Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.570
Filtrar
1.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 240, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chylous leakage is a rare complication following esophagectomy; however, it can lead to mortality. We aimed to systematically evaluate the factors that may lead to increased chylous leakage after esophagectomy. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were systematically searched for all studies investigating the occurrence of chylous leakage after esophagectomy. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies were identified, including 26 randomized controlled trials and 3 cohort and case-control studies, each. The overall incidence of chylous leakage was 4.7% (278/5,971 cases). Analysis of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors showed that most of the qualitative analysis results did not significantly increase the incidence of chylous leakage. In some quantitative analyses, the chylous leakage rate was significantly lower in the thoracic duct mass ligation group than in the conservative treatment group (relative risk [RR] = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.83; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.327). Direct oral feeding significantly reduced chylous leakage compared with jejunostomy (RR = 0.06; 95% CI 0.01-0.33; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.335). However, preoperative inspiratory muscle training (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 0.21-12.33; I2 = 55.5%; P = 0.134), preoperative chemoradiotherapy (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.55-1.80; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.943), and robotic assistance (RR = 1.62; 95% CI, 0.92-2.86; I2 = 0.0%; P = 0.814) did not significantly reduce the incidence of chylous leakage. CONCLUSIONS: Ligation of the thoracic duct and direct oral feeding can reduce the incidence of chylous leakage after esophagectomy in patients with esophageal cancer. Other contributing factors remain unclear and require validation in further high-quality studies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To solve major clinical natural language processing (NLP) tasks using a unified text-to-text learning architecture based on a generative large language model (LLM) via prompt tuning. METHODS: We formulated 7 key clinical NLP tasks as text-to-text learning and solved them using one unified generative clinical LLM, GatorTronGPT, developed using GPT-3 architecture and trained with up to 20 billion parameters. We adopted soft prompts (ie, trainable vectors) with frozen LLM, where the LLM parameters were not updated (ie, frozen) and only the vectors of soft prompts were updated, known as prompt tuning. We added additional soft prompts as a prefix to the input layer, which were optimized during the prompt tuning. We evaluated the proposed method using 7 clinical NLP tasks and compared them with previous task-specific solutions based on Transformer models. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The proposed approach achieved state-of-the-art performance for 5 out of 7 major clinical NLP tasks using one unified generative LLM. Our approach outperformed previous task-specific transformer models by ∼3% for concept extraction and 7% for relation extraction applied to social determinants of health, 3.4% for clinical concept normalization, 3.4%-10% for clinical abbreviation disambiguation, and 5.5%-9% for natural language inference. Our approach also outperformed a previously developed prompt-based machine reading comprehension (MRC) model, GatorTron-MRC, for clinical concept and relation extraction. The proposed approach can deliver the "one model for all" promise from training to deployment using a unified generative LLM.

3.
J Biomed Inform ; 153: 104642, 2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a natural language processing (NLP) package to extract social determinants of health (SDoH) from clinical narratives, examine the bias among race and gender groups, test the generalizability of extracting SDoH for different disease groups, and examine population-level extraction ratio. METHODS: We developed SDoH corpora using clinical notes identified at the University of Florida (UF) Health. We systematically compared 7 transformer-based large language models (LLMs) and developed an open-source package - SODA (i.e., SOcial DeterminAnts) to facilitate SDoH extraction from clinical narratives. We examined the performance and potential bias of SODA for different race and gender groups, tested the generalizability of SODA using two disease domains including cancer and opioid use, and explored strategies for improvement. We applied SODA to extract 19 categories of SDoH from the breast (n = 7,971), lung (n = 11,804), and colorectal cancer (n = 6,240) cohorts to assess patient-level extraction ratio and examine the differences among race and gender groups. RESULTS: We developed an SDoH corpus using 629 clinical notes of cancer patients with annotations of 13,193 SDoH concepts/attributes from 19 categories of SDoH, and another cross-disease validation corpus using 200 notes from opioid use patients with 4,342 SDoH concepts/attributes. We compared 7 transformer models and the GatorTron model achieved the best mean average strict/lenient F1 scores of 0.9122 and 0.9367 for SDoH concept extraction and 0.9584 and 0.9593 for linking attributes to SDoH concepts. There is a small performance gap (∼4%) between Males and Females, but a large performance gap (>16 %) among race groups. The performance dropped when we applied the cancer SDoH model to the opioid cohort; fine-tuning using a smaller opioid SDoH corpus improved the performance. The extraction ratio varied in the three cancer cohorts, in which 10 SDoH could be extracted from over 70 % of cancer patients, but 9 SDoH could be extracted from less than 70 % of cancer patients. Individuals from the White and Black groups have a higher extraction ratio than other minority race groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our SODA package achieved good performance in extracting 19 categories of SDoH from clinical narratives. The SODA package with pre-trained transformer models is available at https://github.com/uf-hobi-informatics-lab/SODA_Docker.

4.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 166, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592562

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution ranks first in soils (7.0%) and microplastics usually have a significant adsorption capacity for it, which could pose potential threats to agricultural production and human health. However, the joint toxicity of Cd and microplastics on crop growth remains largely unknown. In this study, the toxic effects of Cd2+ and two kinds of microplastic leachates, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE), on wheat seed germination and seedlings' growth were explored under single and combined conditions. The results showed that Cd2+ solution and two kinds of microplastic leachates stimulated the wheat seed germination process but inhibited the germination rate by 0-8.6%. The combined treatments promoted wheat seed germination but inhibited the seedlings' growth to different degrees. Specifically, the combination of 2.0 mg L-1 Cd2+ and 1.0 mgC L-1 PVC promoted both seed germination and seedlings' growth, but they synergistically increased the antioxidant enzyme activity of seedlings. The toxicity of the PVC leachate to wheat seedlings was stronger than LDPE leachate. The addition of Cd2+ could alleviate the toxicity of PVC leachate on seedlings, and reduce the toxicity of LDPE leachate on seedlings under the same concentration class combinations but aggravated stress under different concentration classes, consistent with the effect on seedlings' growth. Overall, Cd2+, PVC, and LDPE leachates have toxic effects on wheat growth, whether treated under single or combined treatments. This study has important implications for the joint toxicity of Cd2+ solution and microplastic leachates in agriculture.


Assuntos
Plântula , Triticum , Humanos , Germinação , Cádmio/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Sementes , Antioxidantes
5.
Small ; : e2400915, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597683

RESUMO

Hole transporting layers (HTLs), strategically positioned between electrode and light absorber, play a pivotal role in shaping charge extraction and transport in organic solar cells (OSCs). However, the commonly used poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, with its hygroscopic and acidic nature, undermines the operational durability of OSC devices. Herein, an environmentally friendly approach is developed utilizing nickel acetate tetrahydrate (NiAc·4H2O) and [2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl] phosphonic acid (2PACz) as the NiAc·4H2O/2PACz HTL, aiming at overcoming the limitations posed by the conventional PEDOT:PSS one. Encouragingly, a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.12% is obtained for the OSCs employing NiAc·4H2O/2PACz as the HTL, surpassing that of devices with the PEDOT:PSS HTL (17.59%), which is ranked among the highest ones of OSCs. This improvement is attributed to the appropriate work function, enhanced hole mobility, facilitated exciton dissociation efficiency, and lower recombination loss of NiAc·4H2O/2PACz-based devices. Furthermore, the NiAc·4H2O/2PACz-based OSCs exhibit superior operational stability compared to their PEDOT:PSS-based counterparts. Of significant note, the NiAc·4H2O/2PACz HTL demonstrates a broad generality, boosting the PCE of the PM6:PY-IT and PM6:Y6-based OSCs from 16.47% and 16.79% (with PEDOT:PSS-based analogs as HTLs) to 17.36% and 17.57%, respectively. These findings underscore the substantial potential of the NiAc·4H2O/2PACz HTL in advancing OSCs, offering improved performance and stability, thereby opening avenue for highly efficient and reliable solar energy harvesting technologies.

6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3201, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615046

RESUMO

Yttrium iron garnet, a material possessing ultralow magnetic damping and extraordinarily long magnon diffusion length, is the most widely studied magnetic insulator in spintronics and magnonics. Field-free electrical control of perpendicular yttrium iron garnet magnetization with considerable efficiency is highly desired for excellent device performance. Here, we demonstrate such an accomplishment with a collinear spin current, whose spin polarization and propagation direction are both perpendicular to the interface. Remarkably, the field-free magnetization switching is achieved not only with a heavy-metal-free material, Permalloy, but also with a higher efficiency as compared with a typical heavy metal, Pt. Combined with the direct and inverse effect measurements, we ascribe the collinear spin current to the anomalous spin Hall effect in Permalloy. Our findings provide a new insight into spin current generation in Permalloy and open an avenue in spintronic devices.

7.
Radiat Oncol ; 19(1): 47, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly invasive with poor prognosis, and its treatment has historically been hindered due to the absence of targetable driver genomic alterations. However, the high genomic instability and replication stress in SCLC have made poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) inhibitors a focus of research. Pamiparib is an orally available PARP1/2 inhibitor with high selectivity, strong PARP trapping activity, and excellent brain penetration. Utilizing pamiparib as consolidation maintenance therapy in limited-stage SCLC holds promise for improving survival outcomes and offering a viable therapeutic approach. METHODS: This single-arm, open-label phase II trial will enroll patients aged 18-75 years with histologically/cytologically confirmed, limited-stage SCLC who have not progressed following definitive platinum-based cCRT and have an ECOG PS of 0 or 1. Patients will be excluded if they have histologically confirmed mixed SCLC or NSCLC, or have undergone previous tumor resection, or can be treated with surgery or stereotactic body radiation therapy/stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Participants will receive pamiparib 40 mg twice daily every 3 weeks within 2 to 6 weeks after cCRT for up to 1 year or until disease progression according to RECIST v1.1. The primary endpoint is the 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate assessed by investigators per RECIST v1.1. Secondary endpoints include PFS, objective response rate, and duration of response assessed by investigators per RECIST 1.1, overall survival, time to distant metastasis, and safety. DISCUSSION: The study will provide valuable data on the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of pamiparib as a consolidation therapy after cCRT in patients with LS-SCLC. The correlation between molecular typing or gene expression profile of the disease and curative response will be further explored. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05483543 at clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Humanos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Fluorenos
8.
Cell Death Differ ; 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570607

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a deadly malignancy with notable metabolic reprogramming, yet the pivotal metabolic feature driving ESCC progression remains elusive. Here, we show that methionine cycle exhibits robust activation in ESCC and is reversely associated with patient survival. ESCC cells readily harness exogenous methionine to generate S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), thus promoting cell proliferation. Mechanistically, methionine augments METTL3-mediated RNA m6A methylation through SAM and revises gene expression. Integrative omics analysis highlights the potent influence of methionine/SAM on NR4A2 expression in a tumor-specific manner, mediated by the IGF2BP2-dependent stabilization of methylated NR4A2 mRNA. We demonstrate that NR4A2 facilitates ESCC growth and negatively impacts patient survival. We further identify celecoxib as an effective inhibitor of NR4A2, offering promise as a new anti-ESCC agent. In summary, our findings underscore the active methionine cycle as a critical metabolic characteristic in ESCC, and pinpoint NR4A2 as a novel methionine-responsive oncogene, thereby presenting a compelling target potentially superior to methionine restriction.

9.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e26791, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586373

RESUMO

Efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils (PMNs) by macrophages is helpful for inflammation resolution and injury repair, but the role of efferocytosis in intrinsic nature of macrophages during septic acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. Here we report that CD47 and signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα)-the anti-efferocytotic 'don't eat me' signals-are highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with septic AKI and kidney samples from mice with polymicrobial sepsis and endotoxin shock. Conditional knockout (CKO) of SIRPA in macrophages ameliorates AKI and systemic inflammation response in septic mice, accompanied by an escalation in mitophagy inhibition of macrophages. Ablation of SIRPA transcriptionally downregulates solute carrier family 22 member 5 (SLC22A5) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages that efferocytose apoptotic neutrophils (PMNs). Targeting SLC22A5 renders mitophagy inhibition of macrophages in response to LPS stimuli, improves survival and deters development of septic AKI. Our study supports further clinical investigation of CD47-SIRPα signalling in sepsis and proposes that SLC22A5 might be a promising immunotherapeutic target for septic AKI.

10.
J Biomed Inform ; 153: 104630, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop soft prompt-based learning architecture for large language models (LLMs), examine prompt-tuning using frozen/unfrozen LLMs, and assess their abilities in transfer learning and few-shot learning. METHODS: We developed a soft prompt-based learning architecture and compared 4 strategies including (1) fine-tuning without prompts; (2) hard-prompting with unfrozen LLMs; (3) soft-prompting with unfrozen LLMs; and (4) soft-prompting with frozen LLMs. We evaluated GatorTron, a clinical LLM with up to 8.9 billion parameters, and compared GatorTron with 4 existing transformer models for clinical concept and relation extraction on 2 benchmark datasets for adverse drug events and social determinants of health (SDoH). We evaluated the few-shot learning ability and generalizability for cross-institution applications. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When LLMs are unfrozen, GatorTron-3.9B with soft prompting achieves the best strict F1-scores of 0.9118 and 0.8604 for concept extraction, outperforming the traditional fine-tuning and hard prompt-based models by 0.6 âˆ¼ 3.1 % and 1.2 âˆ¼ 2.9 %, respectively; GatorTron-345 M with soft prompting achieves the best F1-scores of 0.8332 and 0.7488 for end-to-end relation extraction, outperforming other two models by 0.2 âˆ¼ 2 % and 0.6 âˆ¼ 11.7 %, respectively. When LLMs are frozen, small LLMs have a big gap to be competitive with unfrozen models; scaling LLMs up to billions of parameters makes frozen LLMs competitive with unfrozen models. Soft prompting with a frozen GatorTron-8.9B model achieved the best performance for cross-institution evaluation. We demonstrate that (1) machines can learn soft prompts better than hard prompts composed by human, (2) frozen LLMs have good few-shot learning ability and generalizability for cross-institution applications, (3) frozen LLMs reduce computing cost to 2.5 âˆ¼ 6 % of previous methods using unfrozen LLMs, and (4) frozen LLMs require large models (e.g., over several billions of parameters) for good performance.

11.
Endokrynol Pol ; 75(1): 51-60, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497390

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains debatable. In the present study, we analysed the link between total sleep duration (including nighttime sleep and nap duration) and MetS as well as its components among the Chinese population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study from a prospective population cohort including 8616 participants over 40 years in Guangxi, China, evaluated from April 2011 to January 2012. MetS was diagnosed using modified criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. Sleep information was obtained through a standard self-report-based questionnaire. The connection between sleep duration and MetS prevalence as well as its components was evaluated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confoundings, the longer daily sleep duration (≥ 10 hours) group was observed to have the higher odds of having MetS than the reference group with ≥ 7 and < 8 hours of sleep [odds ratio (OR): 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.52, p = 0.023], as well as the highest odds of having elevated triglycerides (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.52) and fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45). Further analysis demonstrated that sleeping > 9 hours per night was correlated to MetS in females (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.58), while napping ≥ 90 minutes was correlated to MetS (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.11-1.87) in males. CONCLUSION: Both longer nighttime sleep duration and longer naps may be associated with the development of MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Duração do Sono , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Tempo , China/epidemiologia
12.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the ability of deep learning (DL)-derived imaging features for the prediction of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 90 patients from the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and 59 patients from the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University. Occurrences of RP were used as the endpoint event. A total of 512 3D DL-derived features were extracted from two regions of interest (lung-PTV and PTV-GTV) delineated on the pre-radiotherapy planning CT. Feature selection was done using LASSO regression, and the classification models were built using the multilayered perceptron method. Performances of the developed models were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In addition, the developed models were supplemented with clinical variables and dose-volume metrics of relevance to search for increased predictive value. RESULTS: The predictive model using DL features derived from lung-PTV outperformed the one based on features extracted from PTV-GTV, with AUCs of 0.921 and 0.892, respectively, in the internal test dataset. Furthermore, incorporating the dose-volume metric V30Gy into the predictive model using features from lung-PTV resulted in an improvement of AUCs from 0.835 to 0.881 for the training data and from 0.690 to 0.746 for the validation data, respectively (DeLong p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Imaging features extracted from pre-radiotherapy planning CT using 3D DL networks could predict radiation pneumonitis and may be of clinical value for risk stratification and toxicity management in LA-NSCLC patients. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: Integrating DL-derived features with dose-volume metrics provides a promising noninvasive method to predict radiation pneumonitis in LA-NSCLC lung cancer radiotherapy, thus improving individualized treatment and patient outcomes.

13.
Analyst ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497408

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV), a bat-borne zoonotic viral pathogen with high infectivity and lethality to humans, has caused severe outbreaks in several countries of Asia during the past two decades. Because of the worldwide distribution of the NiV natural reservoir, fruit bats, and lack of effective treatments or vaccines for NiV, routine surveillance and early detection are the key measures for containing NiV outbreaks and reducing its influence. In this study, we developed two rapid, sensitive and easy-to-conduct methods, RAA-CRISPR/Cas12a-FQ and RAA-CRISPR/Cas12a-FB, for NiV detection based on a recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) assay and a CRISPR/Cas12a system by utilizing dual-labeled fluorophore-quencher or fluorophore-biotin ssDNA probes. These two methods can be completed in 45 min and 55 min and achieve a limit of detection of 10 copies per µL and 100 copies per µL of NiV N DNA, respectively. In addition, they do not cross-react with nontarget nucleic acids extracted from the pathogens causing similar symptoms to NiV, showing high specificity for NiV N DNA detection. Meanwhile, they show satisfactory performance in the detection of spiked samples from pigs and humans. Collectively, the RAA-CRISPR/Cas12a-FQ and RAA-CRISPR/Cas12a-FB methods developed by us would be promising candidates for the early detection and routine surveillance of NiV in resource-poor areas and outdoors.

14.
Mol Carcinog ; 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426809

RESUMO

This study was to explore the role of ELOVL6 in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Considering its previously identified oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma. ELOVL6 gene expression, clinicopathological analysis, enrichment analysis, and immune infiltration analysis were based on the data from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas, with additional bioinformatics analyses performed. Human HNSCC tissue microarray and cell lines were used. The expression of ELOVL6 in HNSCC was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry assay, and western blot analysis. The proliferation ability of HNSCC cells, invasion, and apoptosis were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 method, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Based on the data derived from the cancer databases and our HNSCC cell and tissue studies, we found that ELOVL6 was overexpressed in HNSCC. Moreover, ELOVL6 expression level had a positive correlation with clinicopathology of HNSCC. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that ELOVL6 affected the occurrence of HNSCC through WNT signaling pathway. Functional experiments demonstrated that ELOVL6 knockdown inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HNSCC cells while promoting apoptosis. Additionally, compound 3f, an agonist of WNT/ß-catenin signaling pathway, enhances the effect of ELOVL6 on the progression of HNSCC cells. ELOVL6 is upregulated in HNSCC and promotes the development of HNSCC cells by inducing WNT/ß-catenin signaling pathway. ELOVL6 stands a potential target for the treatment of HNSCC and a prognosis indicator of human HNSCC.

15.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 9(2): 203-219, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510716

RESUMO

The epicardium provides epicardial-derived cells and molecular signals to support cardiac development and regeneration. Zebrafish and mouse studies have shown that ccm2, a cerebral cavernous malformation disease gene, is essential for cardiac development. Endocardial cell-specific deletion of Ccm2 in mice has previously established that Ccm2 is essential for maintenance of the cardiac jelly for cardiac development during early gestation. The current study aimed to explore the function of Ccm2 in epicardial cells for heart development and regeneration. Through genetic deletion of Ccm2 in epicardial cells, our in vivo and ex vivo experiments revealed that Ccm2 is required by epicardial cells to support heart development. Ccm2 regulates epicardial cell adhesion, cell polarity, cell spreading, and migration. Importantly, the loss of Ccm2 in epicardial cells delays cardiac function recovery and aggravates cardiac fibrosis following myocardial infarction. Molecularly, Ccm2 targets the production of cytoskeletal and matrix proteins to maintain epicardial cell function and behaviors. Epicardial Ccm2 plays a critical role in heart development and regeneration via its regulation of cytoskeleton reorganization.

16.
World J Clin Cases ; 12(7): 1378-1381, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38524510

RESUMO

The Sun et al's training program for clinical research nurses (CRNs) in the World Journal of Clinical Cases is a comprehensive and scientific approach. It includes structured frameworks for CRN training, aiming to improve CRN competency. This program emphasizes practical abilities, updates training content, and improves evaluation methods. The cultivation of CRN talents focuses on enhancing the training system, establishing a multifaceted evaluation framework, and continuously refining the training programs. Regular feedback and evaluation are essential to improve CRNs' competency in practical settings.

17.
Acta Biomater ; 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484831

RESUMO

In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), macrophages infiltrate joints, while fibroblast-like synovial cells proliferate abnormally, forming a barrier against drug delivery, which hinders effective drug delivery to joint focus. Here we firstly designed a pH-responsive size-adjustable nanoparticle, composed by methotrexate (MTX)-human serum albumin (HSA) complex coating with pH-responsive liposome (Lipo/MTX-HSA) for delivering drugs specifically to inflamed joints in acidic environments. We showed in vitro that the nanoparticles can induce mitochondrial dysfunction, promote apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes and macrophages, further reduce the secretion of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, MMP-9), and regulate the inflammatory microenvironment. We also demonstrated similar effects in a rat model of arthritis, in which Lipo/MTX-HSA accumulated in arthritic joints, and at low pH, liposome phospholipid bilayer cleavage released small-sized MTX-HSA, which effectively reduced the number of fibroblast-synoviocytes and macrophages in joints, alleviated joint inflammation, and repaired bone erosion. These findings suggest that microenvironment-responsive size-adjustable nanoparticles show promise as a treatment against rheumatoid arthritis. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Abnormal proliferation of fibroblast synoviocytes poses a physical barrier to effective nanoparticle delivery. We designed size-adjustable nano-delivery systems by preparing liposomes with cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHEM), which were subsequently loaded with small-sized albumin nanoparticles encapsulating the cytotoxic drug MTX (MTX-HSA), termed Lipo/MTX-HSA. Upon tail vein injection, Lipo/MTX-HSA could be aggregated at the site of inflammation via the ELVIS effect in the inflamed joint microenvironment. Specifically, intracellular acidic pH-triggered dissociation of liposomes promoted the release of MTX-HSA, which was further targeted to fibroblasts or across fibroblasts to macrophages to exert anti-inflammatory effects. The results showed that liposomes with adjustable particle size achieved efficient drug delivery, penetration and retention in joint sites; the strategy exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction to promote apoptosis in fibrosynoviocytes and macrophages.

18.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia. The early change of gut microbiota is a potential biomarker for preclinical AD patients. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore changes in gut microbiota characteristics in preclinical AD patients, including those with Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and detect the correlation between gut microbiota characteristics and cognitive performances. METHODS: This study included 117 participants [33 MCI, 54 SCD, and 30 Healthy Controls (HC)]. We collected fresh fecal samples and blood samples from all participants and evaluated their cognitive performance. We analyzed the diversity and structure of gut microbiota in all participants through qPCR, screened characteristic microbial species through machine learning models, and explored the correlations between these species and cognitive performances and serum indicators. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, the structure of gut microbiota in MCI and SCD patients was significantly different. The three characteristic microorganisms, including Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Roseburia inulinivorans, were screened based on the best classification model (HC and MCI) having intergroup differences. Bifidobacterium adolescentis is associated with better performance in multiple cognitive scores and several serum indicators. Roseburia inulinivorans showed negative correlations with the scores of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). CONCLUSION: The gut microbiota in patients with preclinical AD has significantly changed in terms of composition and richness. Correlations have been discovered between changes in characteristic species and cognitive performances. Gut microbiota alterations have shown promise in affecting AD pathology and cognitive deficit.

19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5714, 2024 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459061

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore whether dietary live microbe intake is associated with various cognitive domains using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to 2014. And the specific relationship between low, medium and high dietary live microbe intake groups and cognitive ability of the elderly. Dietary live microbe intake was calculated from 24-h diet recall interviews. Cognitive function was assessed using the number symbol substitution test (DSST, which measures processing speed), the animal fluency test (AFT, which measures executive function), the Alzheimer's Registry sub-test (CERAD, which measures memory), and the Composite Z-score, which adds the Z-values of individual tests. Multiple linear regression models and restricted cubic bar graphs were used to investigate the relationship between live microbe intake and cognitive performance. A total of 2,450 participants aged 60 or older were included. Live microbe intake was positively correlated with cognitive ability on the whole. Specifically, when the intake of low, medium and high live microbe was > 2640 g, > 39 g and > 0 g respectively, the CERAD, DSST, AFT and compositive-Z score of the subjects increased with the increase of microbial intake (P < 0.05). In American adults age 60 or older, higher intakes of live microbes were associated with better cognitive performance, especially after a certain amount was reached.


Assuntos
Cognição , Função Executiva , Adulto , Animais , Idoso , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Modelos Lineares , Rememoração Mental
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...