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1.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 7(4): 1055-1068, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633599

RESUMO

An improved innate immunity will respond quickly to pathogens and initiate efficient adaptive immune responses. However, up to now, there have been limited clinical ways for effective and rapid consolidation of innate immunity. Here, we report that cutaneous irradiation with blue light of 450 nm rapidly stimulates the innate immunity through cell endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation in a noninvasive way. The iron porphyrin-containing proteins, mitochondrial cytochrome c (Cyt-c), and cytochrome p450 (CYP450) can be mobilized by blue light, which boosts electron transport and ROS production in epidermal and dermal tissues. As a messenger of innate immune activation, the increased level of ROS activates the NF-κB signaling pathway and promotes the secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines in skin. Initiated from skin, a regulatory network composed of cytokines and immune cells is established through the circulation system for innate immune activation. The innate immunity activated by whole-body blue light irradiation inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by increasing the infiltration of antitumor neutrophils and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results elucidate the remote immune modulation mechanism of blue light and provide a clinically applicable way for innate immunity activation.

2.
Life Sci ; : 122618, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614306

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was designed to investigate the role of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible ß (GADD45B) in modulating fear memory acquisition and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) that knockdown or overexpression GADD45B were injected into ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1) by stereotactic, and verified by fluorescence and Western blot. The contextual fear conditioning paradigm was employed to examine the involvement of GADD45B in modulating aversive memory acquisition. The Y-maze and novel location recognition (NLR) tests were used to examine non-aversive cognition. The synaptic plasticity and electrophysiological properties of neurons were measured by slice patch clamp. KEY FINDINGS: Knockdown of GADD45B in the vCA1 significantly enhanced fear memory acquisition, accompanied by an upregulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) expression and intrinsic excitability of vCA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs). Conversely, overexpression of GADD45B produced the opposite effects. Notably, silencing the activity of vCA1 neurons abolished the impact of GADD45B knockdown on fear memory development. Moreover, mice with vCA1 GADD45B overexpression exhibited impaired spatial cognition, whereas mice with GADD45B knockdown did not display such impairment. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provided compelling evidence for the crucial involvement of GADD45B in the formation of aversive memory and spatial cognition.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 160(14)2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597315

RESUMO

As initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) finds increasing application in precision industries like electronics and optics, defect prevention will become critical. While studies of non-ideal morphology exist in the iCVD literature, no studies investigate the role of defects. To address this knowledge gap, we show that the buildup of short-chain polymers or oligomers during normal operation of an iCVD reactor can lead to defects that compromise film integrity. We used atomic force microscopy to show that oligomer aggregates selectively prevented film growth, causing these hole-like defects. X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy demonstrated the crystallinity of the aggregates, pointing to a flat-on lamellar or mono-lamellar structure. To understand the origin of the aggregates, spectroscopic ellipsometry showed that samples exposed to the reactor consistently accrued low-volatility contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed material derived from polymerization in the contamination, while scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of defect-causing aggregates. We directly linked oligomeric/polymeric contamination with defect formation by showing an increased defect rate when a contaminant polymer was heated alongside the sample. Most importantly, we showed that starting a deposition at a high sample temperature (e.g., 50 °C) before reducing it to the desired setpoint (e.g., 9 °C) unilaterally prevented defects, providing a simple method to prevent defects with minimal impact on operations.

4.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(5): 286, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613655

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to explore the characteristics of stigma in postoperative oral cancer patients to provide a reference for the formulation of targeted intervention measures. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted on 25 postoperative oral cancer patients in a tertiary A hospital in Hunan, China, from March to July 2021. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews focused on experiences of stigma were performed. The interview data was analyzed using the NVivo V.12 software based on the reflexive intuitive thematic analysis method. The paper complies with the COREQ. RESULTS: The stigma experience of postoperative oral cancer patients can be divided into 3 themes: (1) triggers (impaired appearance and oral function and psycho-social pressure); (2) forms (overall isolation, unpleasant feeling of inferiority, and unpleasant social discrimination); (3) coping strategies (positive psychological adjustment, seeking social support and coming out of the unpleasant shadows). CONCLUSION: Postoperative oral cancer patients clearly articulated that stigma was present in their lives and they experienced multiple forms of stigma. Further work is needed to increase education and awareness about oral cancer to guide them to take positive coping and reduce stigma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Estigma Social , Pesquisa Qualitativa , China , 60670
5.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1352971, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563026

RESUMO

Background: No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding the attentional bias characteristics of adolescents with major depressive disorders (MDD), and unexamined co-occurring anxiety distress may contribute to this inconsistency. Methods: We enrolled 50 MDD adolescents with anxiety distress, 47 MDD adolescents without anxiety distress and 48 healthy adolescents. We measured attentional bias using a point-probe paradigm during a negative-neutral emotional face task. Reaction time, correct response rate and attentional bias value were measured. Results: MDD adolescents did not show a negative attentional bias; MDD adolescents with anxiety distress exhibited longer reaction time for negative and neutral stimuli, lower correct response rate for negative stimuli. Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores were positively correlated with reaction time, negatively correlated with correct response rate, and not significantly correlated with attentional bias value. Limitations: The cross-sectional design hinders causal attribution, and positive emotional faces were not included in our paradigm. Conclusion: Negative attentional bias is not a stable cognitive trait in adolescents with MDD, and avoidance or difficulty in disengaging attention from negative emotional stimuli may be the attentional bias characteristic of MDD adolescents with anxiety distress.

6.
Arch Osteoporos ; 19(1): 24, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565791

RESUMO

A survey of awareness and attitudes to the management of fragility fractures among the membership of the Asia Pacific Orthopaedic Association conducted in 2022 found considerable variation in care across the region. A Call to Action is proposed to improve acute care, rehabilitation and secondary fracture prevention across Asia Pacific. PURPOSE: Fragility fractures impose a substantial burden on older people and their families, healthcare systems and national economies. The current incidence of hip and other fragility fractures across the Asia Pacific region is enormous and set to escalate rapidly in the coming decades. This publication describes findings of a survey of awareness and attitudes to the management of fragility fractures among the membership of the Asia Pacific Orthopaedic Association (APOA) conducted in 2022. METHODS: The survey was developed as a collaboration between the Asia Pacific Osteoporosis and Fragility Fracture Society and the Asia Pacific Fragility Fracture Alliance, and included questions relating to aspects of care upon presentation, during surgery and mobilisation, secondary fracture prevention, and access to specific services. RESULTS: In total, 521 APOA members completed the survey and marked variation in delivery of care was evident. Notable findings included: Fifty-nine percent of respondents indicated that analgesia was routinely initiated in transit (by paramedics) or within 30 minutes of arrival in the Emergency Department. One-quarter of respondents stated that more than 80% of their patients underwent surgery within 48 hours of admission. One-third of respondents considered non-hip, non-vertebral fractures to merit assessment of future fracture risk. One-third of respondents reported the presence of an Orthogeriatric Service in their hospital, and less than a quarter reported the presence of a Fracture Liaison Service. CONCLUSION: A Call to Action for all National Orthopaedic Associations affiliated with APOA is proposed to improve the care of fragility fracture patients across the region.


Assuntos
Ortopedia , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Humanos , Idoso , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ásia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Apolipoproteínas A
7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e14198, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to demonstrate echinacoside promotes osteogenesis and angiogenesis and inhibits osteoclast formation. METHODS: We conducted a cell experiment in vitro to study how echinacoside affects angiogenesis, osteogenesis and osteoclast formation. We used polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to detect the expression levels of proteins and genes related to angiogenesis, osteogenesis and osteoclast formation. We established a bone fracture model with rats to test angiogenesis, osteogenesis and osteoclast formation of echinacoside. We labelled osteogenic markers, blood vessels and osteoclastic markers in fracture sections of rats. RESULTS: The in vitro cell experiments showed echinacoside improved the osteogenic activity of mouse embryo osteoblast precursor cells and promoted the migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, it inhibited differentiation of mouse leukaemia cells of monocyte macrophage. Echinacoside increased the expression of related proteins and genes and improved angiogenesis and osteogenesis while inhibiting osteoclast formation by repressing the expression of related proteins and genes. From in vivo experiments, the results of IHC and HE experiments demonstrated echinacoside significantly decreased the content of MMP-9 and improved the content of VEGF and OCN. The fluorescence immunoassay showed echinacoside promoted the activities of RUNX2 and VEGF and inhibited CTSK. Echinacoside reduced the content of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, thus demonstrating its anti-inflammatory activity. CONCLUSION: Echinacoside improved angiogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibited osteoclast formation to promote fracture healing.

8.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 140, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cox-Maze procedure is currently the gold standard treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, data on the effectiveness of the Cox-Maze procedure after concomitant mitral valve surgery (MVS) are not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of Cox-Maze procedure versus no-maze procedure n in AF patients undergoing mitral valve surgery through a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic search on PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials (Cochrane Library, Issue 02, 2017) databases were performed using three databases from their inception to March 2023, identifying all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Cox-Maze procedure versus no procedure in AF patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Data were extracted and analyzed according to predefined clinical endpoints. RESULTS: Nine RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review with 663 patients in total (341 concomitant Cox-Maze with MVS and 322 MVS alone). Across all studies with included AF patients undergoing MV surgery, the concomitant Cox-Maze procedure was associated with significantly higher sinus rhythm rate at discharge, 6 months, and 12 months follow-up when compared with the no-Maze group. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the Cox-Maze and no-Maze groups in terms of 1 year all-cause mortality, pacemaker implantation, stroke, and thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review suggested that RCTs have demonstrated the addition of the Cox-Maze procedure for AF leads to a significantly higher rate of sinus rhythm in mitral valve surgical patients, with no increase in the rates of mortality, pacemaker implantation, stroke, and thromboembolism.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Procedimento do Labirinto , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Tromboembolia/complicações , Ablação por Cateter/métodos
9.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS), surgery had been reported to be associated with superior overall survival (OS). Chemotherapy details for such patients were less reported, and whether multimodal treatment with surgery and chemotherapy provides extra survival benefit remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with newly diagnosed advanced STS treated at National Taiwan University Hospital from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. OS was calculated from the day of diagnosis of advanced STS to the day of death or last follow-up. Baseline patient characteristics and details regarding surgery and chemotherapy were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 545 patients were diagnosed with STS from 2011 to 2017, of which 226 patients had advanced STS. The median age was 54.7 years, and 54% of patients were women. Approximately 38% of patients with advanced STS underwent surgery and exhibited a trend of longer OS compared with who did not (median = 18.6 vs. 11.9 months, p = 0.083). In the chemotherapy subgroup, the benefit of surgery was more prominent (median = 21.9 vs. 16.5 months, p = 0.037). Patients who received chemotherapy prior to surgery exhibited numerically longer OS than those who underwent surgery first (median = 33.9 vs. 18.3 months, p = 0.155). After adjusting other clinical factors, chemotherapy remained an independent factor associated with favourable OS. CONCLUSION: Surgery may be more beneficial for the patients who receive chemotherapy. Our results support evaluation of sequential multimodal treatments strategy including surgery and chemotherapy in patients with advanced STS.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 131: 111861, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484665

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH) depletion, mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is highly elevated, whereas malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) is downregulated in liver tissues and AML-12 cells induced by APAP. The therapeutic benefits of LT-630, a novel HDAC6 inhibitor on APAP-induced liver injury, were also substantiated. On this basis, we demonstrated that LT-630 improved the protein expression and acetylation level of MDH1. Furthermore, after overexpression of MDH1, an upregulated NADPH/NADP+ ratio and GSH level and decreased cell apoptosis were observed in APAP-stimulated AML-12 cells. Importantly, MDH1 siRNA clearly reversed the protection of LT-630 on APAP-stimulated AML-12 cells. In conclusion, LT-630 could ameliorate liver injury by modulating MDH1-mediated oxidative stress induced by APAP.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Desacetilase 6 de Histona , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Acetaminofen , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Virology ; 594: 110050, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479071

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which was classified as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization on 26 November 2021, has attracted worldwide attention for its high transmissibility and immune evasion ability. The existing COVID-19 vaccine has been shown to be less effective in preventing Omicron variant infection and symptomatic infection, which brings new challenges to vaccine development and application. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an Omicron variant COVID-19 inactivated vaccine containing aluminum and CpG adjuvants in a variety of animal models. The results showed that the vaccine candidate could induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant virus and binding antibodies, and significantly promoted cellular immune response. Meanwhile, the vaccine candidate was safe. Therefore, it provided more foundation for the development of aluminum and CpG as a combination adjuvant in human vaccines.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alúmen , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Animais , Humanos , Alumínio , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Imunidade Celular , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Anticorpos Antivirais
12.
Chin J Dent Res ; 27(1): 101-109, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore potential pathogenic processes and possible treatments using unbiased and reliable bioinformatic tools. METHODS: Gene expression profiles of control and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) samples were downloaded from CNP0000995. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was conducted using R software (version 4.2.1, R Foundation, Vienna, Austria). Functional enrichment analyses were performed using the Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) databases, then the proteinprotein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to screen the top 10 hub genes. Finally, five genes related to cell junctions were selected to build gene-miRNA interactions and predict small-molecule drugs. RESULTS: A total of 342 downregulated genes and 188 upregulated genes were detected. Candidate pathways include the extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor interaction pathway, the TGF-ß signalling pathway and the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) pathway, which were discovered through KEGG and GSEA enrichment studies. GO analyses revealed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in cell adhesion, the adherens junction and focal adhesion. Five hub genes (CDH1, SNAP25, RAC2, APOE and ITGB4) associated with cell adhesion were identified through PPI analysis. Finally, the gene-miRNA regulatory network identified three target miRNAs: hsa-miR-7110-5p, hsa-miR-149-3p and hsa-miR-1207-5p. Based on the gene expression profile, the small-molecule drugs zebularine, ecuronium and prostratin were selected for their demonstrated binding activity when docked with the mentioned molecules. CONCLUSION: This study offered some novel insights into molecular pathways and identified five hub genes associated with cell adhesion. Based on these hub genes, three potential therapeutic miRNAs and small-molecule drugs were predicted, which are expected to provide guidance for the treatment of patients with HGF.


Assuntos
Fibromatose Gengival , MicroRNAs , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Adesão Celular , Adesões Focais
13.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 98, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases with a low control rate globally. The effect of communication skills training contributing to hypertension control remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Calgary-Cambridge guide in improving hypertensive management. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial enrolled 27 general practitioners (GPs) and 540 uncontrolled hypertensive patients attending 6 community health centers in Chengdu, China. GPs allocated to the intervention group were trained by an online communication course and two face-to-face workshops based on Calgary-Cambridge guides. The primary outcome was blood pressure (BP) control rates and reductions in systolic and diastolic BP from baseline to 3 months. The secondary outcome was changes in GPs' communication skills after one month, patients' knowledge and satisfaction after 3 months. Bivariate analysis and the regression model assessed whether the health provider training improved outcomes. RESULTS: After the communication training, the BP control rate was significantly higher (57.2% vs. 37.4%, p < 0.001) in the intervention groups. Compared to the control group, there was a significant improvement in GP's communication skills (13.0 vs 17.5, p < 0.001), hypertensive patients' knowledge (18.0 vs 20.0, p < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (139.1 vs 134.7, p < 0.001) after 3 months of follow-up. Random effects least squares regression models showed significant interactions between the intervention group and time period in the change of GP's communication skills (Parameter Estimated (PE): 0.612, CI:0.310,0.907, p = 0.006), hypertensive patient's knowledge (PE:0.233, CI: 0.098, 0.514, p < 0.001), satisfaction (PE:0.495, CI: 0.116, 0.706, p = 0.004), SBP (PE:-0.803, CI: -1.327, -0.389, p < 0.001) and DBP (PE:-0.918, CI: -1.694, -0.634, p < 0.001), from baseline to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Communication training based on the Calgary-Cambridge guide for GPs has shown to be an efficient way in the short term to improve patient-provider communication skills and hypertension outcomes among patients with uncontrolled BPs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on Chinese Clinical Trials Registry on 2019-04-03. (ChiCTR1900022278).


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Hipertensão , Humanos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Pressão Sanguínea , Comunicação
14.
Regen Biomater ; 11: rbae012, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454966

RESUMO

3D printing of high-strength natural polymer biodegradable hydrogel scaffolds simultaneously resembling the biomechanics of corneal tissue and facilitating tissue regeneration remains a huge challenge due to the inherent brittleness of natural polymer hydrogels and the demanding requirements of printing. Herein, concentrated aqueous solutions of gelatin and carbohydrazide-modified alginate (Gel/Alg-CDH) are blended to form a natural polymer hydrogel ink, where the hydrazides in Alg-CDH are found to form strong hydrogen bonds with the gelatin. The hydrogen-bonding-strengthened Gel/Alg-CDH hydrogel demonstrates an appropriate thickened viscosity and shear thinning for extrusion printing. The strong hydrogen bonds contribute to remarkably increased mechanical properties of Gel/Alg-CDH hydrogel with a maximum elongation of over 400%. In addition, sequentially Ca2+-physical crosslinking and then moderately chemical crosslinking significantly enhance the mechanical properties of Gel/Alg-CDH hydrogels that ultimately exhibit an intriguing J-shaped stress-strain curve (tensile strength of 1.068 MPa and the toughness of 677.6 kJ/m2). The dually crosslinked Gel-Alg-CDH-Ca2+-EDC hydrogels demonstrate a high transparency, physiological swelling stability and rapid enzymatic degradability, as well as suturability. The growth factor and drug-loaded biomimetic bilayer hydrogel scaffold are customized via a multi-nozzle printing system. This bioactive bilayer hydrogel scaffold considerably promotes regeneration of corneal epithelium and stroma and inhibits cornea scarring in rabbit cornea keratoplasty.

15.
ACS Omega ; 9(4): 4513-4527, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313479

RESUMO

Wall impingement, particularly liquid-wall impingement, has been demonstrated to be one of the critical causes of combustion deterioration in plateau diesel engines. Obviously, the complexity of wall impingement is exacerbated by the plateau scenario. However, fundamental studies specifically dedicated to this phenomenon are still inconclusive and insufficiently detailed, obviating the feasibility of the targeted design and optimization of diesel engines operating in regions with different altitudes. Consequently, the second part of this investigation, presented in this work, focused on the detailed physical and chemical processes of impinging spray combustion under different altitude conditions. A wall impingement system was designed to generate an impinging spray flame. The impingement distance was varied from 77 to 37 mm to cover different situations of wall impingement. The liquid spray, ignition, and combustion processes were visualized in detail by using different optical diagnostics. The results showed that the variation of the liquid length with the impingement distance was mainly dependent on the liquid impingement under the same altitude condition. The effect of the impingement distance on the ignition distance was more sensitive to the altitude. The quantitative analysis of the flame natural luminosity confirmed the decisive effect of the impinging flame morphology on the ambient entrainment and fuel-air mixing under different altitude conditions, and it also revealed that there was an optimal impingement distance under identical altitude conditions to achieve minimum soot emissions. And interestingly, the optimal impingement distance increased with altitude. Finally, the spray combustion processes of an impinging diesel jet were determined to occur in four typical regions, upon which a schematic diagram depicting the flame structure of an impinging diesel jet was proposed to phenomenologically describe the role of altitude in impinging spray combustion processes. Based on this, an attempt was made to explore some new perspectives beyond the popular solutions to recover and improve the performance of plateau diesel engines.

16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2308051, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350727

RESUMO

Molecular engineering of drug delivering platforms to provide collaborative biological effects with loaded drugs is of great medical significance. Herein, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-targeting electrosprayed microspheres (MSs) are fabricated by loading with the CB1 agonist arachidonoyl 2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and producing ROS in a photoresponsive manner. The synergistic anti-tumor effects of ACEA and ROS released from the MSs are assessed. ACEA inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and altered tumor microenvironment (TME) by activating CB1 to induce tumor cell death. The MSs are composed of glycidyl methacrylate-conjugated xanthan gum (XGMA) and Fe3+ , which form dual molecular networks based on a Fe3+ -(COO- )3 network and a C═C addition reaction network. Interestingly, the Fe3+ -(COO- )3 network can be disassembled instantly under the conditions of lactate sodium and ultraviolet exposure, and the disassembly is accompanied by massive ROS production, which directly injures tumor cells. Meanwhile, the transition of dual networks to a single network boosts the ACEA release. Together, the activities of the ACEA and MSs promote immunogenic tumor cell death and create a tumor-suppressive TME by increasing M1-like tumor-associated macrophages and CD8+ T cells. In summation, this study demonstrates strong prospects of improving anti-tumor effects of drug delivering platforms through molecular design.

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(7): e36976, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of contiguous genes on chromosome 7q11.23. Although the phenotype features extensive heterogeneity in severity and performance, WBS is not considered to be a predisposing factor for cancer development. Currently, hematologic cancers, mainly Burkitt lymphoma, are rarely reported in patients with WBS. Here in, we report a unique case of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a male child with WBS. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the clinical data of this case receiving chemotherapy were analyzed. This is a retrospective study. RESULTS: The patient, who exhibited a typical WBS phenotype and presented with hemorrhagic spots. Chromosomal genome-wide chip analysis (CMA) revealed abnormalities on chromosomes 7 and 9. The fusion gene STIL-TAL1 and mutations in BCL11B, NOTCH1, and USP7 have also been found and all been associated with the occurrence of T-cell leukemia. The patient responded well to the chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of WBS in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We want to emphasize that the occurrence of leukemia in this patient might be related to the loss of 7q11.23 and microdeletion of 9p21.3 (including 3 TSGs), but the relationship between WBS and malignancy remains unclear. Further studies are required to clarify the relationship between WBS and malignancy.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras , Síndrome de Williams , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Williams/complicações , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Deleção Cromossômica , Fenótipo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Linfócitos T , Peptidase 7 Específica de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
18.
Metabolites ; 14(2)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38392991

RESUMO

A novel ceramide compound, named Aspercerebroside A (AcA), was successfully isolated from the ethyl acetate layer of the marine symbiotic fungus Aspergillus sp. AcA exhibited notable anti-inflammatory activity by effectively inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations of 30 µg/mL and 40 µg/mL, offering a promising avenue for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. To optimize the yield of glycosylceramide (AcA), a series of techniques, including single-factor experiments, orthogonal experiments, and response surface optimization, were systematically employed to fine-tune the composition of the fermentation medium. Initially, the optimal carbon source (sucrose), nitrogen source (yeast extract powder), and the most suitable medium salinity (14 ppt) were identified through single-factor experiments. Subsequently, orthogonal experiments, employing an orthogonal table for planning and analyzing multifactor experiments, were conducted. Finally, a mathematical model, established using a Box-Behnken design, comprehensively analyzed the interactions between the various factors to determine the optimal composition of the fermentation medium. According to the model's prediction, when the sucrose concentration was set at 37.47 g/L, yeast extract powder concentration at 19.66 g/L, and medium salinity at 13.31 ppt, the predicted concentration of glycosylceramide was 171.084 µg/mL. The experimental results confirmed the model's accuracy, with the actual average concentration of glycosylceramide under these conditions measured at 171.670 µg/mL, aligning closely with the predicted value.

19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(3): 349-365.e4, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367621

RESUMO

Studies on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have reported inconsistent connections between clinical outcomes and donor strain engraftment. Analyses of subspecies-level crosstalk and its influences on lineage transfer in metagenomic FMT datasets have proved challenging, as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are generally not linked and are often absent. Here, we utilized species genome bin (SGB), which employs co-abundance binning, to investigate subspecies-level microbiome dynamics in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had gastrointestinal comorbidities and underwent encapsulated FMT (Chinese Clinical Trial: 2100043906). We found that interactions between donor and recipient microbes, which were overwhelmingly phylogenetically divergent, were important for subspecies transfer and positive clinical outcomes. Additionally, a donor-recipient SGB match was indicative of a high likelihood of strain transfer. Importantly, these ecodynamics were shared across FMT datasets encompassing multiple diseases. Collectively, these findings provide detailed insight into specific microbial interactions and dynamics that determine FMT success.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Infecções por Clostridium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal , Fezes , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Transl Cancer Res ; 13(1): 268-277, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410205

RESUMO

Background: Invasive adenocarcinoma (IA) has a worse prognosis and different clinical management strategies compared to indolent lung adenocarcinoma including adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally IA (MIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of computed tomography (CT) value in differentiating invasive from indolent lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: The pathological diagnoses and imaging data of confirmed lung adenocarcinomas manifested as lung nodules with homogeneous internal density which were surgically resected between August 2021 and July 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Differences in CT values between invasive and indolent lung adenocarcinomas were compared in the primary cohort (n=766), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value. The predictive performance of the cut-off value was evaluated in the validation cohort (n=341). Results: A total of 1,107 lung nodules from 1,014 patients were included in the total cohort. The CT values had a significant difference between invasive and indolent lung adenocarcinomas (P<0.001). Using the primary cohort, we determined the optimal cut-off value of -415 Hounsfield units (HU) of the CT value based on ROC curve, which showed good discrimination between IA and AIS/MIA in both the primary and validation cohorts (sensitivity, 85.98% and 87.42%, specificity, 87.67% and 84.74%, respectively). Conclusions: The CT value of >-415 HU could be an effective predictor of invasive lung adenocarcinoma, thereby providing an appropriate clinical decision guide.

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