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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 561-579, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645155

RESUMO

Proteases are widely found in organisms participating in the decomposition of proteins to maintain the organisms' normal life activities. Protease inhibitors regulate the activities of target proteases by binding to their active sites, thereby affecting protein metabolism. The key amino acid mutations in proteases and protease inhibitors can affect their physiological functions, stability, catalytic activity, and inhibition specificity. More active, stable, specific, environmentally friendly and cheap proteases and protease inhibitors might be obtained by excavating various natural mutants of proteases and protease inhibitors, analyzing their key active sites by using protein engineering methods. Here, we review the studies on proteases' key active sites and protease inhibitors to deepen the understanding of the active mechanism of proteases and their inhibitors.

2.
Curr Microbiol ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651189

RESUMO

Phycosphere hosts the boundary of unique holobionts harboring dynamic algae-bacteria interactions. During our investigating the microbial consortia composition of phycosphere microbiota (PM) derived from diverse harmful algal blooms (HAB) dinoflagellates, a novel rod-shaped, motile and faint yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated as strain LZ-6 T, was isolated from HAB Alexandrium catenella LZT09 which produces high levels paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS sequences showed that the novel isolate shared the highest gene similarity with Marinobacter shengliensis CGMCC 1.12758 T (99.6%) with the similarity values of 99.6%, 99.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Further phylogenomic calculations of average nucleotide identity (ANI), average amino acid identity (AAI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strains LZ-6 T and the type strain of M. shengliensis were 95.9%, 96.4% and 68.5%, respectively. However, combined phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterizations revealed that the new isolate was obviously different from the type strain of M. shengliensis. The obtained taxonomic evidences supported that strain LZ-6 T represents a novel subspecies of M. shengliensis, for which the name is proposed, Marinobacter shengliensis subsp. alexandrii subsp. nov. with the type strain LZ-6 T (= CCTCC AB 2018388TT = KCTC 72197 T). This proposal automatically creates Marinobacter shengliensis subsp. shengliensis for which the type strain is SL013A34A2T (= LMG 27740 T = CGMCC 1.12758 T).

3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560585

RESUMO

Remote sensing of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) opens a new window for quantifying a key ecological variable, the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production (GPP), because of the revealed strong SIF-GPP correlation. However, similar to many other remotely sensed metrics, SIF observations suffer from the sun-sensor geometry effects, which may have important impacts on the SIF-GPP relationship but remain poorly understood. Here we used remotely sensed SIF, globally distributed tower GPP data, and a mechanistic model to provide a systematic analysis. Our results reveal that leaf physiology, canopy structure, and sun-sensor geometries all affect the SIF-GPP relationship. In particular, we found that SIF observations in the sun-tracking hotspot direction can be a better proxy of GPP due to the similar responses of light use efficiency and SIF escaping probability in the hotspot direction to the increasing incoming solar radiation. Such conclusions are supported by a variety of modeling simulations and satellite observations over various plant function types, at different time scales and with satellite observational modes. This study demonstrates the potential and advantage of normalizing SIF observations to the hotspot direction for better global GPP estimations. This study also demonstrates the great potentials of current and future spaceborne sun-tracking satellite missions for a significant improvement in measuring and monitoring, at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the changes in terrestrial ecosystem GPP in response to anticipated changes in the Earth's environmental conditions.

4.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555662

RESUMO

Root depth, as an important component of root architecture, plays a significant role in growth, grain yield determination and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants, but its genetic basis remains poorly elucidated. In this study, a panel composed of 323 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions was assessed for variation in root depth and genotyped with the Wheat 660K SNP Array. GWAS (genome-wide association study) detected significant association between a 125 bp miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) in the promoter of the TaVSR1-B gene with root depth at the booting stage. We showed that the MITE repressed TaVSR1-B expression by DNA methylation and H3K27 tri-methylation. The roles of TaVSR1-B in root growth were verified by altered expression of the gene in transgenic wheat, rice and a tavsr1 TILLING mutant. Increased TaVSR1-B expression made the root elongation zone shorter and the differentiation zone longer, leading to deeper root. This work provides novel insight into the genetic basis of variation in root depth and a promising target for genetic improvement of root architecture in wheat.

5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 144, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously reported anterior release, posterior internal distraction, and subsequent spinal fusion (ARPIDF) for the correction of severe scoliosis with a satisfactory correction rate. However, surgical procedures were completed in 2-3 stages. Here we compare Cobb angle of ≥90° in scoliosis correction between a novel posterior multiple screws distraction reducer (MSDR) system and ARPIDF. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with severe scoliosis treated by MSDR or ARPIDF (n = 18 in both groups). We retrospectively analyzed and compared outcome measures between the two groups over a minimum follow-up duration of 2 years. The following variables were compared between the two groups: age at surgery, sex, etiology, flexibility of the main thoracic curve, number of fused segments and screws, operation time, estimated blood loss, hospitalization time, follow-up duration, various radiological parameters, complication rate, and Scoliosis Research Society-30 score. RESULTS: There were no significant between-group differences with respect to age, sex, etiology, flexibility of the main thoracic curve, number of fused segments and screws, and follow-up duration. Further, there was no significant difference in terms of preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up findings of the radiographic data. However, the ARPIDF group had longer operation and hospitalization times and greater blood loss. In the ARPIDF group, 4 patient developed complications (infection, intraoperative neuromonitoring changes, transient dyspnea); none of these events occurred in the MSDR group. CONCLUSION: The use of MSDR helped achieve greater scoliosis correction with a shorter operation time, lower blood loss, and lower complication rate than the use of ARPIDF. MSDR facilitates safer and easier correction of severe scoliosis without increasing surgical risk.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116723, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611207

RESUMO

With increasing concerns on the ecological risks of pollutants, many efforts have been devoted to revealing the toxic effects of pollutants on algae or bacteria in their monocultures. However, how pollutants affect algae and bacteria in their cocultures is still elusive but crucial due to its more environmental relevance. The present review outlines the interactions between algae and bacteria, reveals the influential mechanisms of pollutants (including pesticides, metals, engineered nanomaterials, pharmaceutical and personal care products, and aromatic pollutants) to algae and bacteria in their coexisted systems, and puts forward prospects for further advancing toxic studies in algal-bacterial systems. Pollutants affect the physiological and ecological functions of bacteria and algae by interfering with their relationships. Cell-to-cell adhesion, substrate exchange and biodegradation of organic pollutants, enhancement of signal transduction, and horizontal transfer of tolerance genes are important defense strategies in algal-bacterial systems to cope with pollution stress. Developing suitable algal-bacterial models, identifying cross-kingdom signaling molecules, and deciphering the horizontal transfer of pollutant resistant genes between algae and bacteria under pollution stress are the way forward to fully exploit the risks of pollutants in natural aquatic environments.

7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1151-1159, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565022

RESUMO

Leukocytes reflect the physiological and pathological states of each individual, and transcriptomic data of leukocytes have been used to reflect health conditions. Since the overall impact of ex vivo conditions on the leukocyte transcriptome before RNA stabilization remains unclear, we evaluated the influence of temporary storage conditions on the leukocyte transcriptome through RNA sequencing. We collected peripheral blood with EDTA tubes, which were processed immediately or stored either at 4 °C or room temperature (RT, 18-22 °C) for 2 h, 6 h and 24 h. Total cellular RNA was extracted from 42 leukocyte samples after red blood cells lysis for subsequent RNA sequencing. We applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to construct co-expression networks of mRNA and lncRNA among the samples, and then performed gene ontology (GO) term enrichment to explore possible biological processes affected by storage conditions. Storage conditions change the gene expression of peripheral leukocytes. Comparing with fresh leukocytes, storage for 24 h at 4 °C and RT affected 1515 (1.51%) and 10,823 (10.82%) genes, respectively. Pathway enrichment analysis identified nucleosome assembly enriched in up-regulated genes at both conditions. When blood was stored at RT for 24 h, genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway, negative regulation of cell cycle and lymphocyte activation were upregulated, while the relative proportion of neutrophils was significantly decreased. Temporary storage conditions profoundly affect the gene expression profiles of leukocytes and might further change cell viability and state. Storage of blood samples at 4 °C within 6 h largely maintains their original transcriptome.

8.
Brain Struct Funct ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616744

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important biomarker for parasympathetic function and future health outcomes. The present study examined how the structure of regions in a neural network thought to maintain top-down control of parasympathetic function is associated with HRV during both rest and social stress. Participants were 127 young women (90 Black American), who completed a structural MRI scan and the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), during which heart rate was recorded. Regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between cortical thickness in five regions of the Central Autonomic Network (CAN; anterior midcingulate cortex [aMCC], pregenual and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex [pgACC, sgACC], orbitofrontal cortex [OFC], and anterior insula) and high-frequency HRV during rest and stress. Results indicated that cortical thickness in CAN regions did not predict average HRV during rest or stress. Greater cortical thickness in the right pgACC was associated with greater peak HRV reactivity during the TSST, and survived correction for multiple comparisons, but not sensitivity analyses with outliers removed. The positive association between cortical thickness in the pgACC and peak HRV reactivity is consistent with the direction of previous findings from studies that examined tonic HRV in adolescents, but inconsistent with findings in adults, which suggests a possible neurodevelopmental shift in the relation between brain structure and autonomic function with age. Future research on age-related changes in brain structure and autonomic function would allow a more thorough understanding of how brain structure may contribute to parasympathetic function across neurodevelopment.

9.
Hum Immunol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma is one of the most common tumors in women. The immune microenvironment, especially T cell infiltration, is related to the occurrence and prognosis of breast carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the gene expression patterns associated with tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in invasive breast carcinomas. METHODS: The gene expression data and corresponding clinical phenotype data from the Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Invasive Carcinoma (TCGA-BRCA) were downloaded. The stromal and immune score were calculated using ESTIMATE. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a high vs. low stromal score and a high vs. low immune score were screened and then functionally enriched. The tumor-infiltrating immune cells were investigated using the Cibersort algorithm, and the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-related genes were identified using a Spearman correlation test of infiltrating abundance with the DEGs. Moreover, the miRNA-mRNA pairs and lncRNA-miRNA pairs were predicted to construct the competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) network. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) survival curves were also plotted. RESULTS: In total, 478 DEGs with a high vs. low stromal score and 796 DEGs with a high vs. low immune score were identified. In addition, 39 CD4+ T cell-related genes and 78 CD8+ T cell-related genes were identified; of these, 14 genes were significantly associated with the prognosis of BRCA patients. Moreover, for CD4+ T cell-related genes, the chr22-38_28785274-29006793.1-miR-34a/c-5p-CAPN6 axis was identified from the ceRNA network, whereas the chr22-38_28785274-29006793.1-miR-494-3p-SLC9A7 axis was identified for CD8+ T cell-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: The chr22-38_28785274-29006793.1-miR-34a/c-5p-CAPN6 axis and the chr22-38_28785274-29006793.1-miR-494-3p-SLC9A7 axis might regulate cellular activities associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration, respectively, in BRCA.

10.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare two inverse planning algorithms, the hybrid inverse planning optimization (HIPO) algorithm and the inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) algorithm, for cervical cancer brachytherapy and provide suggestions for their usage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study consisted of 24 cervical cancer patients treated with CT image-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy using various combinations of tandem/ovoid applicator and interstitial needles. For fixed catheter configurations, plans were retrospectively optimized with two methods: IPSA and HIPO. The dosimetric parameters with respect to target coverage, localization of high dose volume (LHDV), conformal index (COIN), and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated. A plan assessment method which combines a graphical analysis and a scoring index was used to compare the quality of two plans for each case. The characteristics of dwell time distributions of the two plans were also analyzed in detail. RESULTS: Both IPSA and HIPO can produce clinically acceptable treatment plans. The rectum D2cc was slightly lower for HIPO as compared to IPSA (P = 0.002). All other dosimetric parameters for targets and OARs were not significantly different between the two algorithms. The generated radar plots and scores intuitively presented the plan properties and enabled to reflect the clinical priorities for the treatment plans. Significant different characteristics were observed between the dwell time distributions generated by IPSA and HIPO. CONCLUSIONS: Both algorithms could generate high-quality treatment plans, but their performances were slightly different in terms of each specific patient. The clinical decision on the optimal plan for each patient can be made quickly and consistently with the help of the plan assessment method. Besides, the characteristics of dwell time distribution were suggested to be taken into account during plan selection. Compared to IPSA, the dwell time distributions generated by HIPO may be closer to clinical preference.

11.
Fertil Steril ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To depict the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) profile in oocytes from patients with recurrent oocyte maturation arrest (ROMA) and explore the piRNA candidates associated with the disease. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Academic research unit. PATIENT(S): Sixteen ROMA patients who provided 140 immature oocytes that arrested at metaphase I, and 146 control patients who provided 420 oocytes for in vitro culture that were collected at the stages of germinal vesicle (GV), metaphase I (MI), and MII. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression profiles of piRNA and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) validating data of piR-hsa-17139 and its target genes. RESULT(S): After the piRNA profile was established using piRNA sequencing and hierarchical clustering, the target genes of the piRNA were predicted by bioinformatics databases and matched with mRNA sequencing data. The piRNA expression profiles showed a greater quantity of differentially expressed piRNAs in the older-stage oocytes compared with the early-stage oocytes. The piRNA and mRNA sequencing data indicated that the most affected genes were mainly concentrated in the extracellular matrix (ECM) pathway. Based on the comparison of the piRNA and mRNA sequencing data, four differentially expressed piRNAs were associated with modulation of those ECM pathway genes. The qRT-PCR validation confirmed that piR-hsa-17139 was the only up-regulated piRNA, and its target ECM genes were suppressed in ROMA oocytes. The expression level of piR-hsa-17139 declined slightly while the expression of its target ECM genes plunged dramatically during the development of normal oocytes. CONCLUSION(S): As the important genome monitors in gametogenesis, abnormally expressed piRNAs may affect the expression of ECM modulating genes, which subsequently contributes to ROMA.

12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517923

RESUMO

A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.

13.
Food Funct ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537688

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of young apple polyphenols (YAP) on starch digestion and gut microbiota, complexes of native wheat starch (NWS) with YAP, and their main components chlorogenic acid (CA) and phlorizin (P) were fabricated and gelatinized. Through XRD and FTIR analysis, it was found that the partial crystalline structure of NWS was destroyed during gelatinization, and the addition of P decreased the extent of destruction. Then, the gelatinized starchy samples were subjected to in vitro digestion. The wheat starch (WS)-phenolic compound complexes significantly suppressed the digestion rate and increased the proportion of resistant starch (RS) in WS. Furthermore, the residual starchy components after digestion were fermented by human fecal samples for 24 h. The WS-YAP complex greatly increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic and propionic acids, and enhanced the growth of health-promoting gut microbiota such as Prevotella. Conclusively, YAP was shown to play a positive role in maintaining blood glucose balance and intestinal health.

14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 185, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether pelvic incidence (PI) will affect the occurrence of PJK in Lenke 5 AIS patients after correction surgery and try to explore a better surgical scheme based on PI. METHODS: Lenke 5C AIS patients that underwent correction surgery with a minimum of a 2-year follow-up were identified. Demographic and radiographic data were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. The comparison between the PJK and the Non-PJK group was conducted and the subgroup analysis was performed based on the preoperative value of PI to investigate the potential mechanism of PJK. Clinical assessments were performed using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the TL/L curve was 53.4°±8.6. At the final follow-up, the mean TL/L Cobb angle was drastically decreased to 7.3°±6.8 (P < 0.001). The incidence of PJK in Lenke 5 AIS was 18.6 %, 21.9 % (7/32) in the low PI group (PI < 45°) and 15.8 % (6/38) in the high PI group (PI ≥ 45°), and there was no statistical difference between the two groups (χ2 = 0.425, P = 0.514). For low PI patients, there is no significant difference where the UIV is located with regards to the TK apex between the PJK and Non-PJK subgroups (χ2 = 1.103, P = 0.401). For high PI patients, PJK was more likely to occur when UIV was cephalad to than caudal to the TK apex (31.25 % vs. 4.7 %, P = 0.038). There was no significant difference in the selection of LIV between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in the incidence of PJK between the Lenke 5 AIS patients with low PI (< 45°) and high PI (≥45°), but the main risk factor of PJK should be different. For patients with low PI, overcorrection of LL should be strictly avoided during surgery. For patients with high PI, the selection of UIV should not be at or cephalad to the apex of thoracic kyphosis to retain more mobile thoracic segments.

15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The activation of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) facilitates the progression of gastric cancer (GC). Cell metabolism reprogramming has been shown to play a vital role in the polarization of TAMs. However, the role of methionine metabolism in function of TAMs remains to be explored. METHODS: Monocytes/macrophages were isolated from peripheral blood, tumor tissues or normal tissues from healthy donors or patients with GC. The role of methionine metabolism in the activation of TAMs was evaluated with both in vivo analyses and in vitro experiments. Pharmacological inhibition of the methionine cycle and modulation of key metabolic genes was employed, where molecular and biological analyses were performed. RESULTS: TAMs have increased methionine cycle activity that are mainly attributed to elevated methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT2A) levels. MAT2A modulates the activation and maintenance of the phenotype of TAMs and mediates the upregulation of RIP1 by increasing the histone H3K4 methylation (H3K4me3) at its promoter regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data cast light on a novel mechanism by which methionine metabolism regulates the anti-inflammatory functions of monocytes in GC. MAT2A might be a potential therapeutic target for cancer cells as well as TAMs in GC.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427608

RESUMO

Two Gram-stain-positive, facultatively aerobic, non-motile and rod- to coccoid-shaped bacterial strains, 23H37-10T and 4HC-13, were isolated from the faeces of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) at Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, PR China. Optimal growth was observed at 35-37 °C, pH 7.0-8.0 and with 0.5-1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains 23H37-10T and 4HC-13 were identical. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses indicated that strains 23H37-10T and 4HC-13 formed an independent cluster within the genus Corynebacterium and showed 98.8, 97.4, 97.4 and 97.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Corynebacterium urogenitale LMM 1652T, Corynebacterium urealyticum DSM 7109T, Corynebacterium falsenii DSM 44353T and Corynebacterium jeikeium NCTC 11913T, respectively. Cells contained C18 :1 ω9c, C18 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids and MK-9 (H2) as the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl inositol mannosides, two unidentified phospholipids, four unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified lipid. Strain 23H37-10T contained mycolic acids, with meso-diaminopimelic acid and arabinose as the major whole-cell hydrolysates. The genome G+C content of strains 23H37-10T and 4HC-13 was 55.2 mol%. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strains 23H37-10T and 4HC-13 were 94.4 and 99.6 %, respectively. Strains 23H37-10T and 4HC-13 had dDDH and ANI values of less than 70 and 96 % with all available genomes of the genus Corynebacterium, respectively. The differential genotypic inferences, together with phenotypic and biochemical characteristics, suggested that strains 23H37-10T and 4HC-13 represent a novel species within the genus Corynebacterium, for which the name Corynebacterium anserum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 23H37-10T (=GDMCC 1.1737T=KACC 21672T).

17.
J Immunol ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504621

RESUMO

Recent studies have identified semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) as a novel mediator of immune responses. However, its function in immunity to infection has yet to be investigated. Using a mouse model of chlamydial lung infection, we show that Sema3E plays a significant role in the host immune response to the infection. We found that Sema3E is induced in the lung after chlamydial infection, and Sema3E deficiency has a detrimental impact on disease course, dendritic cell (DC) function, and T cell responses. Specifically, we found that Sema3E knockout (KO) mice exhibited higher bacterial burden, severe body weight loss, and pathological changes after Chlamydia muridarum lung infection compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The severity of disease in Sema3E KO mice was correlated with reduced Th1/Th17 cytokine responses, increased Th2 response, altered Ab response, and a higher number of regulatory CD4 T cells. Moreover, DCs isolated from Sema3E KO mice showed lower surface expression of costimulatory molecules and production of IL-12, but higher expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and IL-10 production. Functional DC-T cell coculture studies revealed that DCs from infected Sema3E KO mice failed to induce Th1 and Th17 cell responses compared with DCs from infected WT mice. Upon adoptive transfer, mice receiving DCs from Sema3E KO mice, unlike those receiving DCs from WT mice, were not protected against challenge infection. In conclusion, our data evidenced that Sema3E acts as a critical factor for protective immunity against intracellular bacterial infection by modulating DC functions and T cell subsets.

18.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(3): 1, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495815

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a common disease with a high incidence ratio of between 1/400 and 1/1,000 individuals, often results in kidney failure and even mortality. However, there are relatively few effective treatments available, and treatment is limited to lifelong hemodialysis or kidney transplant. Our previous studies have reported that curcumin (Cur) and ginkgolide B (GB) inhibited cystogenesis by regulating the Ras/ERK MAPK signaling pathway. In the present study, it was hypothesized that Cur and GB may have a synergistic effect on the inhibition of cystogenesis, and their synergistic effect may be the result of regulation of multiple signaling pathways. To assess this hypothesis, an in vitro Madin­Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cyst model and an in vivo kidney­specific polycystin 1 transient receptor potential channel interacting (Pkd1) knockout mouse model were established to observe the effects of the combination of Cur and GB. The cysts exposed to Cur, GB and Cur combined with GB became small thick­walled cysts, small thin­walled cysts and round shaped cell colonies, respectively. The combination of Cur and GB was more effective compared with either treatment alone in inhibiting cystogenesis. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate the synergistic effect of Cur and GB on the inhibition of cystogenesis in Pkd1 knockout mice. Cur may have mediated its anti­cyst effects by blocking EGFR/ERK1/2, JNK and PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways, while GB may have inhibited cystogenesis via the downregulation of the EGFR/ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling pathways. These results provide a proof­of­concept for application of the combination of Cur and GB in inhibiting cystogenesis in ADPKD.

19.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 54, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PIA has been proven to be a predictor for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo occipitospinal fusion. However, its predictive effect for postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo OCF is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the pharyngeal inlet angle (PIA) for the occurrence of postoperative dysphagia in patients who undergo occipitocervical fusion (OCF). METHODS: Between 2010 and 2018, 98 patients who had undergone OCF were enrolled and reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of postoperative dysphagia. Radiographic parameters, including the atlas-dens interval (ADI), O-C2 angle (O-C2a), occipital and external acoustic meatus to axis angle (O-EAa), C2 tilting angle (C2Ta), C2-7 angle (C2-7a), PIA and narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (nPAS), were measured and compared. Simple linear regression and multiple regression analysis were used to evaluate the radiographic predictors for dysphagia. In addition, we used PIA = 90° as a threshold to analyze its effect on predicting dysphagia. RESULTS: Of the 98 patients, 26 exhibited postoperative dysphagia. Preoperatively, PIA in the dysphagia group was significantly higher than that in the nondysphagia group. We detected that O-C2a, O-EAa, PIA and nPAS all decreased sharply in the dysphagia group but increased slightly in the nondysphagia group. The changes were all significant. Through regression analyses, we found that PIA had a similar predictive effect as O-EAa for postoperative dysphagia and changes in nPAS. Additionally, patients with an increasing PIA exhibited no dysphagia, and the sensitivity of PIA <90° in predicting dysphagia reached 88.5%. CONCLUSIONS: PIA could be used as a predictor for postoperative dysphagia in patients undergoing OCF. Adjusting a PIA level higher than the preoperative PIA level could avoid dysphagia. For those who inevitably had decreasing PIA, preserving intraoperative PIA over 90° would help avert postoperative dysphagia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial has been registered in the Medical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital, Sichuan University. The registration number is 762 and the date of registration is Sep. 9 th, 2019.

20.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 2016-2028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439841

RESUMO

Facial expression recognition is of significant importance in criminal investigation and digital entertainment. Under unconstrained conditions, existing expression datasets are highly class-imbalanced, and the similarity between expressions is high. Previous methods tend to improve the performance of facial expression recognition through deeper or wider network structures, resulting in increased storage and computing costs. In this paper, we propose a new adaptive supervised objective named AdaReg loss, re-weighting category importance coefficients to address this class imbalance and increasing the discrimination power of expression representations. Inspired by human beings' cognitive mode, an innovative coarse-fine (C-F) labels strategy is designed to guide the model from easy to difficult to classify highly similar representations. On this basis, we propose a novel training framework named the emotional education mechanism (EEM) to transfer knowledge, composed of a knowledgeable teacher network (KTN) and a self-taught student network (STSN). Specifically, KTN integrates the outputs of coarse and fine streams, learning expression representations from easy to difficult. Under the supervision of the pre-trained KTN and existing learning experience, STSN can maximize the potential performance and compress the original KTN. Extensive experiments on public benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method achieves superior performance compared to current state-of-the-art frameworks with 88.07% on RAF-DB, 63.97% on AffectNet and 90.49% on FERPlus.

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