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1.
Harmful Algae ; 111: 102150, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016763

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is a vital macronutrient associated with the growth and proliferation of Raphidiopsis raciborskii, an invasive and notorious bloom-forming cyanobacterium. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in P acclimation remain largely unexplored for Raphidiopsis raciborskii. Here, transcriptome sequencing of Raphidiopsis raciborskii was conducted to reveal multifaceted mechanisms involved in mimicking dipotassium phosphate (DIP), ß-glycerol phosphate (Gly), 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEP), and P-free conditions (NP). Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters showed significant differences in the NP and AEP groups compared with the DIP and Gly-groups. Expression levels of genes related to phosphate transportation and uptake, organic P utilization, nitrogen metabolism, urea cycling, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, environmental information, the ATP-synthesis process in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway were remarkably upregulated, while those related to photosynthesis, phycobiliproteins, respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, sulfur metabolism, and genetic information were markedly downregulated in the NP group relative to the DIP group. However, the expression of genes involved in organic P utilization, the urea cycle, and genetic information in the Gly-group, and carbon-phosphorus lyase, genetic information and environmental information in the AEP group were significantly increased compared to the DIP group. Together, these results indicate that Raphidiopsis raciborskii exhibits the evolution of coordination of multiple metabolic pathways and certain key genes to adapt to ambient P changes, which implies that if P is reduced to control Raphidiopsis raciborskii bloom, there is a risk that external nutrients (such as nitrogen, amino acids, and urea) will stimulate the growth or metabolism of Raphidiopsis.

2.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; 158: 106609, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954219

RESUMO

The arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism pathways play a key role in immunological response and inflammation diseases, such as asthma, etc. AA in cell membranes can be metabolized by lipoxygenases (LOXs) to a screen of bioactive substances that include leukotrienes (LTs), lipoxins (LXs), and eicosatetraenoic acids (ETEs), which are considered closely related to the pathophysiology of respiratory allergic disease. Studies also verified that drugs regulating AA LOXs pathway have better rehabilitative intervention for asthma. This review aims to summarize the physiological and pathophysiological importance of AA LOXs metabolism pathways in asthma and to discuss its prospects of therapeutic strategies.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114739, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648903

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a type of herbal plant that has frequently been used in many Asian countries to treat a variety of diseases. Ginseng is considered to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pharmacological effects. However, the specific mechanism is still not entirely understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated if ginseng extract could attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells and in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW264.7 cells and LPS were used to develop inflammatory and oxidative cell models. C57/6J male mice and DSS were used to construct the animal models. O2-, mitochondria number, and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed using fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopy. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation were detected with probes and microplate readers. The secreted amounts of inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Protein expression levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus were measured by western blotting analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the changes in mRNA levels. Autophagosome accumulation was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A p62-specific siRNA was used to evaluate the effect of p62 on the anti-oxidative function of ginseng root extract (GRE). Asperuloside and SP600125 were used to confirm the involvement of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. RESULTS: We performed a systematic analysis of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and autophagy regulatory mechanisms of GRE in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. GRE considerably reduced the levels of nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-6 secreted by LPS-treated cells. GRE treatments dose-dependently upregulated IL-10 mRNA levels and decreased IL-6 and IL-1ß mRNA levels in LPS-treated cells. Similar to the NF-κB and JNK inhibitors, GRE treatment significantly inhibited NF-κB activity and phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK-1/2, and p38). Additionally, GRE treatment remarkably decreased LPS-triggered reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction by motivating Nrf2 nuclear translocation by enhancing phosphorylated p62. Knockdown of p62 resulted in the loss of GRE anti-oxidative ability. Autophagy was strongly induced by GRE via the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, relieving excessive oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation, while enhancing Beclin-1, LC3 II, and Atg7 protein expression. Furthermore, GRE alleviated the degree of injury, inflammatory cytokine production, and regulated the relative signaling pathway in DSS-induced colitis. CONCLUSIONS: GRE can exert both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functions by targeting the MAPK/NF-κB and p62-Nrf2-Keap1 pathways, as well as autophagy, in vitro and vivo.

4.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(5): 535-538, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the anatomical characteristics of upper anterior teeth of residents in Fujian province using cone-beam CT (CBCT). METHODS: The length and width of 1146 maxillary anterior teeth (central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) from 191 patients were measured. SPSS 19.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The width and length of males' maxillary central incisors and canine were significantly greater than those of females(P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the width and length of maxillary lateral incisors between genders (P>0.05). No significant difference was found in the width-length ratio of maxillary anterior teeth between genders(P>0.05). Significant difference was found in the width-width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth between genders(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Varied anatomical characteristics of the maxillary anterior teeth of residents in Fujian Province should be observed between genders.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859343

RESUMO

Climate change and tourism's interaction and vulnerability have been among the most hotly debated topics recently. In this context, the study focuses on how CO2 emissions, the primary cause of global warming and climate change, respond to changes in tourism development. In order to do so, the impact of tourism development on CO2 emissions in the most visited countries is investigated. A panel data from 2000 to 2017 for top 70 tourist countries are analysed using a spatial econometric method to investigate the spatial effect of tourism on environmental pollution. The direct, indirect, and overall impact of tourism on CO2 emissions are estimated using the most appropriate generalized nested spatial econometric (GNS) method. The findings reveal that tourism has a positive direct effect and a negative indirect effect; both are significant at the 1% level. The negative indirect effect of tourism is greater than its direct positive effect, implying an overall significantly negative impact. Further, the outcome of financial development and CO2 emissions have an inverted U-shaped and U-shaped relationship in direct and indirect impacts. Population density, trade openness, and economic growth significantly influence environmental pollution. In addition, education expenditure and infrastructure play a significant moderating role among tourism and environmental pollution. The results have important policy implications as they establish an inverted-U-shaped relationship among tourism and CO2 emissions and indicate that while a country's emissions initially rise with the tourism industry's growth, it begins declining after a limit.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261776, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962950

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 has resulted in a transition from physical education to online learning, leading to a collapse of the established educational order and a wisdom test for the education governance system. As a country seriously affected by the pandemic, the health of the Indian higher education system urgently requires assessment to achieve sustainable development and maximize educational externalities. This research systematically proposes a health assessment model from four perspectives, including educational volume, efficiency, equality, and sustainability, by employing the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution Model, Principal Component Analysis, DEA-Tobit Model, and Augmented Solow Model. Empirical results demonstrate that India has high efficiency and an absolute health score in the higher education system through multiple comparisons between India and the other selected countries while having certain deficiencies in equality and sustainability. Additionally, single-target and multiple-target path are simultaneously proposed to enhance the Indian current education system. The multiple-target approach of the India-China-Japan-Europe-USA process is more feasible to achieve sustainable development, which would improve the overall health score from .351 to .716. This finding also reveals that the changes are relatively complex and would take 91.5 years considering the relationship between economic growth rates and crucial indicators. Four targeted policies are suggested for each catching-up period, including expanding and increasing the social funding sources, striving for government expenditure support to improve infrastructures, imposing gender equality in education, and accelerating the construction of high-quality teachers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância/métodos , Escolaridade , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2102617, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964308

RESUMO

Controlled fungicide delivery in response to the specific microenvironment produced by fungal pathogens is an advisable strategy to improve the efficacy of fungicides. Herein, the authors construct a smart fungicide nanoplatform, using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as nanocarriers loaded with eugenol (EU) and Ag+ coordinated polydopamine (Ag+ -PDA) as a coating to form Ag+ -PDA@MSNs-EU NPs for Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) control. As a botanical fungicide, EU offers an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fungicides and can upregulate several defense-related genes in the tomato plant. The Ag+ -PDA coating can lock the EU inside the nanocarriers and respond to the oxalic acid produced by B. cinerea to corelease the loaded EU and Ag+ . The results demonstrate that Ag+ -PDA@MSNs-EU NPs can effectively inhibit the mycelial growth of B. cinerea on detached and potted tomato leaves. The construction of such a smart fungicide nanoplatform provides new guidance to design controlled fungicides release systems, which can respond to the microenvironment associated with plant pathogen to realize fungus control.

8.
Elife ; 102021 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939923

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must ensure adequate blood cell production following distinct external stressors. A comprehensive understanding of in vivo heterogeneity and specificity of HSC responses to external stimuli is currently lacking. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) on functionally validated mouse HSCs and LSK (Lin-, c-Kit+, Sca1+) progenitors after in vivo pharmacological perturbation of niche signals interferon, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and prostaglandin. We identified six HSC states that are characterized by enrichment but not exclusive expression of marker genes. External signals induced rapid transitions between HSC states but transcriptional response varied both between external stimulants and within the HSC population for a given perturbation. In contrast to LSK progenitors, HSCs were characterized by a greater link between molecular signatures at baseline and in response to external stressors. Chromatin analysis of unperturbed HSCs and LSKs by scATAC-Seq suggested some HSC-specific, cell intrinsic predispositions to niche signals. We compiled a comprehensive resource of HSC- and LSK progenitor-specific chromatin and transcriptional features that represent determinants of signal receptiveness and regenerative potential during stress hematopoiesis.

9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 745539, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901209

RESUMO

Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Identifying subjects with lipid abnormality facilitates preventative interventions. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of lipid indices on the risks of ischemic stroke (IS), coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, all-cause death, and CVD death. Methods: The cohort study of 4,128 subjects started in May 2009 and followed up to July 2020. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) regression analysis was used to explore the dose-response relationship between lipid indices with outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the association with a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. Results: RCS analysis showed that there were significant linear associations of TG with IS, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio with all-cause death, non-HDL-C and RC with CVD death, and significant non-linear associations of ApoB with IS and CVD, TC, LDL-C, ApoAI, and TC/HDL-C ratio with CHD, and TC with all-cause death (all P <0.1). Cox regression analysis revealed that subjects with TC <155 mg/dl (vs. 155-184 mg/dl), > 185 mg/dl (vs. 155-184 mg/dl), and ApoB <0.7 g/l (vs. ≥0.7 g/l) had higher risks of CHD (P < 0.05), the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 1.933 (1.248-2.993), 1.561 (1.077-2.261), and 1.502 (1.01-2.234), respectively. Subjects with ApoAI > 2.1 g/l (vs. 1.6-2.1 g/l) and TG <80 mg/dl (vs. 80-177 mg/dl) had higher risks of CVD and all-cause death (P < 0.05), the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 1.476 (1.031-2.115) and 1.234 (1.002-1.519), respectively. Conclusions: Lower or higher levels of TC, higher level of ApoAI, and lower level of ApoB were associated with increased risks of CVD, and lower level of TG was associated with increased all-cause death. Maintaining optimal lipid levels would help to prevent CVD and reduce mortality.

10.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100154, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901903

RESUMO

Relationships among productivity, leaf phenology, and seasonal variation in moisture and light availability are poorly understood for evergreen broadleaved tropical/subtropical forests, which contribute 25% of terrestrial productivity. On the one hand, as moisture availability declines, trees shed leaves to reduce transpiration and the risk of hydraulic failure. On the other hand, increases in light availability promote the replacement of senescent leaves to increase productivity. Here, we provide a comprehensive framework that relates the seasonality of climate, leaf abscission, and leaf productivity across the evergreen broadleaved tropical/subtropical forest biome. The seasonal correlation between rainfall and light availability varies from strongly negative to strongly positive across the tropics and maps onto the seasonal correlation between litterfall mass and productivity for 68 forests. Where rainfall and light covary positively, litterfall and productivity also covary positively and are always greater in the wetter sunnier season. Where rainfall and light covary negatively, litterfall and productivity are always greater in the drier and sunnier season if moisture supplies remain adequate; otherwise productivity is smaller in the drier sunnier season. This framework will improve the representation of tropical/subtropical forests in Earth system models and suggests how phenology and productivity will change as climate change alters the seasonality of cloud cover and rainfall across tropical/subtropical forests.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(50): 15108-15122, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905356

RESUMO

Targeting the virulence factors of phytopathogenic bacteria is an innovative strategy for alleviating or eliminating the pathogenicity and rapid outbreak of plant microbial diseases. Therefore, several types of 1,2,4-triazole thioethers bearing an amide linkage were prepared and screened to develop virulence factor inhibitors. Besides, the 1,2,4-triazole scaffold was exchanged by a versatile 1,3,4-oxadiazole core to expand molecular diversity. Bioassay results revealed that a 1,2,4-triazole thioether A10 bearing a privileged N-(3-nitrophenyl)acetamide fragment was extremely bioactive against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) with an EC50 value of 5.01 µg/mL. Label-free quantitative proteomics found that compound A10 could significantly downregulate the expression of Xoo's type III secretion system (T3SS) and transcription activator-like effector (TALE) correlative proteins. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR detection revealed that the corresponding gene transcription levels of these virulence factor-associated proteins were substantially inhibited after being triggered by compound A10. As a result, the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity were strongly depressed, indicating that a novel virulence factor inhibitor (A10) was probably discovered. In vivo anti-Xoo trials displayed that compound A10 yielded practicable control efficiency (54.2-59.6%), which was superior to thiadiazole-copper and bismerthiazol (38.1-44.9%). Additionally, compound A10 showed an appreciable antiviral activity toward tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with the curative and protective activities of 54.6 and 76.4%, respectively, which were comparable to ningnanmycin (55.2 and 60.9%). This effect was further validated and visualized by the inoculation test using GFP-labeled TMV, thereby leading to the reduced biosynthesis of green-fluorescent TMV on Nicotiana benthamiana. Given the outstanding features of compound A10, it should be deeply developed as a versatile agricultural chemical.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Oryza , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco , Xanthomonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas , Sulfetos , Triazóis , Fatores de Virulência/genética
12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 772665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957255

RESUMO

Background: Clinical recurrence after atrial fibrillation catheter ablation (AFCA) still remains high in patients with persistent AF (PeAF). We investigated whether an extra-pulmonary vein (PV) ablation targeting the dominant frequency (DF) extracted from electroanatomical map-integrated AF computational modeling improves the AFCA rhythm outcome in patients with PeAF. Methods: In this open-label, randomized, multi-center, controlled trial, 170 patients with PeAF were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to the computational modeling-guided virtual DF (V-DF) ablation and empirical PV isolation (E-PVI) groups. We generated a virtual dominant frequency (DF) map based on the atrial substrate map obtained during the clinical AF ablation procedure using computational modeling. This simulation was possible within the time of the PVI procedure. V-DF group underwent extra-PV V-DF ablation in addition to PVI, but DF information was not notified to the operators from the core lab in the E-PVI group. Results: After a mean follow-up period of 16.3 ± 5.3 months, the clinical recurrence rate was significantly lower in the V-DF than with E-PVI group (P = 0.018, log-rank). Recurrences appearing as atrial tachycardias (P = 0.145) and the cardioversion rates (P = 0.362) did not significantly differ between the groups. At the final follow-up, sinus rhythm was maintained without any AADs in 74.7% in the V-DF group and 48.2% in the E-PVI group (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the major complication rates (P = 0.489) or total procedure time (P = 0.513) between the groups. The V-DF ablation was independently associated with a reduced AF recurrence after AFCA [hazard ratio: 0.51 (95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.88); P = 0.016]. Conclusions: The computational modeling-guided V-DF ablation improved the rhythm outcome of AFCA in patients with PeAF. Clinical Trial Registration: Clinical Research Information Service, CRIS identifier: KCT0003613.

13.
Dent Mater J ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789624

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, stain and protein removal efficacy of denture or orthodontic appliance cleansers using in vitro test methods. Experimental cleansers were applied for experimental time in each evaluation method. To evaluate the microorganism removal efficacy, C. albicans and S. mutans removal rate was calculated from the specimen surface. Stain and protein removal rate was calculated using the spectrophotometer. Experimental cleansers significantly affected the microorganism removal rate for both C. albicans and S. mutans, as well as the stain and protein removal rates, at each experimental time (p<0.05). As the application time increased, the stain and protein removal rates of all experimental cleansers significantly increased (p<0.05). The present study provided in vitro evaluation methods to assess the efficacy of denture or orthodontic appliance cleansers. Also, manufacturers and researchers can predict clinical outcomes and ensure proper hygiene management of dentures or orthodontic appliances.

14.
Stat Med ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816472

RESUMO

For semi-competing risks data involving a non-terminal event and a terminal event we derive the asymptotic distributions of the event-specific win ratios under proportional hazards (PH) assumptions for the relevant cause-specific hazard functions of the non-terminal and terminal event, respectively. The win ratios converge to the respective hazard ratios under the PH assumptions and therefore are censoring-free, whether or not the censoring distributions in the two treatment arms are the same. With the asymptotic bivariate normal distributions of the win ratios, confidence intervals and testing procedures are obtained. Through extensive simulation studies and data analysis, we identified proper transformations of the win ratios that yield good control of the type one error rate for various testing procedures while maintaining competitive power. The confidence intervals also have good coverage probabilities. Furthermore, a test for the PH assumptions and a test of equal hazard ratios are developed. The new procedures are illustrated in the clinical trial Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function, which evaluated the effects of spironolactone in patients with heart failure and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.

15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29430, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of pediatric patients with brain tumors (BTs) are known to experience a decline in neurocognitive function after treatment. We prospectively examined neuropsychological functioning of patients with BTs of varying tumor types at different time points before, during, and after proton beam therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 98 patients with posterior fossa tumors (PFTs; n = 33), germ cell tumors (GCTs; n = 52), and other supratentorial tumors (STTs; n = 13) underwent baseline neuropsychological assessments and 57 patients underwent follow-up assessments. RESULTS: All groups displayed significantly lower performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) and processing speed (PS) scores than the normative means at baseline. The PFT group exhibited significantly lower scores for full-scale IQ, PIQ, PS, attention, and executive function. The GCT group displayed full-scale IQ scores within the normal range, but a significantly high proportion had memory deficits. In the STT group, all functions except for the PIQ and PS were intact. Longitudinal evaluations demonstrated stable global IQ scores over time in all groups. In the PFT group, verbal comprehension, attention, and PS improved over time. However, in the GCT group, verbal IQ scores declined significantly and psychological problems worsened over time, which were correlated with poorer neurocognitive function at 3-5 years after treatment. In the STT group, no significant changes were observed. CONCLUSION: Because patients with BTs exhibit various types of neurocognitive deficit before radiotherapy, early cognitive treatment tailored to the tumor type maybe beneficial. Interventions for psychological problems and memory function may be necessary, especially for patients with GCT.

16.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 15(6): 265, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777801

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to compare the metastatic ratio between calcified lymph node stations (CLNS) and non-CLNS (NCLNS) and to explore the impact of CLNS on surgical outcomes. Consecutive patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) scheduled to receive surgical treatment between June and December 2020 were included in the present study. Their clinical and radiological data were prospectively collected and analyzed. A total of 91 patients with NCLNS and 64 patients with CLNS were enrolled in the present study. Out of the 91 patients, 38 (24.516%) patients had 61/343 (17.784%) lymph node stations (LNS) that were metastasized. On a per-patient basis, the differences in the LNS metastatic ratio were not significant between the CLNS with NCLNS groups. However, on a per-nodal station basis, all differences in the LNS metastatic ratio between the groups were significant not only in the all-LNS group (P=0.004), but also in the LNS group which in patients with solely CLNS or NCLNS (P=0.009) and in the patients with CLNS (P=0.010). Pathology, T stage and calcification were independent predictive factors for LNS metastasis (P=0.002, P=0.021 and P=0.044, respectively). More patients with CLNS than patients with NCLNS received thoracotomy or conversion from video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to thoracotomy (P=0.006). The operating time and blood loss were significantly higher in patients with CLNS than in those without (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Although CLNS are a risk reduction factor for metastasis and their dissection is time- and blood-consuming in patients with NSCLC, their thorough removal is advisable, since metastases were identified in ~15% of patients and 9% of CLNS.

17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781005

RESUMO

AIMS: A high proportion of all tuberculosis (TB) cases present with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), including concurrent EPTB involving more than one extrapulmonary lesion site within the body. However, previous reports only characterised lesions of single-site EPTB cases. This study aimed to investigate epidemiological characteristics and association rules of concurrent EPTB cases in China. METHODS: An observational multi-centre study was carried out in China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2017 that included a total of 208,214 patients with EPTB lesions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between gender and age with concurrent EPTB. Association rules were analysed for significance using the Apriori algorithm. RESULTS: The most prevalent form of EPTB lesion was tuberculous pleurisy (49.8%), followed by bronchial tuberculosis (14.8%) and tuberculous meningitis (7.6%). The most predominant concurrent EPTB case type was tuberculous pleurisy concurrent with tuberculous peritonitis (1.80%). Altogether 22 association rules were identified that included 20 strong association rules, among which highest confidence rates were found for tuberculous myelitis concurrent with tuberculous meningitis and sacral TB concurrent with lumbar vertebral TB. Moreover, association rules of EPTB concurrent with other EPTB types were found to vary with gender and age. The confidence rate of tuberculous myelitis concurrent with tuberculous meningitis was higher in females (83.67%) than males and highest in patients of ages 25-34 years (87.50%). CONCLUSIONS: Many types of concurrent EPTB were found. Thus, greater awareness of concurrent EPTB disease characteristics is needed to ensure timely clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

19.
Curr Org Synth ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719366

RESUMO

The development of new sustainable catalytic conversion methods of carbon dioxide (CO2) is of great interest in the synthesis of valuable chemicals. N-formylation of CO2 with amine nucleophiles as substrates has been studied in depth. The key to benign formylation is to select a suitable reducing agent to activate CO2. This paper showcases the activation modes of CO2 and the construction strategies of sustainable and catalyst-free N-formylation systems. The research progress of catalyst-free N-formylation of amines and CO2 is reviewed. There are two broad prominent categories, namely reductive amidation of CO2 facilitated by organic solvents and ionic liquids in the presence of hydrosilane. Attention is also paid to discussing the involved reaction mechanism with practical applications and identifying the remaining challenges in this field.

20.
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211053158, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: P-element Induced WImpy protein-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 2 (PIWIL2) is a reported oncogene strongly associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the potential function of PIWIL2 in oral cancer is still largely unclear. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of PIWIL2 expression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and tissues. We also examined its function in OSCC pathogenesis by knocking down PIWIL2 expression with short hairpin RNAs, followed by phenotypic experiments focused on cell migration, invasion, proliferation, and apoptosis rates. RESULTS: We found that PIWIL2 was overexpressed in OSCC cell lines and tissues and significantly correlated with the malignancy stage. Furthermore, knockdown of PIWIL2 in a human OSCC cell line Tca8113 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Silencing PIWIL2 expression also significantly suppressed the migration and invasion abilities of Tca8113 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest a functional role of PIWIL2 in regulating OSCC pathogenesis. Our data imply that PIWIL2 could serve as a potential therapeutic target for OSCC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Apoptose , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
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