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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1906905, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003086

RESUMO

Excavating and developing highly efficient and cost-effective nonnoble metal single-atom catalysts for electrocatalytic reactions is of paramount significance but still in its infancy. Herein, reported is a general NaCl template-assisted strategy for rationally designing and preparing a series of isolated transition metal single atoms (Fe/Co/Ni) anchored on honeycomb-like nitrogen-doped carbon matrix (M1 -HNC-T1 -T2 , M = Fe/Co/Ni, T1 = 500 °C, T2 = 850 °C). The resulting M1 -HNC-500-850 with M-N4 active sites exhibits superior capability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with the half-wave potential order of Fe1 -HNC-500-850 > Co1 -HNC-500-850 > Ni1 -HNC-500-850, in which Fe1 -HNC-500-850 shows better performance than commercial Pt/C. Density functional theory calculations reveal a choice strategy that the strong p-d-coupled spatial charge separation results the Fe-N4 effectively merges active electrons for elevating d-band activity in a van-Hove singularity like character. This essentially generalizes an optimal electronic exchange-and-transfer (ExT) capability for boosting sluggish alkaline ORR activity. This work not only presents a universal strategy for preparing single-atom electrocatalyst to accelerate the kinetics of cathodic ORR but also provides an insight into the relationship between the electronic structure and the electrocatalytical activity.

2.
Opt Lett ; 45(3): 762-765, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004304

RESUMO

Slow waves and tunneling waves can meet at the cutoff wavelengths and/or the transmission band edges of optical and quantum mechanical waveguides. The experimental investigation of this phenomenon, previously performed using various optical microstructures, is challenged by fabrication imperfections and material losses. Here, we demonstrate this phenomenon in situ for whispering gallery modes slowly propagating along a standard optical fiber, which possesses a record uniformity and exceptionally small transmission losses. The slow axial propagation dramatically increases the longitudinal wavelength of light and allows us to measure nanosecond-long tunneling times along tunable potential barriers having the width of hundreds of micrometers. This demonstration paves a simple and versatile way to investigate and employ the interplaying slow and tunneling light.

3.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004565

RESUMO

Animal studies have suggested that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important roles in itch transmission. TRPV3 gain-of-function mutations have been identified in patients with Olmsted syndrome which is associated with severe pruritus. However, the mechanisms causing itch remain poorly understood. Here, we show that keratinocytes lacking TRPV3 impair the function of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), resulting in reduced neuronal activation and scratching behavior in response to PAR2 agonists. Moreover, we show that TRPV3 and PAR2 were upregulated in skin biopsies from patients and mice with atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas their inhibition attenuated scratching and inflammatory responses in mouse AD models. Taken together, these results reveal a previously unrecognized link between TRPV3 and PAR2 in keratinocytes to convey itch information and suggest that a blockade of PAR2 or TRPV3 individually or both may serve as a potential approach for antipruritic therapy in AD.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19065, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049806

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate, considering the experiences from Chinese people, if slow transit constipation (STC) can be accurately diagnosed, choosing patients qualifying for surgery, subtotal colectomy with antiperistaltic cecosigmoidal anastomosis (STC-Anti-CSA) may come with more acceptable short and long-term outcomes.A retrospective study was performed at a department of colorectal and anal surgery. A cohort of 29 patients were coming with up to 5 years' follow-up care, who were in a diverse range of age, BMI, laxative medicine histories, including both males and females. Pre-surgery work-up strictly followed a protocol designed to rule out the patients who were not suitable for surgery treatments. Classification of STC was followed after diagnosis. STC-Anti-CSA was performed in all cases. The operative time, blood loss, average post-operative length of stay (LOS), frequency of BMs, stool consistency and patients satisfaction, by using Wexner constipation score (WCS), numerical rating scale (NRS), and abdominal bloating score (ABS), over the study period were recorded.In this study, there were 14 males and 15 females, with mean age 51, and BMI from 20.14 to 31.62 kg/m. The period of laxative medicine history was 4.8 years (2-13 years). The mean operative time was 152 ±â€Š34 min, and the mean perioperative blood loss was 123 ±â€Š51 mL. Average post-operative LOS (LOS) was 8 days. There were no severe post-operative complications, peri-operative mortality, anastomotic leaks, or revisions of the original surgery. Initial post-operative BMs averaged 6 times/day. During the period of 1 month to 12 months follow-up care, BMs fell down to 2 or 3 times/day. By the 1st to 3rd year follow-up care, BMs averaged 5 to 7 times/week. However, from the 4th year to 5th year, constipations recurred somehow. However, most patients were satisfied with their bowel patterns.STC-Anti-CSA can receive acceptable postoperative outcomes as long as the patients can be accurately diagnosed and classified as severe STC. Among the surgical procedures for STC, this procedure may be another suitable option, especially for Chinese people.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Little attention has been paid to heavy metal resistance (HMR) to pathogenic bacteria with the wide use of heavy metals as feed additives in food animals. Therefore, present study was constructed to investigate the presence of HMR in Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and its correlation with disinfectant resistance genes (DRGs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). METHODS: The heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs) of 178 E. coli and 294 Salmonella isolated from chicken farms and retail meats were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of heavy metals were determined by broth micro-dilution method. The complete-genome of E. coli E308 which had indications of multi-resistance was recovered and assembled using third-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Results showed that frequency of different HMRGs in E. coli and Salmonella ranged 0.60 - 77.0% and 0.30 - 87.1%, respectively. MICs of heavy metals for E. coli and Salmonella ranged widely from ≤ 12.5 mg/L to 1600 mg/L. Moreover, the HMRGs (zntA, arsB, merA, pcoR, pcoA, pcoC and chrA) were found to be significantly associated with one or more DRGs (sugE(c), emrE, mdfA, ydgE/ydgF, qacF, sugE(p) and qacEΔ1) and ARGs (sul1, sul2, sul3, tetA, tetB, tetC, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that HMRGs were widely present in E. coli and Salmonella isolated from chicken farm and retail meats, and the association between HMRGs with DRGs and ARGs may lead to the co-resistance of heavy metals and other antimicrobials.

8.
Breast Cancer ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microdochectomy is the gold-standard for definitive diagnosis for pathological nipple discharge (PND); however, problem of over-treating exists since majority of PND are self-limiting and due to benign causes. Ductoscopy may assist diagnosis, and triage patients for intervention or expectant management. This study aimed to evaluate if ductoscopy could reduce unnecessary microdochectomy but not compromising the diagnosis of malignancy. METHOD: A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted in consecutive patients of PND without a suspected malignancy on routine diagnostic evaluation. Ductoscopy was performed with attempts to remove intraductal lesions if they were found. Microdochectomy was carried out if there were positive intraductal lesions, but failed endoscopic extraction, or failed ductoscopy and persistent PND. Efficacy of ductoscopy was determined by cannulation success rate, number of avoided surgery and number of missed malignancy. RESULTS: In a 3-year period between 2016 and 2018, a total of 223 ductoscopy were performed and 94.2% had successful cannulation. Within such, 59.5% (N = 125) had intraductal mass identified, and 82 microdochectomy were carried out. The final histology showed 15 malignancy, making the overall malignancy rate 6.7%. Ductoscopy successful and negative patients (N = 85, 37.8%) were triaged for surveillance and the malignancy rate is 0% in a median follow-up of 2 years; hence, microdochectomy was avoided. CONCLUSION: PND with non-suspicious conventional imaging and negative ductoscopy have rare malignancy rate which makes subsequent microdochectomy unnecessary. However, intraductal mass in ductoscopy is a predictor for malignancy so definitive histology diagnosis is mandatory.

9.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034111

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and diagnostic efficacy of 68Ga-PSMA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with PET-ultrasound image-guided biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 31 patients with previously negative prostate biopsy, but persistent elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), were imaged with a 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT ligand prior to undergoing repeat prostate biopsy. Based on the proposed PROMISE criteria, PSMA PET/CT results were interpreted as negative (miPSMA-ES 0-1) or positive (miPSMA-ES 2-3). All patients underwent standard template systematic biopsy with up to four additional PSMA PET-ultrasound fusion image-guided biopsy cores. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of PSMA PET/CT were determined. In addition, the correlation between miPSMA-ES and detection rate of prostate cancer was also analyzed. Univariate logistic regression models were established using PSMA PET/CT semi-quantitative analysis parameters to predict the outcome of repeat prostate biopsy. Results: The median age of patients was 65 years (range 53-81), and the median PSA level was 18.0 ng/ml (range 5.48-49.77 ng/ml). Prostate cancer was detected in 15/31 patients (48.4%) and 12/31 patients (38.7%) had clinically significant disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer were 100.0%, 68.4%, 66.7%, 100.0% and 80.6%, respectively. The detection rate of prostate cancer increased with the increase of miPSMA-ES score. The detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer in miPSMA-ES 0-1, 2 and 3 groups were 0%, 54.5% and 85.7% respectively. Semi-quantitative analysis of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images showed that predictive models based on maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tumor-to-background normal prostate SUV (SUVT/BGp) and tumor-to-background normal liver SUV (SUVratio) could effectively predict clinically significant prostate cancer; area under the curves were 0.930, 0.877, and 0.956, respectively. Conclusion: This study preliminarily confirmed that 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging combined with PET-ultrasound fusion image-guided prostate biopsy can effectively detect clinically significant prostate cancer. Prebiopsy 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has predictive value for clinically significant cancer in the studied patient population.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 264: 187-192, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health status among both pregnant and postpartum women is commonly reported worldwide. The associations between mental health outcomes and giving birth to the second child since the implementation of China's universal two-child policy have not been identified. METHODS: A large-scale based mental health survey was conducted between March 2017 and December 2018 in Suzhou, China. The survey evaluated the symptoms of anxiety, hypomania, depression and poor sleep quality among both pregnant and postpartum women. RESULTS: A total of 3113 questionnaires were collected, the prevalence of anxiety, hypomanic and depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality in our sample were 3.2% (95%CI: 2.6%-3.9%), 51.7% (95%CI: 49.9%-53.4%), 12.4% (95%CI: 11.3%-13.6%) and 37.8% (95%CI: 36.0%-39.5%), respectively. Logistic regression showed that giving birth to the second child was positively associated with women's age, and was negatively correlated with higher educational level and living in rented housing. Women with the second pregnancy or child were positively associated with anxiety symptoms in the whole sample (OR = 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.75) and among prenatal women (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.16-3.83), while it was inversely correlated with depressive symptoms among postpartum women (OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.41-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Women giving birth a second time were more prone to have anxiety symptoms among the prenatal women and the whole sample, and less likely to have depressive symptoms among the postpartum women. Efficacious measures and interventions are essential to improve maternal mental health.

11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029368

RESUMO

Although the Mobi-C artificial disc and the ROI-C cervical cage have been widely used in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc diseases (CDDD), few reports addressed the features of combined application of both devices. This study is aimed at comparing the clinical and radiological outcomes of treating contiguous two-level CDDD using Mobi-C and ROI-C combined in a hybrid surgery (HS) with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using ROI-C. We reviewed ninety-one patients who underwent HS (n = 48) or ACDF (n = 43) surgery for symptomatic contiguous two-level CDDD. >2 years' clinical and radiological outcomes were reviewed and evaluated retrospectively. At the last follow-up, significant improvement in the mean VAS, JOA, and NDI scores was found both in the HS and ACDF groups (p < 0.05), while the differences between groups were not significant (p > 0.05). The global range of motion (ROM) in the HS group was significantly larger than that in the ACDF group (p < 0.05). The local lordosis improved significantly after surgery in all patients (p < 0.05). Bone resorption and heterotopic ossification (HO) were found after surgery. The result showed that, for the selected patients, HS may provide an alternative approach for the treatment of contiguous two-level CDDD. HS also offers the benefit of both greater global ROM and greater ROM at the Mobi-C index level. Some degree of bone resorption may be an integral component in the early stage of bony fusion in the cage index level. Further studies and long-term follow-up are still needed.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(6): 3748, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022090

RESUMO

Correction for 'Understanding of binding energy calibration in XPS of lanthanum oxide by in situ treatment' by Jerry Pui Ho Li et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2019, 21, 22351-22358.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 52: 102656, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracavernous injection (ICI) of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) has been demonstrated promising for neurogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). However, due to the sponge-like structure of corpus cavernosum (CC) with abundant vessels, ICI was indeed like intravenous injection. Thus, the cell escaping may be a concern of safety and limited therapy, but the issue has not been clearly demonstrated yet. METHODS: Suspensions of free ADSCs (FAs) and ADSCs-based spheroids (ASs) with suitable size were intracavernously injected at doses of 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 million cells. The cell loss and safety after ICI, erectile function and histopathologic change, etc. were analyzed with multimodality of methods. FINDINGS: Most FAs escaped from sponge-like CC after ICI due to their small size, weakening stem-cell therapeutic efficacy. Worse still, the escaped cells were shown to cause widespread pulmonary embolism (PE), and even death in some animals. Further, it was founded that the therapeutic effect of FAs may be ascribed to the larger cell clusters which spontaneously aggregated before ICI and were trapped within CC after ICI. In comparison, cell loss and PE were significantly avoided by transplanting ASs. Importantly, better therapeutic outcomes were detected after ICI of ASs when compared to FAs with the same cell number. INTERPRETATION: Transplantation of size-specific ASs instead of single-cell suspension of FAs for neurogenic ED may be a wiser choice to achieve steady therapeutic outcome and to reduce risks for the future clinical application. FUND: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81701432) (to Y. Xu). Youth Training Project for Medical science (16QNP129) and Beijing Nova Program of science and technology (Z171100001117115) (to Z. Liu).

14.
Langmuir ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045255

RESUMO

Homogeneously mixing multiple metal elements within a single particle may offer new material property functionalities. High entropy alloys (HEA), nominally defined as structures containing 5 or more well-mixed metal elements, are being explored at the nanoscale, but scaleup to enable their industrial application is an extremely challenging problem. Here, we report an aerosol droplet-mediated technique toward scalable synthesis of high entropy alloy nanoparticles with atomic-level mixing of immiscible metal elements. An aqueous solution of metal salts is nebulized to generate ~ 1 µm aerosol droplets, which when subjected to fast heating/quenching, result in decomposition of the precursors and freezing-in of the zero-valent metal atoms. Atomic-level resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that all metal elements in the nanoparticles are homogeneously mixed at the atomic level. We believe this approach offers a facile and flexible aerosol droplet-mediated synthesis technique that will ultimately enable bulk processing starting from a particulate HEA.

15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(1): 014103, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012638

RESUMO

PC software-based portable cyclic voltammetry (PCV) systems have the advantages of portability, high performance, and real-time detection. In this paper, the PCV system used cyclic voltammetry (CV) as the main detection and analysis method and contained the following components: a three-electrode unit, a portable potentiostat, and PC software. The PC software was used as the system control and display, and a dynamic peak position adjustment (DPPA) algorithm for E. coli measurements based on thick biofilm modification on electrodes was designed especially for this system to realize the real-time correspondence between the measured results and the modified electrodes. The performance test results obtained by setting different detection parameters in the PCV system were compared with those of commercial electrochemical workstations. The difference was less than 4.99%, with a relative standard deviation less than 0.20%. An electrochemical biosensor based on a Prussian blue-multiwalled carbon nanotube-gold nanoparticle composite was developed for E. coli detection. After constructing an antibody-BSA-E. coli electrode modification on the sensor, experimental data processed by the DPPA algorithm showed that the logarithm (lg DfE.coli) of the E. coli dilution factor and the peak current response had a linear relationship. The PCV system could quickly and accurately detect E. coli concentrations with dynamic adjustment algorithms for biofilm-modified electrodes. Furthermore, the system could detect the electrochemical activities of various high-sensitivity biomolecules, showing great detection potential for on-site monitoring and meeting the requirements of real-time and portable detection in various food safety fields.

16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 252: 112635, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004629

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Standard therapy for asthma, a highly heterogeneous disease, is primarily based on bronchodilators and immunosuppressive drugs, which confer short-term symptomatic relief but not a cure. It is difficult to discover novel bronchodilators, although potential new targets are emerging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulas have been used to treat asthma for more than 2000 years, forming the basis for representative asthma treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the efficacy of TCM formulas, anti-asthmatic herbal compounds bind proteins are potential targets for asthma therapy. This analysis will provide new drug targets and discovery strategies for asthma therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A list of candidate herbs for asthma was selected from the classical formulas (CFs) of TCM for the treatment of wheezing or dyspnea recorded in Treatise on Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Diseases (TCDMD) and from modern herbal formulas identified in the SAPHRON TCM Database using the keywords "wheezing" or "dyspnea". Compounds in the selected herbs and compounds that directly bind target proteins were acquired by searching the Herbal Ingredients' Targets Database (HITD), TCM Data Bank (TCMDB) and TCM Integrated Database (TCMID). Therapeutic targets of conventional medicine (CM) for asthma were collected by searching Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and PubMed as supplements. Finally, the enriched gene ontology (GO) terms of the targets were obtained using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and protein-protein interactions (PPI) networks were constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING). The effects of two selected TCM compounds, kaempferol and ginkgolide A, on cellular resistance in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and pulmonary resistance in a mouse model were investigated. RESULTS: The list of 32 candidate herbs for asthma was selected from 10 CFs for the treatment of wheezing or dyspnea recorded in TCDMD and 1037 modern herbal formulas obtained from the SAPHRON TCM Database. A total of 130 compounds from the 32 selected herbs and 68 herbal compounds directly bind target proteins were acquired from HITD and TCMDB. Eighty-eight therapeutic targets of CM for asthma were collected by searching TTD and PubMed as supplements. DAVID and STRING analyses showed targets of TCM formulas are primarily related to cytochrome P450 (CYP) family, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ribosomal protein. Both TCM formulas and CM act on the same types of targets or signaling pathways, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), steroid hormone receptors (SHRs), and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The proteins directly targeted by herbal compounds, TRPM8, TRPA1, TRPV3, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP1A1, PPARA, PPARD, NR1I2, MMP1, MMP2, ESR1, ESR2, RPLP0, RPLP1 and RPLP2, are potential targets for asthma therapy. In vitro results showed kaempferol (1 × 10-2 mM) and ginkgolide A (1 × 10-5 mM) significantly increased the cell index (P < 0.05 vs. histamine, n = 3) and therefore relaxed human ASMCs. In vivo results showed kaempferol (145 µg/kg) and ginkgolide A (205 µg/kg) significantly reduced pulmonary resistance (P < 0.05 vs. methacholine, n = 6). CONCLUSION: Potential target discovery for asthma treatment based on the clinical effectiveness of TCM is a feasible strategy.

17.
Food Chem ; 316: 126356, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045810

RESUMO

Fumonisins (FBs) exist widely in crops, foods and feeds. Consumption of FBs contaminated corn can cause oesophageal cancer. So it is necessary to develop sensitivity methods for its detection. Here, we report an enhanced assay for rapid and ultra-sensitive detection of FBs based on nanomagnetic beads (NMBs) and antibody-biotin-streptavidin-HRP. Because antibody-BNHS can bind with several number of streptavidin-HRP, the signal amplification of the catalytical oxidation of TMB was enhanced. The detection limit of sensor was down to 0.21 ng mL-1 with a linear range from 0.31 to 162.42 ng mL-1. Since NMBs provide a nearly "in solution" reaction, they lead to a shortened reaction time (22 min) than that of flat solid-phase based traditional assay. Furthermore, the recoveries obtained by standard FBs spiked to maize samples were from 100.6 to 107.3%. This enhanced assay supplied a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for detection of FBs in maize.

18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 19, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolution of the Jehol Biota of western Liaoning in China includes three phases, initiation in the Dabeigou phase, radiation in the Yixian phase, and decline in the Jiufotang phase. Numerous ephedroid macrofossils were reported from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation. However, so far none has been found in the younger Jiufotang Formation (ca. 120.3 Ma) of western Liaoning. RESULTS: Here we report a new species Jianchangia verticillata gen. et sp. nov. with unusual morphology from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jiufotang Formation, Lamadong Village, Jianchang County, Liaoning. This species is the first record of gnetophytes from the Jiufotang Formation. It is similar to other ephedroid species from the Yixian Formation in possessing linear leaves with parallel veins, jointed shoots with swollen nodes and longitudinally furrowed internodes, and ovulate cones possessing two whorls of bracts enclosing two chlamydosperms, but differs from all known species by the ovulate cone having multiple fine linear verticillate bracts. CONCLUSIONS: This study expands our knowledge about the diversity of early gnetophytes in the Lower Cretaceous, and demonstrates the lineage continuity of gnetophytes from the Yixian Formation to the younger Jiufotang Formation.

19.
Sci Adv ; 6(5): eaax4690, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064335

RESUMO

CCR9+ T cells have an increased potential to be activated and therefore may mediate strong antitumor responses. Here, we found, however, that CCL25, the only chemokine for CCR9+ cells, is not expressed in human or murine triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), raising a hypothesis that intratumoral delivery of CCL25 may enhance antitumor immunotherapy in TNBCs. We first determined whether this approach can enhance CD47-targeted immunotherapy using a tumor acidity-responsive nanoparticle delivery system (NP-siCD47/CCL25) to sequentially release CCL25 protein and CD47 small interfering RNA in tumor. NP-siCD47/CCL25 significantly increased infiltration of CCR9+CD8+ T cells and down-regulated CD47 expression in tumor, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis through a T cell-dependent immunity. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of NP-siCD47/CCL25 was synergistically enhanced when used in combination with programmed cell death protein-1/programmed death ligand-1 blockades. This study offers a strategy to enhance immunotherapy by promoting CCR9+CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration.

20.
Tumori ; : 300891619890232, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe and interpret secular time trends in gallbladder cancer (GBC) incidence, mortality, and diagnostic approach using 37 years of cancer registry data in urban Shanghai. METHODS: Data on registration of GBC in urban Shanghai during 1973 and 2009 were collected by the Shanghai Cancer Registry. To describe time trends and to identify specific time points when significant changes occurred, we used joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of incidence increased from 1.1/100,000 (1973-1975) to 2.9/100,000 (2006-2009) in men and from 1.7/100,000 (1973-1975) to 3.9/100,000 (2006-2009) in women. ASRs of incidence increased significantly with estimated annual percent changes (EAPCs) of 2.8% in men and 2.5% in women. The mortality trends increased significantly, with EAPCs of 2.8% in men and 2.5% in women. The increasing incidence and mortality rates were primarily observed in men ⩾60 years of age and in women ⩾70 years of age. Notable downward trends in incidence and mortality were identified among women age 60-69 years over the last decade. The percentage of GBC diagnosed by pathology increased steadily over the years while the percentage of GBC diagnosed by imaging, surgery, and biochemistry sharply increased from 1987 onwards. CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-seven years of cancer registry data document a tremendous increase in incidence/mortality and a slight decline in incidence/mortality over the last decades for GBC, especially among women, in Shanghai. The development of diagnostic approaches and aging population may play important roles.

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