaks in the afternoon and may transmit the darkness signals to trigger stomatal closure, which might be essential for high water-use efficiency and drought tolerance.

9.
Theranostics ; 10(4): 1500-1513, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042318

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been used in skin regeneration due to their ability to differentiate into many cells, promote cytokine secretion and participate in collagen deposition. In this study, we concluded that a CuS@BSA nanoparticles exhibited similar potential in inducing MSCs differentiation to fibroblasts as Cu ions for wound healing. Methods: First, we verified the photothermal efficiency of CuS@BSA in vivo and vitro and had no cytotoxicity for MSCs when the temperature was controlled at 42 °C by adjusting the power of irradiation at 980 nm. And then we detected the expression of vimentin in MSCs, which further directed the MSCs to fibroblasts through Western blotting and Immunofluorescence when treated with CuS@BSA or pre-heat at 42 °C. In addition, we implanted MSCs into the Matrigel or electrospun PLA nanofiber membrane in vitro to evaluating the effect of heating or CuS@BSA on the morphological change of MSCs by SEM. Finally, we evaluated improving skin regeneration by the combination of preheated-MSCs and CuS@BSA nanoparticles that were encapsulated in Matrigel. Results: The CuS@BSA nanoparticles have good photothermal conversion efficiency. Not only CuS nanoparticles itself or after irradiation at 980 nm stimulated the expressioin of vimentin in MSCs. Besides, the CuS@BSA can promote cell proliferation as Cu ion through the expression of ERK. The combination of the CuS@BSA nanoparticles and thermal treatment synergistically improved the closure of an injured wound in an injured wound model. Conclusions: MSCs combined with CuS@BSA are a promising wound dressing for the reconstruction of full-thickness skin injuries.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058714

RESUMO

Eleusine indica is a typically xerophytic weed species with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is invasive and highly adaptable to diverse habitats and crops. Due to rice cropping patterns change, E indica has become one of the main dominant grass weeds infecting direct-seeding paddy fields. A Chinese E. indica population has evolved multiple-herbicide resistance to cyhalofop-butyl and glyphosate. In this study, the multiple resistance profile of E. indica to these two different types of herbicides, and the resistance mechanisms were investigated. Whole plant dose-response assays indicated that the multiple-herbicide resistant (MHR) population exhibited 10.8-fold resistance to cyhalofop-butyl and 3.1-fold to glyphosate respectively, compared with the susceptible (S) population. ACCase sequencing revealed that the Asp-2078-Gly mutation was strongly associated with E. indica resistance to cyhalofop-butyl. The MHR plants accumulated less shikimic acid than S plants at 4, 6 and 8 day after glyphosate treatment. In addition, no amino acid substitution in EPSPS gene was found in MHR plants. Further analysis revealed the relative expression level of EPSPS in MHR plants was 6 to 10-fold higher than in S plants following glyphosate treatment, indicating the EPSPS overexpression may make contributions to glyphosate resistance. Furthermore, the effectiveness of nine post-emergence herbicides against E. indica was evaluated, and one PPO inhibitor pyraclonil was identified as highly effective in controlling the S and MHR E. indica population.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024022

RESUMO

A typical informal landfill in a rainy area of southern China was taken as an example in this study. The comprehensive control ideas and processes of the informal landfill site were systematically reviewed. The basic situation for the early stage of the government survey and investigation was provided, including a waste stock survey, water volume measurement, and a waste source survey. The main contents and key factors of a comprehensive investigation of the environmental quality status were briefly summarized. The water quality in the landfill, groundwater quality inside and outside of the site, and heavy metals in the bottom sediment were all determined. A low-cost practical landfill technology was explored to reduce the Chemical Oxygen Demand CODCr concentration of polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFC), and NH4+-N was removed by calcium hypochlorite. Soil backfill was replaced, such that the informal landfill site was immobilized, which was perfectly suitable for this southern rainy area. This study proposes rules for a comprehensive improvement scheme for a landfill, and provides a reliable theoretical basis and practical experience for the treatment of similar informal landfills.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136641, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019024

RESUMO

The rapid development of China's fisheries economy is accompanied by intensified marine environmental pollution over the period covered by this study. Based on data from multiple sources, this paper attempts to measure the relationship between fisheries economic growth and marine environmental pollution among China's coastal regions over the past 17 years. For this purpose, it firstly quantifies changes in fisheries economy and fisheries population. It then goes onto comparing the degree of changes in fisheries economy and marine environment. Finally, it depicts the relationship between fisheries added value (FAV) and polluted marine area (PMA) and between per capita net income of fishermen (PCNIF) and PMA ratio. Results suggest that.

13.
Cell Prolif ; : e12764, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: microRNA-29 (miR-29) family have shown different expression patterns in cardiovascular diseases. Our study aims to explore the effect and mechanism of miR-29 family on cardiac development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13 patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and 7 controls were included in our study. Tissues were obtained from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) after surgical resection or autopsy. The next-generation sequencing was applied to screen the microRNA expression profiles of CHD. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to measure genes expression. Tg Cmlc2: GFP reporter zebrafish embryos were injected with microRNA (miRNA) to explore its role in cardiac development in vivo. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was designed to validate the target gene of miRNAs. CCK-8 and EdU incorporation assays were performed to evaluate cardiomyocyte proliferation. RESULTS: Our study showed miR-29b-3p expression was significantly increased in the RVOT of the CHD patients. Injection of miR-29b-3p into zebrafish embryos induced higher mortality and malformation rates, developmental delay, cardiac malformation and dysfunction. miR-29b-3p inhibited cardiomyocyte proliferation, and its inhibitor promoted cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we identified that miR-29b-3p influenced cardiomyocyte proliferation by targeting NOTCH2, which was down-regulated in the RVOT of the CHD patients. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that miR-29b-3p functions as a novel regulator of cardiac development and inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation via NOTCH2, which provides novel insights into the aetiology and potential treatment of CHD.

14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075318

RESUMO

Black spot caused by Alternaria alternata is one of the important diseases of pear fruit during storage. Isothiocyanates are known as being strong antifungal compounds in vitro against different fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal effects of the volatile compound 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (2-PEITC) against A. alternata in vitro and in pear fruit, and to explore the underlying inhibitory mechanisms. The in vitro results showed that 2-PEITC significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth of A. alternata-the inhibitory effects showed a dose-dependent pattern and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 1.22 mM. The development of black spot rot on the pear fruit inoculated with A. alternata was also significantly decreased by 2-PEITC fumigation. At 1.22 mM concentration, the lesion diameter was only 39% of that in the control fruit at 7 days after inoculation. Further results of the leakage of electrolyte, increase of intracellular OD260, and propidium iodide (PI) staining proved that 2-PEITC broke cell membrane permeability of A. alternata. Moreover, 2-PEITC treatment significantly decreased alternariol (AOH), alternariolmonomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT), and tentoxin (TEN) contents of A. alternata. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms underlying the antifungal effect of 2-PEITC against A. alternata might be via reduction in toxin content and breakdown of cell membrane integrity.

15.
Int J Pharm ; 578: 119101, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006622

RESUMO

smartPearls technology is one appropriate method to produce anti-psoriatic curcumin (Cur) topical delivery system. To prevent the sedimentation of loaded silica and release changing over the storage, which are disadvantages of smartPearls production, extra glycyrrhizic acid (GA) was added in classical smartPearls ingredients (active and porous material) to get an improved smartPearls production (Cur-GA-silica). The capacity of Cur-GA-silica to remain the gelation state after mixing with water was superior compared to that of the solid cluster without GA and that of the physical mixture of Cur, GA and silica. The Cur-GA-silica practically contained Cur with 1.68% ± 0.12% and showed significant difference with Cur raw drug powder in kinetic solubilities (4.55 ± 0.78 µg/mL vs 0 in 5 min; 3.26 ± 0.17 µg/mL vs 0 in 4 h) which was traceable to the amorphous state of Cur-GA-silica detected by X-ray diffractometer. With the amorphous Cur, two times as much penetrated Cur in Cur-GA-silica as in Cur raw drug powder was achieved on the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mice model. The anti-psoriatic efficacy of Cur-GA-silica was confirmed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) evaluation, histological evaluation and decreased IL-17A in the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform mouse skin analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In conclusion, with the addition of GA, a stable amorphous curcumin topical vehicle fabricated by smartPearls technology without extra dermal matrix is available and facilitates penetration efficacy and anti-psoriatic capacity in imiquimod-induced psoriasiform mice.

16.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 23, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and is associated with a number of other diseases. PCV2 is widely distributed in most developed swine industries, and is a severe economic burden. With an eye to developing an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine against PCV2-associated diseases, we have constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain (B. subtilis-Cap) that expresses the PCV2 capsid protein (Cap). METHODS: Electroporation of a plasmid shuttle vector encoding the PCV2 Cap sequence was use to transform Bacillus subtilis. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate in vitro bone marrow derived dendritic cell (BM-DC) maturation and T cell proliferation induced by B. subtilis-Cap. Orally inoculated piglets were used for in vivo experiments; ELISA and western blotting were used to evaluate B. subtilis-Cap induced PCV2-specific IgA and IgG levels, as well as the secretion of cytokines and the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). RESULTS: We evaluated the immune response to B. subtilis-Cap in vitro using mouse BM-DCs and in vivo using neonatal piglets orally inoculated with B. subtilis-Cap. Our results showed that the recombinant B. subtilis-Cap activated BM-DCs, significantly increased co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD80) and major histocompatibility complex II, and induced allogenic T cells proliferation. Piglets immunized with B. subtilis-Cap had elevated levels of PCV2-specific IgA in the mucosal tissues of the digestive and respiratory tract, and PCV2-specific IgG in serum (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Ileal immunocompetent cells, such as the IgA-secreting cells (P < 0.01), intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) (P < 0.01), CD3+ T lymphocytes (P < 0.01) and CD4+ T lymphocytes (P < 0.01) increased significantly in the B. subtilis-Cap immunized piglets. Additionally, B. subtilis-Cap inoculation resulted in increased the expression of TLR2 and TLR9 (P < 0.01), and induced the secretion of cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, interferon-γ, and ß-defensin 2 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We constructed a prototype PCV2 vaccine that can be administered orally and elicits a more robust humoral and cellular immunity than inactivated PCV2. B. subtilis-Cap is a promising vaccine candidate that is safe, convenient, and inexpensive. Further in vivo research is needed to determine its full range of efficacy in pigs.

17.
Horm Behav ; 121: 104714, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057820

RESUMO

Patients with thyroid dysfunction (31 hypothyroid, 32 subclinical hypothyroidism, 34 hyperthyroid, and 30 subclinical hyperthyroidism) and 37 euthyroid control subjects were recruited and performed the attention network test (ANT), which can simultaneously examine the alertness, orientation and execution control of the participants. Patients with hypothyroidism had abnormalities in the alerting network, and those with hyperthyroidism had impairments of the alerting and executive control networks. No attention networks deficit existed in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. The anxiety and depression scores of patients with thyroid dysfunction were significantly higher than those of the healthy control group. Covariance analysis demonstrated that interactions between group and Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores, group and HAMD score were not significant, but there was a significant main effect for group when analyzing the difference in values of the alerting network between groups. Further, the efficiency of the executive control network was negatively correlated with the T4 level in the hypothyroidism group, and positively correlated with the T4 level in the hyperthyroidism group. T4 or T3 level and efficiencies of the executive control network had a significant quadratic U-shaped relationship in all participants. In summary, the patients with four kinds of thyroid dysfunction exhibited different characteristics of ANT performance. Patients with thyroid dysfunction had various degrees of anxiety and depression disorders, but anxiety and depression disorders had no effect on the differences in the executive control network between the groups.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137164, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059331

RESUMO

A global meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of conservation tillage practices on soil microbial population size [based on microbial count and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) measurements], diversity (Shannon index), and microbial community structure. Both no-tillage (NT) and NT plus residue retention (NTS) increased soil microbial count as compared with conventional tillage (CT). Bacteria, fungi, and actinomycete counts were 3%, 18%, and 28%, respectively, higher under the NTS treatment relative to the NT treatment, and 38%, 41%, and 28%, respectively, higher in the CT plus residue retention (CTS) treatment than in the CT treatment. No-tillage, as compared to CT, increased total PLFAs by 11%. The concentration of fungal PLFAs was increased by 17% by NT as compared to CT, but was decreased by 52% by NTS as compared to NT. The actinomycete PLFA concentration was decreased by reduced tillage and CTS, compared to CT. Compared with CT, NT increased the Shannon index of the total microbial and bacterial communities by 4% and 6%, respectively. The bacterial count was negatively associated with mean annual precipitation (275-1624 mm) and experimental duration (1-35 years) and positively associated with initial total soil nitrogen concentration. Overall, relative to CT, minimum tillage alone increased soil microbial count, fungal biomass, and bacterial diversity; residue retention alone increased soil microbial count and fungal diversity, and decreased the biomass of actinomycetes; combining minimum tillage and residue retention increased soil microbial count and fungal diversity. We conclude that the response to minimum tillage and residue retention was consistently positive for soil microbial count but was context dependent for microbial biomass, diversity, and community structure.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1222-1226, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913616

RESUMO

Here we report an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) self-interference spectroscopy technique (designated as ECLIS) with spatial resolution in the normal direction of the electrode surface. Self-interference principally originates from the superposition of ECL emitted directly by luminophores and that reflected from electrode surfaces, resulting in a spectrum consisting of orderly distributed peaks. On the basis of this spectrum and theoretical analysis by the matrix propagation model, the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface can be probed with a vertical resolution on the nanometer scale. We demonstrated first in this work that the height of ECL luminophores assembled on the electrode surface using different molecular linkers, such as double-stranded DNA, could be determined, as well as the possible conformation of linker molecules at the surface. Moreover, the thickness of the ECL emitting layer adjacent to the electrode surface was estimated for the classical coreactant ECL systems involving freely diffusing Ru(bpy)32+ and tri-n-propylamine in solutions. The thickness was found to vary from ∼350 nm to nearly 1 µm depending on the concentration of Ru(bpy)32+. We believe that ECLIS with a high vertical resolution will provide an easy way to collect molecular conformation information and study ECL reaction mechanisms at electrode interfaces.

20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 113-121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957387

RESUMO

Rainfall is limited and unevenly distributed across different seasons in the sub-humid but drought-prone area on Loess Plateau, China. Understanding the effects of water supply on the growth of forage crops is of great significance for guiding forage cultivation. Pot experiment was carried out in a shelter in this study. There were five cropping patterns, including monoculture of common vetch, oat and maize, oat/common vetch intercropping, and oat/maize intercropping. There were three water supply levels, including high (low limit of 70% field capacity), medium (low limit of 55% of field capacity) and low (low limit of 40% of field capacity) water. The results showed that land equivalent ratio in the oat/common vetch intercropping group were 1.20, 1.21 and 1.19 at the high, medium and low water supply levels, respectively, and those in the oat/maize intercropping were 1.17, 1.11 and 1.03. Such results indicate that all of the intercropping systems had yield advantages compared with all monoculture. Among the five planting patterns under the same water supply level, the total dry matter yield of maize monoculture was the highest, and that of common vetch monoculture was the lowest. Yields of dry matter and crude protein of oat increased with the decreases of water supply, while common vetch and corn monoculture showed opposite trends. On per plant basis, intercropping increased dry matter yield and crude protein yield of oat, while decreased the yield of common vetch and maize, oat showed an intercropping advantage. Compared with the high water treatment, dry matter yield of the oat/common vetch intercropping increased insignificantly by 4.1% and 4.8% respectively compared with that in the treatments of medium water and low water, whereas dry matter yield of the oat/maize intercropping was significantly reduced by 8.0% and 13.0% respectively. Compared with high water treatment, root/shoot ratio of the oat/common vetch intercropping was significantly increased by 33.4% and 58.4% under the treatments of medium and low water respectively. However, medium and low water supply significantly reduced root/shoot ratio in the oat/maize intercropping. Compared with high water treatment, water use efficiency of the oat/common vetch intercropping significantly increased by 11.7% and 12.9% under the treatments of medium and low water respectively, while water use efficiency of oat/maize intercropping was not affected by water application. In summary, yield of forage maize monoculture and oat/forage maize intercropping were higher, but they were sensitive to water shortage and had low yield stability. Under insufficient water conditions, yield stability, crude protein production and water use efficiency in oat/common vetch intercropping system were greater. Consequently, we suggest this system should be used in the study area.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Água , Biomassa , China , Abastecimento de Água , Zea mays
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