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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130541, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273855

RESUMO

Penicillium oxalicum has been used as a biocontrol fungus in agriculture for many years, but the antimicrobial substances are still uncertain. Herein, we isolated a linear peptide named Sanxiapeptin in the culture broth of Penicillium oxalicum SG-4 collecting from the Three Gorges riparian zone. Sanxiapeptin exhibited potent inhibitory effect on citrus green mold Penicillium digitatum, the main fungi responsible for postharvest decay. Sanxiapeptin was elucidated as composing of five amino acids, which were ß-amino-α-methoxybutyric acid (Amoba), N-Me-l-Thr, d-Thr, N-Me-l-Val and l-Ser. By analyzing three chemically synthesized oligopeptides with similar structures, we found that the first amino acid of Amoba was crucial to the antifungal activity, as was the methylation of peptide bond. Sanxiapeptin may act as an antimicrobial agent by affecting the function of cell membranes or walls. The antimicrobial spectrum, safety and stability analysis supported that Sanxiapeptin was a promising antifungal agent for citrus preservation.


Assuntos
Citrus , Penicillium , Frutas , Doenças das Plantas
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126731, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339987

RESUMO

Citric acid (CA) is the major exudate of rice roots, yet the effects of CA on arsenic (As) transformation and microbial community in flooded paddy soil have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, microcosms were established by amending CA to As contaminated paddy soils, mimicking the rhizosphere environment. Results showed that 0.5% CA addition significantly enhanced As mobilization after one-hour incubation, increased total As in porewater by about 20-fold. CA addition induced arsenate release into porewater, and subsequently formed ternary complex of As, iron and organic matters, inhibiting further As transformation (including arsenate reduction and arsenite methylation). Furthermore, the results of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) and network analysis revealed that CA addition significantly enriched bacteria associated with arsenic and iron reductions, such as Clostridium (up to 35-fold) and Desulfitobacterium (up to 4-fold). Our results suggest that CA exhibits robust ability to mobilize As through both chemical and microbial processes, increasing the risk of As accumulation by rice. This study sheds light on our understanding of As mobilization and transformation in rhizosphere soil, potentially providing effective strategies to restrict As accumulation in food crops by screening or cultivating varieties with low CA exuding.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Ácido Cítrico , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
Environ Res ; 203: 111873, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411548

RESUMO

A series of rare earth complexes containing (α-PW12O40)3- and PO ligand are synthesized by water bath in 70 °C, [Ln(OPPh3)4(H2O)3](PW12O40)·4CH3CN (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Ho 1-7) (OPPh3 = Triphenylphosphine oxide, {PW12} = phosphotungstic acid). The precise structures are confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction and the result shows all complexes are isostructural. Complexes 1-7 are fully characterized by PXRD, FT-IR, TGA, UV diffuse reflectance spectra and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Complex 3 exhibits the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency for methylene blue (MB) in this series of complexes. The experimental results showed that the photodegradation efficiency can remain constant at the level of 95% after five consecutive cycles. The photocatalytic reaction kinetics and mechanism of complexes were investigated. Additionally, complexes also exhibit photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity. THz-TDS was used to characterize the complexes and its raw materials, the characteristic peaks of OPPh3 (broad peak at 1.20 THz) and phosphotungstic acid (sharp peaks at 0.23, 0.32 THz) were obtained.

4.
Food Chem ; 369: 130929, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488132

RESUMO

A procedure combining supercritical CO2 and ultrasound-assisted (USC-CO2) extraction was developed to obtain rosmarinic acid (RA)-rich extracts from Perilla frutescens. Based on extraction yields and efficiencies, USC-CO2 was considered the best extraction method among the methods studied for obtaining RA from P. frutescens. The constant extraction rate period and the falling extraction rate period for USC-CO2 extraction of P. frutescens were 45 and 96 min long, respectively, and they were significantly shorter than those of traditional SC-CO2 (TSC-CO2) extraction. Furthermore, mass transfer coefficients were derived using the Sovová model for the fluid and solid phases from USC-CO2 extraction, with values of 9.752 × 10-3 and 4.203 × 10-3 min-1, respectively, which were obviously higher than those for TSC-CO2 extraction. Consequently, the theoretical solubilities of RA in the supercritical solvents used in dynamic USC-CO2 and TSC-CO2 extractions were estimated and found to be well correlated using three density-based models.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Perilla frutescens , Extratos Vegetais , Solubilidade , Solventes
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118770, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742452

RESUMO

Because the wound is difficult to heal, repeated bacterial infection will lead to complex clinical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to strengthen the healing process and resist bacterial infection. Hydrogels have many advantages, such as injectability and self-healing under physiological conditions, so they have been widely studied in recent years. Hydrogels can keep the wound moist and promote the wound healing. In addition, the growth of bacteria can be obviously inhibited by hydrogels themself or by doping some antibacterial active substances. Based on this, herein, this review highlighted the preparation and properties of different polysaccharide-based injectable hydrogels, and discuss their biological applications in antibacterial therapy for wound healing in recent years.

6.
Theriogenology ; 177: 1-10, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653791

RESUMO

Chloroquine (CQ) could function as a lysosomotropic agent to inhibit the endolysosomal trafficking in the autophagy pathway, and is widely used on malarial, tumor and recently COVID-19. However, the effect of CQ treatment on porcine immature Sertoli cells (iSCs) remains unclear. Here we showed that CQ could reduce iSC viability in a dose-dependent manner. CQ treatment (20 µM) on iSCs for 36h could elevate oxidative stress, damage mitochondrial function and promote apoptosis, which could be partially rescued by melatonin (MT) (10 nM). Transcriptome profiling identified 1611 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (776 up- and 835 down-regulated) (20 µM CQ vs. DMSO), mainly involved in MAPK cascade, cell proliferation/apoptosis, HIF-1, PI3K-Akt and lysosome signaling pathways. In contrast, only 467 (224 up- and 243 down-regulated) DEGs (CQ + MT vs. DMSO) could be found after MT (10 nM) addition, enriched in cell cycle, regulation of apoptotic process, lysosome and reproduction pathways. Therefore, the partial rescue effects of MT on CQ treatment were confirmed by multiple assays (cell viability, ROS level, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and mRNA levels of selected genes). Collectively, CQ treatment could impair porcine iSC viability by deranging the signaling pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy, which could be partially rescued by MT supplementation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Melatonina , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/veterinária , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Células de Sertoli , Suínos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127040, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474366

RESUMO

Osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) have been applied to enhance removal of antibiotics, however, information on the effects of molecular structures on the behavior of antibiotics is still lacking. Herein, adsorption kinetics, transformation pathways, and membrane rejection mechanisms of OMBRs were investigated by adding two typical antibiotics (i.e., sulfadiazine, SDZ, and tetracycline hydrochloride, TC-HCl). 80.70-91.12% of TC-HCl was removed by adsorption and biodegradation, while 17.50-75.14% of SDZ was removed by membrane rejection; this depended on its concentration due to reduced electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic adsorption. The adsorption capacity of TC-HCl (i.e., 1.34±0.01 mg/g) was significantly higher than that of SDZ (i.e., 0.18±0.03 mg/g) due to enhanced π-π interactions, hydrogen bonding and improved electrostatic interactions. The abundant production of polysaccharide-like substances from TC-HCl biodegradation contributed to microbial metabolism and thus enhanced microbial function during TC-HCl biotransformation. The primary degradation pathways were determined by microbial function analysis, and the primary intermediates from TC-HCl degradation were less toxic than those from SDZ degradation due to the different reactions of amino groups. These results and the corresponding mechanism provide a theoretical foundation for the further development of OMBR technology for highly efficient treatment of antibiotic wastewater.

8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120392, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547686

RESUMO

In this work, nitrogen doped carbon dots (NCDs) were synthesized through one step hydrothermal reaction using citric acid and ethylenediamine as precursors. The prepared NCDs exhibit high quantum yield of 67.4%, good stability, excellent selectivity and sensitivity. It was found that the NCDs have potential as a fluorescence sensor for the detection of Hg2+. Under optimal conditions, good linearity between the change in NCDs fluorescence intensity and Hg2+ concentration was obtained in the range of 0.3 to 2.0 µM with a detection limit at 0.24 µM. The possible detection mechanism was static quenching of NCDs by Hg2+. The established method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg2+ in beverage samples. The results indicated that the NCDs-based sensor has potential for detection of Hg2+ in real beverage sample.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Pontos Quânticos , Bebidas , Carbono , Corantes Fluorescentes , Limite de Detecção , Mercúrio/análise , Nitrogênio , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
9.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 643-648, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380905

RESUMO

It remains unclear whether limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) increase the risk of stroke in older Chinese adults. This longitudinal study used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to investigate the effects of limitations in ADL on the incidence of stroke in older adults. Between 2002 and 2011, 46,728 participants from 22 provinces in China were included in this study. Of participants, 11,241 developed limitations in ADL at baseline. A 3-year follow-up was performed to determine the incidence of stroke. During the 3-year follow-up, 929 participants (8.26%) and 2434 participants (6.86%) experienced stroke in the ADL limitations group and non-ADL limitations group, respectively. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of ADL limitations on the risk of stroke. The results showed that after adjusting for the confounding factors gender, age, weight, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, natural teeth, hearing impairment, visual impairment, smoking, alcohol abuse, exercise, ethnicity, literacy, residential area, and poverty, the ADL limitations group had a 77% higher risk of developing stroke than the non-ADL limitations group. After propensity score matching, the ADL limitations group still had a 33% higher risk of developing stroke than the non-ADL limitations group (OR = 1.326, 95% CI: 1.174-1.497). These findings suggest that limitations in ADL are a stroke risk factor.

10.
Talanta ; 237: 122960, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736685

RESUMO

H2S has been reported to play essential roles in a variety of physiological and pathological procedures. In this work, a novel fluorescent probe, Rho-HS, for detecting H2S was developed by introducing the ortho-halogen to activate the least reactive recognition group 2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety. In combination of the structures from both Rhodamine B and fluorescein, Rho-HS could generate both the colorimetric and fluorescent responses. This feature was not frequently achieved and could lead to the quantitative and convenient for the end-user. In comparison with recent probes for H2S, the major advantages of Rho-HS included suiting wide pH range (6.0-10.0), relatively rapid response (within 15 min) and the high selectivity among the competing species including the biothiols. With low cytoxicity, Rho-HS was further applied in the biological imaging in living MCF-7 cells and Caenorhabditis elegans. We hope that the designing strategy in this work might provide useful information for more preferable implements in this field.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Xantonas , Fluoresceína , Corantes Fluorescentes , Imagem Óptica
12.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(5): 257-265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719610

RESUMO

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration represents the body's reserves of vitamin D, which is mostly used by clinicians to evaluate the storage status of vitamin D in the body. The present study aimed to investigate the serum vitamin D components in different health status of minors to correctly evaluate the vitamin D storage in vivo. A total of 2,270 minors were included in the study, which was divided into healthy group (1,204 cases) and disease group (1,066 cases, including 270 short stature, 433 respiratory infections, 175 malnutrition and 188 tic disorder subjects). The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] were measured by UHPLC-MS/MS in all subjects, and the 25(OH)D3 activity equivalents [25(OH)D3-AE] and 25(OH)D were calculated. In addition, the 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [3-epi-25(OH)D3] concentrations of 278 subjects (including 147 healthy and 131 disease subjects) were measured by random sampling. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3-AE levels in disease group were significantly lower than those in healthy group (p<0.001). According to the level of 25(OH)D, the sufficiency of vitamin D [25(OH)D≥30 ng/mL] was 65.4% in healthy group and 50.5% in disease group. When the 25(OH)D2 activity was converted into 25(OH)D3-AE, 53.2% of the patients in the healthy group had sufficiency vitamin D, and 39.1% in the disease group. The 3-epi-25(OH)D3 level in the disease group was significantly lower than that in the healthy group (p<0.001). Not only the 25(OH)D, but also the both of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 levels may overestimate the vitamin D status in subjects. For accurate evaluation, at least the serum levels of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 should be determined simultaneously.


Assuntos
Menores de Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21740, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741041

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba spp. are opportunistic human pathogens that cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis, and their accurate detection and enumeration in environmental samples is a challenge. In addition, information regarding the genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. using various PCR methods is equally critical. Therefore, considering the diverse niches of habitats, it is necessary to develop an even more efficient genotyping method for Acanthamoeba spp. detection. This study improved the sensitivity of detection to avoid underestimation of Acanthamoeba spp. occurrence in aquatic environmental samples, and to accurately define the pathogenic risk by developing an efficient PCR method. In this study, a new nested genotyping method was established and compared with various PCR-based methods using in silico, lab, and empirical tests. The in silico test showed that many PCR-based methods could not successfully align specific genotypes of Acanthamoeba, except for the newly designed nested PCR and real-time PCR method. Furthermore, 52 water samples from rivers, reservoirs, and a river basin in Taiwan were analysed by six different PCR methods and compared for genotyping and detection efficiency of Acanthamoeba. The newly developed nested-PCR-based method of genotyping was found to be significantly sensitive as it could effectively detect the occurrence of Acanthamoeba spp., which was underestimated by the JDP-PCR method. Additionally, the present results are consistent with previous studies indicating that the high prevalence of Acanthamoeba in the aquatic environment of Taiwan is attributed to the commonly found T4 genotype. Ultimately, we report the development of a small volume procedure, which is a combination of recent genotyping PCR and conventional real-time PCR for enumeration of aquatic Acanthamoeba and acquirement of biologically meaningful genotyping information. We anticipate that the newly developed detection method will contribute to the precise estimation, evaluation, and reduction of the contamination risk of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp., which is regularly found in the water resources utilised for domestic purposes.

14.
Nano Lett ; 21(22): 9410-9418, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730968

RESUMO

By inducing tumor-specific immune responses, tumor vaccines have recently aroused great research interest. Herein, we design a targeted nanovaccine by equipping cell membrane vesicles (CMVs) harvested from tumor cells with functional DNA including CpG oligonucleotide, an agonist for toll-like receptor 9, as well as an aptamer targeting the dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) receptor overexpressed on DCs. Such DNA-modified CMVs could target DCs and further stimulate their maturation. Notably, our nanovaccines could trigger robust antitumor immune responses to effective delay the tumor growth. Moreover, the combination of CMV-based nanovaccines with an immune checkpoint blockade could result in improved therapeutic responses by eliminating the majority of the tumors as well as long-term immune memory to prevent tumor recurrence. Therefore, by simply assembling functional DNA on CMVs harvested from tumor cells, we propose a general platform of DC-targeted personalized cancer vaccines for effective and specific cancer immunotherapy.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 771279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804062

RESUMO

It remains poorly defined whether any human miRNAs play protective roles during HIV infection. Here, focusing on a unique cohort of HIV-infected former blood donors, we identified miR-31 (hsa-miR-31) by comparative miRNA profiling as the only miRNA inversely correlating with disease progression. We further validated this association in two prospective cohort studies. Despite conservation during evolution, hsa-miR-31, unlike its mouse counterpart (mmu-miR-31), was downregulated in human T cell upon activation. Our ex vivo studies showed that inhibiting miR-31 in naïve CD4+ T cells promoted a transcriptional profile with activation signature. Consistent with this skewing effect, miR-31 inhibition led to remarkably increased susceptibility to HIV infection. The suppressive nature of miR-31 in CD4+ T cell activation was pinpointed to its ability to decrease T-bet, the key molecule governing IFN-γ production and activation of CD4+ T cells, by directly targeting the upstream STAT1 transcriptional factor for downregulation, thus blunting Th1 response. Our results implicated miR-31 as a useful biomarker for tracking HIV disease progression and, by demonstrating its importance in tuning the activation of CD4+ T cells, suggested that miR-31 may play critical roles in other physiological contexts where the CD4+ T cell homeostasis needs to be deliberately controlled.

16.
Front Oncol ; 11: 750323, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804937

RESUMO

Chidamide has demonstrated significant clinical benefits for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) PTCL in previous studies. This multi-center observational study was aimed to evaluate the objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety of chidamide. From February 2015 to December 2017, 548 patients with R/R PTCL from 186 research centers in China were included in the study. Among the 261 patients treated with chidamide monotherapy, ORR was 58.6% and 55 patients (21.1%) achieved complete response (CR). Among the 287 patients receiving chidamide-containing combination therapies, ORR was 73.2% and 73 patients (25.4%) achieved CR. The median OS of all patients was 15.1 months. The median OS of patients receiving chidamide monotherapy and combination therapies was 433 and 463 days, respectively. These results demonstrate a significant survival advantage of chidamide treatments as compared with international historical records. Common adverse effects (AEs) were hematological toxicities. Most AEs in both monotherapy and combined treatments were grade 1-2. No unanticipated AEs occurred. In conclusion, chidamide-based therapy led to a favorable efficacy and survival benefit for R/R PTCL. Future studies should explore the potential advantage of chidamide treatment combined with chemotherapy.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Screening for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in asymptomatic adults is not recommended, but patients with new-onset diabetes (NoD) have an eight times higher risk of PDAC than expected. A novel risk-tailored early detection strategy targeting high-risk NoD patients might improve PDAC prognosis. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. METHODS: We compared PDAC early detection strategies targeting NoD individuals ≥ 50 years old at various minimal predicted PDAC risk thresholds vs. standard of care in a Markov state-transition decision model under the healthcare sector perspective using a lifetime horizon. RESULTS: At a willingness to pay (WTP) of $150,000/QALY, the early detection strategy targeting those with a minimum predicted 3-year PDAC risk of 1% was cost-effective (Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio [ICER] $116,911). At a WTP of $100,000/QALY, the early detection strategy at the 2% risk threshold was cost-effective (ICER $63,045). The proportion of PDACs detected at local stage, costs of treatment for metastatic PDAC, utilities of local and regional cancers, and sensitivity of screening were the most influential parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed that at a WTP of $150,000, early detection at the 1.0% risk threshold was favored (30.6%), followed by the 0.5% risk threshold (20.4%) vs. standard of care (1.7%). At a WTP of $100,000, early detection at the 1.0% risk threshold was favored (27.3%) followed by the 2.0% risk threshold (22.8%) vs. standard of care (2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: A risk-tailored PDAC early detection strategy targeting NoD patients with minimum predicted 3-year PDAC risk of 1.0-2.0% may be cost-effective.

18.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 590, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rhomboids are a family of multi-transmembrane proteins, many of which have been implicated in facilitating tumor progression. Little is yet known, however, about rhomboid-associated biomarkers in cancers. An analysis of such biomarkers could yield important insights into the role of the rhomboids in cancer pathology. METHODS: In this study, we carried out the univariate Cox regression analysis and compared gene expression patterns of several rhomboid genes in 30 types of cancers by using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the methods delineated in Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). We then used datasets GSE47032, GSE126964, GSE68417 and 75 paired pathological specimens to verify the influences of the rhomboid genes in cancer progression. Moreover, we carried out Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA) to investigate gene-related functions and we exploited potential correlations between rhomboid genes expression and immune cell infiltration in cancer tissues. Furthermore, we constructed gene-knockdown cancer cell lines to investigate rhomboid gene functions. RESULTS: We find that kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) disease progression is affected by fluctuations in the expression of a number of the rhomboid family of genes and, more specifically, high levels of RHBDF2 gene expression are a good indicator of poor prognosis of the disease, as patients with high RHBDF2 expression levels exhibit less favorable survival rates compared to those with low RHBDF2 levels. Silencing of the RHBDF2 gene in KIRC cell lines leads to significantly diminished cell proliferation and migration; this is in good agreement with the identification of an enhanced presence of a number of cell growth and migration promoting signaling molecules in KIRC tumors. We found that, although high level of RHBDF2 correlated with increased infiltration of lymphocytes in cancer tissues, artificially overexpressed RHBDF2 led to an inhibition of the activity of the infiltrated immune cells through sustaining PD-L1 protein level. Furthermore, we show that RHBDF2 related cell migration and PD-L1 regulation were potentially mediated by EGFR signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: RHBDF2 gene functions are correlated to facilitated renal clear cell carcinoma progression and may serve as a critical prognostic biomarker for the disease.

19.
Investig Clin Urol ; 62(6): 641-649, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729964

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many studies identified that the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (PNLR) was associated with patient prognosis in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We hypothesized that PNLR could be prognostic in patients with histological variants of NMIBC (VH-NMIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with VH-NMIBC admitted at our center between January 2009 and May 2019. The best cut-off value of NLR was measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve and Youden index. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to evaluate the association between PNLR and disease prognosis, including recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 243 patients with VH-NMIBC were enrolled in our study. According to the Kaplan-Meier method results, patients with PNLR ≥2.2 were associated with poor RFS (p<0.001), PFS (p<0.001), CSS (p<0.001), and OS (p<0.001). Multivariable analyses indicated that PNLR ≥ 2.2 was an independent prognostic factor of RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI, 1.57-1.83; p<0.001), PFS (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.70-3.21; p<0.001), CCS (HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.96-4.18; p< 0.001), and OS (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.96-4.07; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that PNLR ≥2.2 was usually associated with a poor prognosis for patients with VH-NMIBC.

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