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1.
Indoor Air ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to black carbon indoors may be associated with blood pressure however evidence is limited to vulnerable subpopulations and highly exposed individuals. Our objective was to explore the relationship between indoor black carbon at various exposure windows on resting blood pressure in a general population sample. METHODS: Black carbon was measured in the home of 76 individuals aged 10-71 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Exposure was measured every 1-minute for up to 120 hours using an AE51 microaethalometer. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured at the conclusion of exposure monitoring. RESULTS: In adjusted models, at all exposure windows, increasing black carbon was associated with increased systolic blood pressure. The period 0-72 hours prior to blood pressure measurement showed the strongest effect; a 1-µg/m3 increase in black carbon was associated with a 7.55 mmHg (p=0.02) increase in systolic blood pressure. The relationship was stronger in participants reporting doctor diagnosed hypertension (ß = 6.47 vs ß = 3.27). Black carbon was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Increasing black carbon concentration indoors is positively associated with increasing systolic blood pressure with the most relevant exposure window being 0-72 hours prior to blood pressure measurement. Individuals with hypertension may be a more susceptible population.

2.
Opt Lett ; 45(4): 828-831, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058481

RESUMO

Multiple light scattering in biomedical tissue limits the penetration depth of optical imaging systems such as optical coherence tomography. To increase the imaging depth in scattering media, a computational method based on coherent reflection matrix measurement has been developed using low coherence interferometry. The complex reflection matrix is obtained via point-by-point scanning followed by a phase-shifting method; then singular value decomposition is used to retrieve the singly back-scattered light. However, the in vivo application of the current reported method is limited due to the slow acquisition speed of the matrix. In this Letter, a wide-field heterodyne-detection method is adopted to speed up the complex matrix measurement at a deep tissue layer. Compared to the phase-shifting method, the heterodyne-detection scheme retrieves depth-resolved complex amplitudes faster and is more stable without mechanical movement of the reference mirror. As a result, the matrix measurement speed is increased by more than one order of magnitude.

3.
Acta Biomater ; 104: 158-166, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954188

RESUMO

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury initiates and exacerbates a series of oxidative and inflammatory events, and causes high morbidity and mortality. Despite the progress made with recent clinical use of anti-malarial drugs, the response rate of I/R injury treatment remains unsatisfactory. Here, we showed a neutrophil membrane-enveloped Coenzyme Q (N-NPCoQ10) nanoparticle strategy for I/R injury treatment. We validated the physicochemical and biological reproducibility of the nanoparticles and tested the protective effects of N-NPCoQ10 in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion model and renal I/R injury mouse model. N-NPCoQ10 nanoparticles administration exhibited synergistic protective effect against I/R injury, which significantly reduced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo, inhibited renal cell apoptosis, attenuated inflammatory response in renal I/R injury model, and finally improved renal function of I/R injury mice. The N-NPCoQ10 nanoparticles administration provides an efficient way to deliver anti-oxidant that suppresses oxidative damages and neutralize proinflammatory cytokines during renal I/R injury, which might be a potential strategy for renal acute kidney injury treatment. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The neutrophil membrane-enveloped Coenzyme Q nanoparticles (N-NPCoQ10) provides an efficient way to protect oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic reaction in renal I/R injury, which might be a potential strategy for renal acute kidney injury treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898644

RESUMO

Background/Aim: To study the impact of computer-aided detection (CADe) system on the detection rate of polyps and adenomas in colonoscopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 1026 patients were prospectively randomly scheduled for colonoscopy with (the CADe group, CADe) or without (the control group, CON) the aid of the CADe system, together with visual notification and voice alarm, so as to compare the detection rate of polyp. Results: Compared with group CON, the detection rate of adenomas increased in group CADe, the average number of adenomas increased, the number of small adenomas increased, the number of proliferative polyps increased, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001), but the comparison for the number of larger adenomas showed no significant difference between the groups (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The CADe system is feasible for increasing the detection of polyps and adenomas in colonoscopy.

5.
Food Chem ; 311: 125892, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791724

RESUMO

In this study, we successfully knock-out the d-hordein component of barley storage protein using RNA-guided Cas9. Mutation frequencies of 25% and 14% at two different target sites were obtained. Homozygous mutant plants that were T-DNA free were identified in the T1 generation. Barley grains without d-hordein proteins from T2 seeds showed a significantly reduced grain size compared to the parent plant and control non-edited line. The protein matrix surrounding the starch granules was increased, whereas the starch granules themselves were decreased in size in the mutant plants compared to controls. The main effect of a lack of d-hordein was a considerable decrease in the prolamines and an increase in the glutenins. The changes of other grain composition included the increased starch content, amylose content, and ß-glucan content. The roles of d-hordein mutation on barley grain size and grain composition remain to be studied.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(1): 1757-1764, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818097

RESUMO

Bubble crystals in water are expected to achieve the broad and low-frequency acoustic band gaps that are crucial for acoustic blocking. However, preparing patterned bubble crystals in water remains a challenge because of the instability of bubbly liquids. Here, inspired by biological superhydrophobic systems, we report a simple and rapid approach to prepare patterned bubble arrays in water and their applications in low-frequency acoustic blocking. Patterned bubbles with the desired size, shape, and position can be prepared. Single-layer bubble arrays can block the sounds at low frequencies because of local resonance. By varying the size and distance of the bubbles without changing the thickness, the operating frequency can change from 9 to 1756 kHz. Besides, by preparing multilayer bubbles, broad and low-frequency acoustic band gaps can be achieved, with the generalized width of γ (ratio of the bandgap width to its start frequency) reaching 1.26. This method provides a feasible strategy to control acoustic waves at low frequencies for applications such as acoustic blocking, focusing, imaging, and detecting.

7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 133-138, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854913

RESUMO

In typical cities of East China, more than 900 non-road vehicles were tested for exhaust smoke. Based on the investigation of the properties of these non-road vehicles, exhaust smoke intensities for different kinds of non-road vehicles are recommended. We also quantitatively study the differences in smoke intensity among vehicle age, vehicle power, test conditions, and fuels. The results showed that smoke intensity of non-road vehicles was (1.02±0.57) m-1 and that Ringelmann smoke was 2.10±0.19. In comparison to Chinese national standard (GB 36886), approximately 12%-25% of tested non-road vehicles' smoke intensity exceeded the standard limit. The smoke intensity of 80% of tested non-road vehicles was higher during start-up than under free acceleration. In comparison to ordinary diesel, the smoke intensities of tested non-road vehicles that used automotive diesel were lower. The instantaneous increase in fuel injection during start-up, as well as poor fuel quality, can directly affect the exhaust smoke of non-road vehicles.

8.
Indoor Air ; 30(1): 98-107, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610044

RESUMO

Although short-duration elevated exposures (peak exposures) to pollutants may trigger adverse acute effects, epidemiological studies to understand their influence on different health effects are hampered by lack of methods for objectively identifying peaks. Secondhand smoke from cigarettes (SHS) in the residential environment can lead to peak exposures. The aim of this study was to explore whether peaks in continuous PM2.5 data can indicate SHS exposure. A total of 41 children (21 with and 20 without SHS exposure based on self-report) from 28 families in New York City (NY, USA) were recruited. Both personal and residential continuous PM2.5 monitoring were performed for five consecutive days using MicroPEM sensors (RTI International, USA). A threshold detection method based on cumulative distribution function was developed to identify peaks. When children were home, the mean accumulated peak area (APA) for peak exposures was 297 ± 325 hour*µg/m3 for children from smoking families and six times that of the APA from non-smoking families (~50 ± 54 hour*µg/m3 ). Average PM2.5 mass concentrations for SHS exposed and unexposed children were 24 ± 15 µg/m3 and 15 ± 9 µg/m3 , respectively. The average SHS exposure duration represents ~5% of total exposure time, but ~13% of children's total PM2.5 exposure dose, equivalent to an additional 2.6 µg/m3 per day. This study demonstrated the feasibility of peak analysis for quantifying SHS exposure. The developed method can be adopted more widely to support epidemiology studies on impacts of short-term exposures.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800355

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of topical low-concentration (0.01%) atropine for controlling near work-induced transient myopia (NITM) in a young Chinese population. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The participants were randomly divided into the 0.5% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-treated group (control group) or 0.01% atropine-treated group (study group). Participants' pulse rate, respiration rate, intraocular pressure, pupil diameter, and magnitude of initial NITM were evaluated at baseline and on day 7 and 14 during treatment. In addition, ocular discomfort and adverse effects were recorded. Results: Of the initial 176 participants, 145 (82.4%) completed the 14-day treatment and all evaluations. At baseline, no difference in the magnitude of initial NITM was observed between the control and study groups (P = 0.826). However, the magnitude of initial NITM of the study group was significantly lower at both day 7 (-0.11 ± 0.227 D) and day 14 (0.076 ± 0.183 D) after treatment initiation, compared with the magnitude of initial NITM in the control group (P < 0.001). No serious complications were observed. However, significantly larger pupil diameters were noted on day 7 and 14 in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We speculate that daily topical 0.01% atropine application effectively reduced the magnitude of initial NITM, without any serious complications. The minimal pupil dilation induced by the treatment was acceptable. Low-concentration atropine may be useful in clinical settings as treatment for young patients with NITM.

10.
Orthop Surg ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of spinopelvic reconstruction based on a novel suspended, modular, and 3D-printed total sacral implant after total piecemeal resection of a sacral giant cell tumor (SGCT) with the preservation of bilateral S1-3 nerve roots via a posterior-only approach. METHODS: Five patients who had undergone total piecemeal resection of SGCT involving upper sacral segments (S1 and S2 ) and the midline with the preservation of bilateral S1-3 nerve roots via a posterior-only approach between September 2017 and July 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. A novel suspended, modular, and 3D-printed total sacral implant had been used for reconstruction. This series included two female and three male patients, with a mean age of 42.2 years (range, 31-53 years). Surgical time, blood loss, complications, preoperative and postoperative neurological function, instrumentation failure, and local control were presented and analyzed. RESULTS: All patients underwent the operation without death or serious complications. The implant was installed on the defect, connecting the ilium and lumbar vertebrae, and fixed with a screw-rod system up to the level of L3-4 or L4-5 . The mean operative time was 502 min (range, 360-640 min) and the mean operative blood loss 4400 mL (range, 3000-7000 mL). The mean follow up was 15 months. After the operation, pain was significantly relieved, and the patients resumed walking as early as 2 weeks later. The patients showed no neurogenic bladder dysfunction and no fecal incontinence or gait disturbance. Wound healing was poor in one patient. Patients recovered well without evidence of local recurrence. No implant failures or related clinical symptoms were detected during follow up. Satisfactory bone ingrowth and osseointegration at the bone-implant junctions was found in follow-up CT. CONCLUSION: Although technically challenging, it is feasible and safe to use a suspended, modular, and 3D-printed implant for reconstruction after total piecemeal resection with the preservation of bilateral S1-3 nerve roots in patients with SGCT. We believe that this implant can be applied to sacral reconstruction in a wide variety of diseases.

11.
Front Genet ; 10: 1012, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681435

RESUMO

The whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data can potentially discover all genetic variants. Studies have shown the power of WGS for genome-wide association study (GWAS) lies in the ability to identify quantitative trait loci and nucleotides (QTNs). However, the resequencing of thousands of target individuals is expensive. Genotype imputation is a powerful approach for WGS and to identify causal mutations. This study aimed to evaluate the imputation accuracy from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to WGS in two pig breeds using a resequencing reference population and to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and candidate genes for farrowing interval (FI) of different parities using the data before and after imputation for GWAS. Six hundred target pigs, 300 Landrace and 300 Large White pigs, were genotyped by GBS, and 60 reference pigs, 20 Landrace and 40 Large White pigs, were sequenced by whole-genome resequencing. Imputation for pigs was conducted using Beagle software. The average imputation accuracy (allelic R 2) from GBS to WGS was 0.42 for Landrace pigs and 0.45 for Large White pigs. For Landrace pigs (Large White pigs), 4,514,934 (5,533,290) SNPs had an accuracy >0.3, resulting an average accuracy of 0.73 (0.72), and 2,093,778 (2,468,645) SNPs had an accuracy >0.8, resulting an average accuracy of 0.94 (0.93). Association studies with data before and after imputation were performed for FI of different parities in two populations. Before imputation, 18 and 128 significant SNPs were detected for FI in Landrace and Large White pigs, respectively. After imputation, 125 and 27 significant SNPs were identified for dataset with an accuracy >0.3 and 0.8 in Large White pigs, and 113 and 18 SNPs were found among imputed sequence variants. Among these significant SNPs, six top SNPs were detected in both GBS data and imputed WGS data, namely, SSC2: 136127645, SSC5: 103426443, SSC6: 27811226, SSC10: 3609429, SSC14: 15199253, and SSC15: 150297519. Overall, many candidate genes could be involved in FI of different parities in pigs. Although imputation from GBS to WGS data resulted in a low imputation accuracy, association analyses with imputed WGS data were optimized to detect QTNs for complex trait. The obtained results provide new insight into genotype imputation, genetic architecture, and candidate genes for FI of different parities in Landrace and Large White pigs.

12.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.11, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716420

RESUMO

A new genus and species of Ithonidae, Puripolystoechotes pumilus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. The new genus is distinguished by possessing a hind wing with a simple humeral vein, only three ra-rp crossveins, M forked slightly distal to origin of RP1, and wing membrane without color pattern. This is the third ithonid genus from this locality, showing interesting morphological similarity with the other ithonids from the same locality and period.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Holometábolos , Animais , China , Insetos , Asas de Animais
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17610, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651872

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Primary thoracic dumb-bell yolk sac tumor (YST) with both epidural and extraspinal extension is a rare disease with no standard curative managements yet. The objective of this study is to report a primary thoracic dumb-bell YST presenting with severe spinal cord compression successfully treated with posterior-only approach operation, followed by chemotherapy. The management of these unique cases has not been fully documented. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 26-mounth-old, previously healthy girl presented with progressive numbness and weakness of the lower extremities. Neurological examination revealed paralysis of both lower extremities, sensory disturbance below T-8 and bladder-bowel dysfunction. DIAGNOSIS: CT and MRI of spine showed a dumb-bell mass lesion with both epidural and extraspinal extension through enlarged intervertebral foramina and marked spinal cord compression at T7-T9. The AFP level was 13738 ng/ml. Preoperative puncture and Postoperative pathology confirmed the diagnosis of YST. INTERVENTIONS: By needle biopsy, we identified the pathological diagnosis is YST. Subsequently, the patient was treated with one-stage posterior-only approach operation, followed by 9 courses of chemotherapy based on cisplatin, bleomycin, etoposide. OUTCOMES: The patient has a complete neurologic recovery and remains recurrence free as of more than 2 years after the completion of operation. There were no other complications associated with the operation during the follow-up period. LESSONS: YST should be considered in the range of children with thoracic dumb-bell tumor presenting with spinal cord compression. Needle biopsy is valuable for preoperative diagnosis and design of the treatment strategy. If there is no evidence of CSF spread, metastasis or multiple diseases, it is effective to remove tumors as thoroughly as possible immediately, avoid further nerve injury and conduct enough chemotherapy. This case suggests that this treatment strategy is an effective option for primary YST with both epidural and extraspinal extension and severe spinal cord compression.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Tumor do Seio Endodérmico/terapia , Laminectomia/métodos , Compressão da Medula Espinal/terapia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Tumor do Seio Endodérmico/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Compressão da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Vértebras Torácicas/patologia , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ecology ; : e02922, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652337

RESUMO

Stochasticity is a core component of ecology, as it underlies key processes that structure and create variability in nature. Despite its fundamental importance in ecological systems, the concept is often treated as synonymous with unpredictability in community ecology, and studies tend to focus on single forms of stochasticity rather than taking a more holistic view. This has led to multiple narratives for how stochasticity mediates community dynamics. Here, we present a framework that describes how different forms of stochasticity (notably demographic and environmental stochasticity) combine to provide underlying and predictable structure in diverse communities. This framework builds on the deep ecological understanding of stochastic processes acting at individual and population levels and in modules of a few interacting species. We support our framework with a mathematical model that we use to synthesize key literature, demonstrating that stochasticity is more than simple uncertainty. Rather, stochasticity has profound and predictable effects on community dynamics that are critical for understanding how diversity is maintained. We propose next steps that ecologists might use to explore the role of stochasticity for structuring communities in theoretical and empirical systems, and thereby enhance our understanding of community dynamics.

15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652820

RESUMO

Exposure assessment studies are the primary means for understanding links between exposure to chemical and physical agents and adverse health effects. Recently, researchers have proposed using wearable monitors during exposure assessment studies to obtain higher fidelity readings of exposures actually experienced by subjects. However, limited research has been conducted to link a wearer's actions to periods of exposure, a necessary step for estimating inhaled dosage. To aid researchers in these settings, we developed a machine learning model for identifying periods of bicycling activity using passively collected data from the RTI MicroPEM wearable exposure monitor, a lightweight device capable of continuously sampling both air pollution levels and accelerometry parameters. Our best performing model identifies biking activity with a mean leave-one-session-out (LOSO) cross-validation F1 score of 0.832 (unweighted) and 0.979 (weighted). Accelerometer derived features contributed greatly to the model performance, as well as temporal smoothing of the predicted activities. Additionally, we found competitive activity recognition can occur with even relatively low sampling rates, suggesting suitability for exposure assessment studies where continuous data collection for long periods (without recharge) are needed to capture realistic daily routines and exposures.

16.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 169, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With a variety of physiological and pharmacological functions, menaquinone is an essential prenylated product that can be endogenously converted from phylloquinone (VK1) or menadione (VK3) via the expression of Homo sapiens UBIAD1 (HsUBIAD1). The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, is an attractive expression system that has been successfully applied to the efficient expression of heterologous proteins. However, the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway has not been discovered in P. pastoris. RESULTS: Firstly, we constructed a novel synthetic pathway in P. pastoris for the production of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) via heterologous expression of HsUBIAD1. Then, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase constitutive promoter (PGAP) appeared to be mostsuitable for the expression of HsUBIAD1 for various reasons. By optimizing the expression conditions of HsUBIAD1, its yield increased by 4.37 times after incubation at pH 7.0 and 24 °C for 36 h, when compared with that under the initial conditions. We found HsUBIAD1 expressed in recombinant GGU-23 has the ability to catalyze the biosynthesis of MK-4 when using VK1 and VK3 as the isopentenyl acceptor. In addition, we constructed a ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-mediated multi-copy expression vector for the fusion expression of SaGGPPS and PpIDI, and the recombinant GGU-GrIG afforded higher MK-4 production, so that it was selected as the high-yield strain. Finally, the yield of MK-4 was maximized at 0.24 mg/g DCW by improving the GGPP supply when VK3 was the isopentenyl acceptor. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we constructed a novel synthetic pathway in P. pastoris for the biosynthesis of the high value-added prenylated product MK-4 through heterologous expression of HsUBIAD1 and strengthened accumulation of GGPP. This approach could be further developed and accomplished for the biosynthesis of other prenylated products, which has great significance for theoretical research and industrial application.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597487

RESUMO

Introduction: Microwaves (MWs) quickly deliver relatively high temperatures into tumors and cover a large ablation zone. We present a research protocol for using water-cooled double-needle MW ablation arrays for tumor ablation here. Material and methods: Our research program includes computer modeling, tissue-mimicking phantom experiments, and in vitro swine liver experiments. The computer modeling is based on the finite element method (FEM) to evaluate ablation temperature distributions. In tissue-mimicking phantom and in vitro swine liver ablation experiments, the performances of the new device and the single-needle MW device currently used in clinical practice are compared. Results: FEM shows that the maximum transverse ablation diameter (MTAD) is 4.2 cm at 100 W output and 300 s (assessed at the 50 °C isotherm). In the tissue-mimicking phantom, the MTDA is 2.6 cm at 50 W and 300 s in single-needle MW ablation, and 4 cm in double needle MW ablation array. In in vitro swine liver experiments, the MTAD is 2.820 ± 0.127 cm at 100 W and 300 s in single-needle MW ablation, and 3.847 ± 0.103 cm in MW ablation array. Conclusion: A new type of water-cooled MW ablation array is designed and tested, and has potential advantages over currently used devices.

18.
Science ; 365(6460): 1418-1424, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604269

RESUMO

Thermoelectric technology allows conversion between heat and electricity. Many good thermoelectric materials contain rare or toxic elements, so developing low-cost and high-performance thermoelectric materials is warranted. Here, we report the temperature-dependent interplay of three separate electronic bands in hole-doped tin sulfide (SnS) crystals. This behavior leads to synergistic optimization between effective mass (m*) and carrier mobility (µ) and can be boosted through introducing selenium (Se). This enhanced the power factor from ~30 to ~53 microwatts per centimeter per square kelvin (µW cm-1 K-2 at 300 K), while lowering the thermal conductivity after Se alloying. As a result, we obtained a maximum figure of merit ZT (ZT max) of ~1.6 at 873 K and an average ZT (ZT ave) of ~1.25 at 300 to 873 K in SnS0.91Se0.09 crystals. Our strategy for band manipulation offers a different route for optimizing thermoelectric performance. The high-performance SnS crystals represent an important step toward low-cost, Earth-abundant, and environmentally friendly thermoelectrics.

19.
Anim Sci J ; 90(12): 1517-1522, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593376

RESUMO

Wolfberry is well known for its health benefits in Asian countries. This study consisted of two experiments. In Experiment 1, nine boars were provided 40 g dried wolfberry per 100 kg body weight per day in addition to regular feed for 160 days (divided into 40 days phases: I, II, III, and IV) under step-down air temperature conditions. Controls (n = 9) were fed regular feed only. Significant (p < .05 or p < .01) or slight improvements in sperm progressive motility, total abnormality rate, sperm concentration, and total sperm per ejaculate were observed in the wolfberry group during phases II and III. No differences were observed in semen volume. After combining the data from phases II ~ IV, significant improvements were detected in all aforementioned traits (p < .05 or p < .01), except semen volume. In Experiment 2, the wolfberry group (n = 5) was fed wolfberry for 90 days and exhibited significantly reduced head, tail, and total abnormality rates (p < .05 or p < .01) in both fresh semen and semen stored for 72 hr at 17°C compared to the control group (n = 5). SOD activity also significantly increased in this group of boars. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest that wolfberry has a positive effect on boar semen quality.

20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 211-219, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499200

RESUMO

Dietary administration of some plant-derived substances have been proved of great economic value in aquaculture. In order to investigate the effects of dietary fenugreek seed extracts (FSE) on juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), a feeding trial was conducted for 8 weeks. The results showed that final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were not significantly affected by dietary FSE levels. The whole body lipid contents of fish fed with 0.04%, 0.08% and 0.16% FSE diets were significantly lowered compared to the control group. Dietary FSE diets significantly affected plasma complement component 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP). The relative expressions of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) mRNA in the liver of fish decreased significantly with increasing dietary FSE levels from 0% up to 0.04%. FSE supplementation diets lowered the liver pro-inflammatory genes expressions by regulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) mRNA levels and increased anti-inflammatory genes expression by regulating transforming growth factor (TGF-ß) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). FSE diets increased growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and target of rapamycin (TOR) mRNA levels from 0% up to 0.04%, 0.04% FSE diets significantly increased growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels and S6 kinase-polypeptide 1 (S6K1) mRNA levels compared to the control group. 0.04% FSE diets significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and 0.08% FSE diets significantly increased catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, 0.16% FSE diets significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities compared to the control group. Additionally, compared to the control group, 0.04% dietary FSE significantly up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) mRNA levels, at the same time, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.08%, 0.16% FSE diets significantly down-regulated kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) mRNA levels. However, no significant effects were observed on copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). Our study indicated that dietary FSE could improve plasma biochemical parameters, regulate lipid metabolism related genes, promote Nrf2 antioxidant capacity and enhance immune response of juvenile blunt snout bream.

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