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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125438, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494498

RESUMO

Fifteen vitisin A-type pyranoanthocyanins (vAPs) were determined in bilberry wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The fermentation involving S. pombe enhanced the production of vAPs compared to the fermentation with pure S. cerevisiae. The formation of vAPs correlated significantly with the decrease in the content of monomeric anthocyanins and pyruvic acid during 12 months of aging. vAPs were more stable than their corresponding monomeric anthocyanins. Methylation in the B-ring and glycosylation with galactose and arabinose further improved the stability of vAPs. Aging for 12 months led to depletion of pyruvic acid and reduction of over 50% of monomeric anthocyanins. The content of vAPs increased by 26-54% during the first six months of aging, followed by a 2.2-10.2% reduction over the following six months. More residual pyruvic acid in S. pombe wines after fermentation consequently enhanced the generation of vAPs during aging.

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2050: 175-179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468492

RESUMO

Electroporation refers to the application of high strength electric pulse to create transient pores in the membrane, thereby enabling the passage of hydrophilic molecules into the cells. Based on the properties of cell and cell wall, the electroporation parameters vary among the algal species. Here, we demonstrated the optimized protocol for successful introduction of recombinant DNA (~5000 bp) into Nannochloropsis oceanica. The linearized recombinant plasmid that harbors eGFP and Bh-sle as the reporter and marker gene, respectively, was electroporated into the electrocompetent N. oceanica cells at voltage of 2200 V, 50 µF, resistance at 600 Ω using electroporator, and the transformed cells were then screened by molecular analysis. The report exemplifies a straightforward and reliable electroporation strategy for generating transgenic N. oceanica cells.

3.
Waste Manag ; 101: 200-209, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622865

RESUMO

Present work was focused on recovering gold (Au) from the printed circuit boards (PCBs) of discarded cellphone by bioleaching assisted continuous foam fractionation. First, the cyanide-producing strains of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus megaterium were co-cultured in order to supply a high cyanide concentration in the nutrient solution for mobilizing Au from waste PCBs (WPCBs). Bioleaching conditions were optimized by using response surface methodology. Under the suitable bioleaching conditions of pH of 10.0, pulp density of 5 g/L and leaching time of 34 h, the Au mobilization percentage was 83.59%. The leaching liquor with an Au concentration of 1.34 mg/L could be used as the feeding solution of continuous foam fractionation after removing solid particles and cell biomass. In order to strengthen foam drainage, a novel internal component of foam fractionation column was developed. Under the suitable operation conditions of CTAB concentration of 0.2 g/L, volumetric air flow rate of 100 mL/min and feed flow rate of 10 mL/min, the enrichment ratio and recovery percentage of Au were 43.62 and 87.46%, respectively. This study is expected to provide an effective strategy to recover Au from WPCBs, and to supplement the depleting natural resources.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Resíduo Eletrônico , Cobre , Ouro , Reciclagem
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683484

RESUMO

Exaggerated Ca2+ signaling might be one of primary causes of neural dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). And the intracellular Ca2+ overload has been closely associated with amyloid-ß (Aß)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and memory impairments in AD. Here we showed for the first time the neuroprotective effects of Xestospongin C (XeC), a reversible IP3 receptor antagonist, on the cognitive behaviors and pathology of APP/PS1 AD mice. Male APP/PS1-AD mice (n = 20) were injected intracerebroventricularly with XeC (3µmol) via Alzet osmotic pumps for four weeks, followed by cognition tests, Aß plaque examination, and ER stress-related protein measurement. The results showed that XeC pretreatment significantly improved the cognitive behavior of APP/PS1-AD mice, raising the spontaneous alteration accuracy in Y maze, decreasing the escape latency and increasing the target quadrant swimming time in Morris water maze; XeC pretreatment also reduced the number of Aß plaques and the overexpression of ER stress proteins 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), caspase-12, and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. In addition, in vitro experiments showed that XeC effectively ameliorated Aß1 - 42-induced early neuronal apoptosis and intracellular Ca2+ overload in the primary hippocampal neurons. Taken together, IP3R-mediated Ca2+ disorder plays a key role in the cognitive deficits and pathological damages in AD mice. By targeting the IP3 R, XeC might be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy in AD.

5.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. This review provides historical and current data to support the role of imaging-based axillary lymph node staging and sentinel lymph node biopsy as the standard of care for axillary management in women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, before and after neoadjuvant systemic therapy. CONCLUSION. The implications of surgical trials (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group [ACOSOG] Z011 and ACOSOG Z1071) on imaging protocols for the axilla are reviewed, in conjunction with the American Joint Committee on Cancer nodal staging guidelines.

6.
World J Surg Oncol ; 17(1): 179, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (SILS) has long used in surgery for a long time. However, there is barely a systemic review related to the comparison between the SILS and the conventional laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (CLS) for the right colon cancer in the long term follow-up. Herein, we used the most recent articles to compare these two techniques by meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Wanfang databases to compare SILS with CLS for right colon cancer up to May 2019. The operative, postoperative, pathological and mid-term follow-up outcomes of nine studies were extracted and compared. RESULTS: A total of 1356 patients participated in 9 studies, while 653 patients were assigned to the SILS group and 703 patients were assigned to the CLS group. The patients' baselines in the SILS group were consistent with those in the CLS group. Compared to the CLS group, the SILS group had a shorter operation duration (SMD - 23.49, 95%CI - 36.71 to - 10.27, P < 0.001, chi-square = 24.11), shorter hospital stay (SMD - 0.76, 95% `CI - 1.07 to - 0.45, P < 0.001, chi-square = 9.85), less blood loss (SMD - 8.46, 95% CI - 14.59 to - 2.34; P < 0.05; chi-square = 2.26), smaller incision length (SMD - 1.60, 95% CI - 2.66 to - 0.55, P < 0.001; chi-square = 280.44), more lymph node harvested (SMD - 0.98, 95% CI - 1.79 to - 0.16, P < 0.05; chi-square = 4.61), and a longer proximal surgical edge (SMD - 0.51, 95% CI - 0.93 to - 0.09, P < 0.05; chi-square = 2.42). No significant difference was found in other indexes. After we removed a single large study, we performed another meta-analysis again. The operation duration in the SILS group was still better than that in the CLS group. CONCLUSION: SILS could be a faster and more reliable approach than CLS for the right colon cancer and could accelerate patient recovery, especially for patients with a low BMI.

7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 172775, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689413

RESUMO

Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) manifest a high incidence of depression, which is associated with an impaired recovery from TBI and a lower quality of life. Several neurobiological changes in patients with TBI contribute a form of depression that is unique to that of general depression. This is evinced by the poor efficacy of antidepressants in treating post-TBI depression relative to general depression. In general, however, the treatment of post-TBI depression has received relatively scattered attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is thus to discuss about the possible pathology of depression following TBI and summarize the recent findings on the treatment of it in clinical studies. While both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches can reportedly attenuate depressive symptoms in patients with TBI to a moderate extent, the various limitations of such studies require that further well-powered, randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups are warranted to investigate the exact pathophysiology underlying post-TBI depression, the mechanism underlying treatment efficacy, and the optimal pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for this population. A combination of different treatments in a comprehensive therapeutic regimen may be an optimal direction for future research.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; : 122351, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708386

RESUMO

This study investigates the prospective of utilizing kitchen wastewater and food wastes, biofuels industry byproducts as alternative water and carbon sources. Kitchen wastewater did not impede cellular growth rate of the evolved Phaeodactylum strain E70, which indicates its potential as an alternative to freshwater resources. Among the organic wastes assessed, food waste hydrolysate significantly increased cell growth. Supplement of crude glycerol in cultivation medium enhances the total fatty acid content. Mixed food waste hydrolysate and crude glycerol remarkably increased both the cell density and total fatty acid content. Also, the supplement of butylated hydroxytoluene alleviated the oxidative stress induced by impurities in organic wastes and concomitantly increased microalgal total fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids content. The experimental results reported in this study show that a waste-based biorefinery could lead to utilization of organic waste resources for the efficient production of value-added products.

9.
Zool Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709784

RESUMO

Tylorrhynchus heterochaetus is a widespread benthic polychaete worm found in coastal brackish waters of the west Pacific. It has high ecological and economic value as a biomarker of water quality and as a high-quality feed in aquaculture and fisheries and is considered a delicacy in some areas of Asia. However, it has experienced a marked reduction in recent years due to overexploitation as well as changes in the environment and climate. Here, to comprehensively understand its genetic background and thus provide insights for better conservation and utilization of this species, we assessed the genetic variability and demographic history of T. heterochaetus individuals sampled from eight locations along the coasts of southeast China and north Vietnam based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences. We observed high haplotype diversity (Hd), with an average of 0.926, but relatively low nucleotide diversity (π), with a mean of 0.032 across all samples. A total of 94 polymorphic sites and 85 haplotypes were identified among 320 individuals. The pairwise genetic distances among haplotypes ranged from 0.001 to 0.067, with the high intraspecific divergence possibly reflecting geographic isolation and gene pool fragmentation. Significant genetic structures were revealed among the studied locations; specifically, the eight locations could be treated as six genetically different populations based on pairwise ΦSTresults (0.026-0.951, P<0.01). A significant pattern of isolation-by-distance was detected between the genetic and geographic distances (r=0.873, P=0.001). Three geographic lineages were defined based on phylogenetic tree and network analyses of COI haplotypes. AMOVA results indicated that genetic variations mainly occurred among the three lineages (89.96%). Tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution suggested that T. heterochaetus underwent recent population expansion. These results provide the first report on the genetic status of T. heterochaetus and will be valuable for the management of genetic resources and better understanding of the ecology and evolution in this species.

10.
Zool Res ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709786

RESUMO

Molecular studies on donkey mitochondrial sequences have clearly defined two distinct maternal lineages involved in domestication. However, domestication histories of these two lineages remain enigmatic. We therefore compared several population characteristics between these two lineages based on global sampling, which included 171 sequences obtained in this study (including Middle Asian, East Asian, and African samples) plus 536 published sequences (including European, Asian, and African samples). The two lineages were clearly separated from each other based on whole mitochondrial genomes and partial non-coding displacement loop (D-loop) sequences, respectively. The Clade I lineage experienced an increase in population size more than 8 000 years ago and shows a complex haplotype network. In contrast, the population size of the Clade II lineage has remained relatively constant, with a simpler haplotype network. Although the distribution of the two lineages was almost equal across the Eurasian mainland, they still presented discernible but complex geographic bias in most parts of Africa, which are known as their domestication sites. Donkeys from sub-Saharan Africa tended to descend from the Clade I lineage, whereas the Clade II lineage was dominant along the East and North coasts of Africa. Furthermore, the migration routes inferred from diversity decay suggested different expansion across China between the two lineages. Altogether, these differences indicated non-simultaneous domestication of the two lineages, which was possibly influenced by the response of pastoralists to the desertification of the Sahara and by the social expansion and trade of ancient humans in Northeast Africa, respectively.

11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732235

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated racial disparities in survival among dialysis patients in a manner that considers risk factors and mortality during the phase of kidney disease before maintenance dialysis. Our objective was to explore racial variations in survival among dialysis patients and relate them to racial differences in comorbid conditions and rates of death in the setting of kidney disease not yet requiring dialysis therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 3,288 black and white participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), none of whom were receiving dialysis at enrollment. EXPOSURE: Race. OUTCOME: Mortality. ANALYTIC APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between race and mortality starting at: (1) time of dialysis initiation and (2) entry into the CRIC. RESULTS: During 7.1 years of median follow-up, 678 CRIC participants started dialysis. Starting from the time of dialysis initiation, blacks had lower risk for death (unadjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87) compared with whites. Starting from baseline CRIC enrollment, the strength of the association between some risk factors and dialysis was notably stronger for whites than blacks. For example, the HR for dialysis onset in the presence (vs absence) of heart failure at CRIC enrollment was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.01-1.68) for blacks versus 2.78 (95% CI, 1.90-4.50) for whites, suggesting differential severity of these risk factors by race. When we included deaths occurring both before and after dialysis, risk for death was higher among blacks (vs whites) starting from CRIC enrollment (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.22-1.64), but this finding was attenuated in adjusted models (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.91-1.28). LIMITATIONS: Residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent survival advantage among blacks over whites treated with dialysis may be attributed to selected transition of a subset of whites with more severe comorbid conditions onto dialysis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694372

RESUMO

The development of effectively universal interfacial materials for both conventional and inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) plays a very crucial role in achieving highly photovoltaic performance and feasible device engineering. In this study, two novel alcohol-soluble conjugated polymers (PBSON-P and PBSON-FEO) with bis(benzothiophene-S,S-dioxide)-fused aromatics (FBTO) as the core unit and amino as functional groups are synthesized. They are utilized as universal cathode interfacial layers for both conventional and inverted PSCs simultaneously. Ascribing to the enlarged conjugated planarity and higher electron affinity for an FBTO unit, both PBSON-P and PBSON-FEO exhibit versatile electron-transporting abilities. They show wide band gaps that are important for light absorption in inverted PSCs, at which point PBSON-P and PBSON-FEO are more progressive than some of the reported small band gap cathode interfacial materials. Importantly, PBSON-P and PBSON-FEO display deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels, which can block holes at the cathode and thus increase the fill factor. As a result, both conventional and inverted PSCs using PBSON-P and PBSON-FEO as cathode interlayers realize high photovoltaic performance. Therefore, this series of novel polymers are amphibious cathode interfacial materials for high-performance conventional and inverted PSCs.

13.
Cancer ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of ovarian cancer could significantly improve patient outcomes. Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) is elevated in sera from approximately 60% of patients with early-stage (I/II) disease. Sensitivity might be improved through the combination of CA 125 with other biomarkers. Among potential biomarkers, antigen-autoantibody (Ag-AAb) complexes have received relatively little attention. METHODS: Luminex-based immunoassays were used to measure human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), anti-HE4 autoantibody, and HE4 Ag-AAb complexes in sera from patients with early- (n = 73) and late-stage ovarian cancers (n = 49) at the time of diagnosis and from asymptomatic women with (n = 15) or without ovarian cancer (n = 212) enrolled in the Normal Risk Ovarian Cancer Screening Study. RESULTS: At 98% specificity for healthy, asymptomatic women, 7% of patients with early-stage (I/II) ovarian cancer and 4% of patients with late-stage (III/IV) disease had elevated levels of HE4 autoantibody, whereas elevated levels of HE4 Ag-AAb complexes were detected in sera from 38% of early-stage cases and 31% of late-stage cases. Complementarity was observed in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves between HE4 Ag-AAb complexes and CA 125 levels in early-stage ovarian cancer (P < .001). CA 125 detected 63% of cases, and a combination of CA 125 and HE4 Ag-AAb complexes detected 81%. Complementarity was also observed in ROC curves for an independent validation set with 69 early-stage patients (P = .039). HE4 Ag-AAb complexes were detected in serial preclinical serum samples from women destined to develop ovarian cancer: they correlated with CA 125 but did not provide a lead time. CONCLUSIONS: HE4 Ag-AAb complexes could complement CA 125 in detecting a higher fraction of early-stage ovarian cancers.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746033

RESUMO

In this study, nutrient loss, the direct and indirect relationship between period, compost types, temperature, total nitrogen (TN), nitrate nitrogen (NO3 - -N), ammonia nitrogen (NH4 + -N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) were investigated during composting of cattle manure-maize straw mixture. This study findings revealed that biochar addition lowered NH4 + -N but did not increase NO3 - -N concentrations unlike no biochar piles during composting. The first-order kinetic models showed that biochar accelerated organic matter (OM) degradation, improved N mineralization, consequently reducing TN losses by 13.6% and OM losses by 12.66%. Transformation ratio of MBC/MBN, coupled with other chemical components of the entire microbial community suggested a shift in the microbial succession and diversity during composting from the dominant bacteria and actinomycetes to fungi. The Structural equation model and path coefficient revealed temperature to be the main factor mediating the evolution of MBC and MBN in composting. The physicochemical variables, phytotoxicity and final product quality revealed that biochar incorporation to the composting feedstock is an ideal material for mitigating problems of TN and OM losses in composting and ultimately enhancing the fertility potential of the final compost product. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
Nature ; 574(7780): 653-657, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666722

RESUMO

Superconductivity can occur under conditions approaching broken-symmetry parent states1. In bilayer graphene, the twisting of one layer with respect to the other at 'magic' twist angles of around 1 degree leads to the emergence of ultra-flat moiré superlattice minibands. Such bands are a rich and highly tunable source of strong-correlation physics2-5, notably superconductivity, which emerges close to interaction-induced insulating states6,7. Here we report the fabrication of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene devices with highly uniform twist angles. The reduction in twist-angle disorder reveals the presence of insulating states at all integer occupancies of the fourfold spin-valley degenerate flat conduction and valence bands-that is, at moiré band filling factors ν = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3. At ν ≈ -2, superconductivity is observed below critical temperatures of up to 3 kelvin. We also observe three new superconducting domes at much lower temperatures, close to the ν = 0 and ν = ±1 insulating states. Notably, at ν = ± 1 we find states with non-zero Chern numbers. For ν = -1 the insulating state exhibits a sharp hysteretic resistance enhancement when a perpendicular magnetic field greater than 3.6 tesla is applied, which is consistent with a field-driven phase transition. Our study shows that broken-symmetry states, interaction-driven insulators, orbital magnets, states with non-zero Chern numbers and superconducting domes occur frequently across a wide range of moiré flat band fillings, including close to charge neutrality. This study provides a more detailed view of the phenomenology of magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, adding to our evolving understanding of its emergent properties.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate appropriate postoperative management based on the risk of disease recurrences in thymic epithelial tumors after complete resection. METHODS: The Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART) retrospective database was reviewed. Patients having stage I-IIIa tumors without pretreatment and with complete resection were included. Clinico-pathological variables with statistical significance in the multivariate Cox regression were incorporated into a nomogram for building a recurrence predictive model. RESULTS: Nine-hundred-and-seven cases were retrieved, including 802 thymomas, 88 thymic carcinomas, and 17 neuroendocrine tumors between 1994 and 2012. With a median follow-up of 52 months, 10-year overall survival (OS) was 89.5%. Distant and/or loco-regional recurrences were noted in 53 (5.8%) patients. The nomogram model revealed histologic type and T stage as independent predictive factors for recurrence, with a bootstrap-corrected C-index of 0.86. Based on this model, patients with T1 thymomas or T2-3 Type A/AB/B1 thymomas had significantly lower incidence of recurrence (low-risk group) than those with T2-3 Type B2/B3 thymomas and all thymic carcinomas/neuroendocrine tumors (high-risk group, 2.7% vs. 20.1%, p<0.001). In the high-risk group, more than half of the recurrences (55.2%, 16/29) were seen within the first 3 post-operative years, while all but one recurrence were recorded within 6 years after surgery. Recurrence occurred quite evenly over 10 post-operative years in the low-risk group . CONCLUSIONS: A 6-year active surveillance should be considered in high-risk patients regardless of adjuvant therapy. For low-risk patients, annual follow-up may be sufficient. Studies on post-operative adjuvant therapies would be plausible in high-risk patients.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730342

RESUMO

Blackcurrants of three Finnish commercial cultivars 'Mortti', 'Ola' and 'Melalahti' cultivated in southern and northern Finland were compared on the basis of the content and composition of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seventeen B-type PA oligomers (degree of polymerization 2-5 and 7) were detected by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total PAs, dimers, trimers and tetramers were quantified. Among the three cultivars, 'Ola' had the highest contents of both total PAs and PA oligomers. 'Melalahti' was separated from both 'Mortti' and 'Ola' by PA profiles in the partial least squares discriminant analysis model. All three cultivars revealed distinct responses to latitude and weather conditions. The content of total PAs showed a positive correlation to latitude in 'Ola' and 'Melalahti'. Among the meteorological variables, high temperature and radiation correlated negatively with total PAs, while only specific variables showed a correlation with PA oligomers.

18.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax7142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681849

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy increases the risk of postnatal microcephaly. Neurovascular function provides a homeostatic environment for proper brain development. The major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein 2 (Mfsd2a) is selectively expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) and is the major transporter mediating the brain uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We have discovered a pivotal role for Mfsd2a in the pathogenesis of ZIKV. ZIKV disrupted Mfsd2a both in cultured primary hBMECs and in the neonatal mouse brain. ZIKV envelope (E) protein specifically interacted with Mfsd2a and promoted Mfsd2a polyubiquitination for proteasome-dependent degradation. Infection with ZIKV or ectopic expression of ZIKV E impaired Mfsd2a-mediated DHA uptake. Lipidomic analysis revealed obvious differences in DHA-containing lipids after ZIKV infection. Supplementation with DHA rescued ZIKV-caused growth restriction and microcephaly. Our findings suggest endothelial Mfsd2a as an important pathogenic mediator and supplementation with DHA as a potential therapeutic option for ZIKV infection.

19.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(6): 1417-1428, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction facilitates preoperative surgery simulation and transfers the virtual plan to a real operation. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the accuracy, efficiency, postoperative complications, and economic viability between computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction and conventional freehand mandibular reconstruction. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched up to November of 2018. The accuracy, efficiency, postoperative complications, and economic viability of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction compared to conventional freehand mandibular reconstruction were systematically reviewed. Continuous and dichotomous data were pooled in mean difference (or standardized mean difference if necessary) and odds ratio, subsequently, with 95 percent confidence interval. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included in the systematic review, and data extracted from 11 of them were combined in meta-analysis. The accuracy of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction was better than or equal to that of conventional freehand mandibular reconstruction according to qualitative analysis, although the quantitative comparison from meta-analysis was excluded because of the diversity of measurements. As for efficiency, computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction, when compared to conventional freehand mandibular reconstruction, revealed a shorter ischemic time, reconstructive time, total operative time, and length of stay. There was no difference in postoperative complication rate. CONCLUSIONS: Computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction showed increased efficiency considering the reduced ischemic time, total operative time, reconstructive time, and length of stay. However, the accuracy, reconstruction outcomes, and perioperative cost should be further elucidated because of diverse measurements and the lack of included studies.

20.
Soc Sci Med ; 244: 112667, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734601

RESUMO

China piloted a publicly funded Long-term Care Nursing Insurance (LTCNI) with an aim to improve access to long-term care (LTC) for older people in China in 2012. Existing studies showed that the scheme has been successful in meeting some goals, but little is known on how the availability, price and quality of the local care providers affect access to care. Using an Agent-based Modelling approach, this paper simulates the effects of the LTCNI on access to care by considering quality, costs and availability of the local care providers. Our simulation is based on Qingdao city-the first city in China that piloted the LTCNI. We found considerable discrepancies in terms of access to services among the LTCNI beneficiaries. The poor are more likely to choose nursing home care with low costs albeit these services may be of poor quality. The demand for home-based services is high, but these services are not distributed according to population needs and are not available in some districts with high concentration of older people. Consequently, a large proportion of disabled older people have no access to home-based services. We urge policy makers to improve the benefit package of the LTCNI, especially for the poor. We also suggest that more resources should be directed to promote and improve the availability of home-based services in areas with a large number of older people.

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