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1.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 39: 101299, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720913

RESUMO

Introduction: Many breast cancer patients suffer from fear of cancer recurrence (FCR). However, effective physical intervention for FCR has been scarce. Previous studies have confirmed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can help improve patients' anxiety, depression, fear, and stress level. Therefore, this study aims to assess the efficacy of rTMS in the treatment of FCR in breast cancer patients and explore its underlying neural mechanism. Methods and analysis: and analysis: Fifty breast cancer patients with high FCR (FCR total score >27), and fifty age- and gender-matched patients with low FCR (FCR total score <7) will be recruited to participate in this study. Patients in the high FCR group will be randomly assigned to receive 4-week low-frequency rTMS targeting the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) + treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 25), or to receive sham stimulation + TAU (n = 25). Patients in the low FCR group will only receive TAU. All participants will take a baseline fMRI scan to examine the local activities and interactions of brain activity between the prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), amygdala and hippocampus. Fear of Cancer Recurrence Questionnaire (FCRQ7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), Generalize Anxiety Disorder (GAD7), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI7) will be used to measure an individual's FCR, depression, anxiety, pain, and insomnia symptoms at week 0 (baseline), week 4 (the end of intervention), week 5 (1 week post-treatment), week 8 (1 month post-treatment), and week 16 (3 months post-treatment). Participants in the high FCR group will receive a post-treatment fMRI scan within 24 h after intervention to explore the neural mechanisms of rTMS treatment. The primary outcome of the study, whether the rTMS intervention is sufficient in relieving FCR in breast cancer patients, is measured by FCRQ7. Additionally, task activation, local activity and functional connectivity of the DLPFC, amygdala and hippocampus will be compared, between high and low FCR group, and before and after treatment. Discussion: Studies have shown that low-frequency rTMS can be used to treat patient's FCR. However, there is a lack of relevant evidence to support the efficacy of rTMS on FCR in cancer patients, and the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of rTMS on FCR need to be further investigated. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval for the study has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital (reference number: KY-N-2022-136-01). The results of the investigation will be published in scientific papers. The data from the investigation will be made available online if necessary. Trial registration: NCT05881889 (ClinicalTrials.gov). Date of registration: May 31, 2023.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1343820, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751782

RESUMO

The dementia epidemic, attributed to aging populations, represents a growing socio-economic burden. It is estimated that in 2019 about 55 million people worldwide were living with dementia. With many possible causes of dementia and the possibility of mixed dementia combining Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia the question is whether diagnostic uncertainty exists or whether diagnostic constructs based on single etiologies are incorrect. Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID) designates the extent of cognitive dysfunctions from the most benign state to that of dementia, of vascular origin. We reviewed epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on VCID with a focus on VaD, as well as key data on the development of a new therapeutic solution, SaiLuoTong (MLC-SLT). From documentary research executed on different web sources (PubMed, Clintrials.gov, Z-library and Google), our initial selection for the short review of VCID and VaD was based on keywords contained in each paragraph subtitles of this article with exclusion of publications in a language other than English or published before 2010. For the review of SaiLuoTong development, there was just the language exclusion criterion. Sorted by relevance and publication date, 47 references were selected from 140 shortlisted for review. With new evidence-based classification systems, vascular cognitive impairment was proposed as umbrella term covering all forms of cognitive deficits related to vascular causes. The scope of application expanded with the VCID which includes VaD and mixed pathologies. No drugs are approved for the treatment of VaD by major Western regulatory agencies, while some traditional Chinese medicines are registered in China. VCID treatment should have a dual focus: managing the underlying cerebrovascular disease and dementia symptoms. This is the objective set for the development of the MLC-SLT, the essential data of which are reviewed in detail. To strengthen VCID and VaD research, consensus groups should attempt to consolidate scattered local research initiatives into coordinated international programs. In two VaD clinical trials, MLC-SLT improved cognitive symptoms and activities of daily living, with good safety and potential disease-modifying effect. In a placebo-controlled study in 325 patients with mild to moderate VaD and randomized according to a delayed-start design, MLC-SLT demonstrated significant improvement in memory tests and performance in executive function tasks, expanding its place in the management of VCID. At week 26, changes in VADAS-cog scores (SD) from baseline were 23.25 (0.45) for MLC-SLT 180 mg bid), 23.05 (0.45) for MLC-SLT 120 mg bid (both p < 0.0001), and 20.57 (0.45) for placebo (p = 0.15). At week 52, differences between both groups MLC-SLT and placebo were 2.67 and 2.48, respectively (p < 0.0001), without significant difference between MLC-SLT groups.

3.
Science ; 384(6697): 793-798, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753778

RESUMO

Stereoselective construction of γ- and δ-stereocenters in carbonyl compounds is a pivotal objective in asymmetric synthesis. Here, we report chiral bifunctional oxazoline-pyridone ligands that enable enantioselective palladium-catalyzed remote γ-C-H (hetero)arylations of free cycloalkane carboxylic acids, which are essential carbocyclic building blocks in organic synthesis. The reaction establishes γ-tertiary and α-quaternary stereocenters simultaneously in up to >99% enantiomeric excess, providing access to a wide range of cyclic chiral synthons and bioactive molecules. The sequential enantioselective editing of two methylene C-H bonds can be achieved by using chiral ligands with opposite configuration to construct carbocycles containing three chiral centers. Enantioselective remote δ-C-H (hetero)arylation is also realized to establish δ-stereocenters that are particularly challenging to access using classical methodologies.

4.
Anal Chem ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749062

RESUMO

Solid contact (SC) calcium ion-selective electrodes (Ca2+-ISEs) have been widely applied in the analysis of water quality and body fluids by virtue of the unique advantages of easy operation and rapid response. However, the potential drift during the long-term stability test hinders their further practical applications. Designing novel redox SC layers with large capacitance and high hydrophobicity is a promising approach to stabilize the potential stability, meanwhile, exploring the transduction mechanism is also of great guiding significance for the precise design of SC layer materials. Herein, flower-like copper sulfide (CunS-50) composed of nanosheets is meticulously designed as the redox SC layer by modification with the surfactant (CTAB). The CunS-50-based Ca2+-ISE (CunS-50/Ca2+-ISE) demonstrates a near-Nernstian slope of 28.23 mV/dec for Ca2+ in a wide activity linear range of 10-7 to 10-1 M, with a low detection limit of 3.16 × 10-8 M. CunS-50/Ca2+-ISE possesses an extremely low potential drift of only 1.23 ± 0.13 µV/h in the long-term potential stability test. Notably, X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectra and electrochemical experiments are adopted to elucidate the transduction mechanism that the lipophilic anion (TFPB-) participates in the redox reaction of CunS-50 at the solid-solid interface of ion-selective membrane (ISM) and redox inorganic SC layer (CunS-50), thereby promoting the generation of free electrons to accelerate ion-electron transduction. This work provides an in-depth comprehension of the transduction mechanism of the potentiometric response and an effective strategy for designing redox materials of ion-electron transduction triggered by lipophilic anions.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 26(19): 14186-14193, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713092

RESUMO

Cost-effective and readily accessible 3d transition metals (TMs) have been considered as promising candidates for alkane activation while 3d TMs especially the early TMs are usually not very reactive with light alkanes. In this study, the reactivity of Vn+ and VnO+ (n = 1-9) cluster cations towards ethane under thermal collision conditions has been investigated using mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations. Among Vn+ (n = 1-9) clusters, only V3-5+ can react with C2H6 to generate dehydrogenation products and the reaction rate constants are below 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In contrast, the reaction rate constants for all VnO+ (n = 1-9) with C2H6 significantly increase by about 2-4 orders of magnitude. Theoretical analysis evidences that the addition of ligand O affects the charge distribution of the metal centers, resulting in a significant increase in the cluster reactivity. The analysis of frontier orbitals indicates that the agostic interaction determines the size-dependent reactivity of VnO+ cluster cations. This study provides a novel approach for improving the reactivity of early 3d TMs.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 14(9)2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727342

RESUMO

Thermoelectric power can convert heat and electricity directly and reversibly. Low-dimensional thermoelectric materials, particularly thin films, have been considered a breakthrough for separating electronic and thermal transport relationships. In this study, a series of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thin films with thicknesses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 µm have been fabricated by RF sputtering for the study of thickness effects on thermoelectric properties. We demonstrated that microstructure (texture) changes highly correlate with the growth thickness in the films, and equilibrium annealing significantly improves the thermoelectric performance, resulting in a remarkable enhancement in the thermoelectric performance. Consequently, the 0.5 µm thin films achieve an exceptional power factor of 18.1 µWcm-1K-2 at 400 K. Furthermore, we utilize a novel method that involves exfoliating a nanosized film and cutting with a focused ion beam, enabling precise in-plane thermal conductivity measurements through the 3ω method. We obtain the in-plane thermal conductivity as low as 0.3 Wm-1K-1, leading to a maximum ZT of 1.86, nearing room temperature. Our results provide significant insights into advanced thin-film thermoelectric design and fabrication, boosting high-performance systems.

7.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114377, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729733

RESUMO

To clarify the relationship between microorganisms and physicochemical indicators of Xuanwei ham. Six ham samples for the first, second and third year were selected, respectively. The changes of physicochemical properties, the free fatty acids and microbial communities of Xuanwei ham were investigated by GC-MS and high-throughput sequencing technology. Results showed that scores of colour, overall acceptability, texture, taste and aroma were the highest in the third year sample. With increasing ripening time, moisture content, water activity (Aw), lightness (L*), springiness, and resilience decreased continuously, and yellowness (b*) was the highest in the second year sample. 31 free fatty acids were detected, and unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were the major fatty acids. The content of palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid increased significantly during processing. At the phylum level, the dominant bacteria were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and fungi were Ascomycota. At the genus level, the dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter, and fungi were Aspergillus. Correlation analysis showed that water content and Aw were closely related to microorganisms, and most unsaturated fatty acids were significantly correlated with microorganisms. These findings showed that microorganisms played an important role in the quality of Xuanwei ham, and provided a scientific basis for the quality control of Xuanwei ham.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Animais , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bactérias/classificação , Microbiota , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Suínos , Paladar , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Cor , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Carne de Porco/microbiologia , Carne de Porco/análise , Odorantes/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados
8.
Brain Behav ; 14(5): e3532, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders have been proved that they can comorbid more often with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) than general population. However, the potential causal association between these disorders and iNPH has not been assessed. Thus, our study aims to investigate the causal relationship between them based on a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Random effects of the inverse variance weighted (IVW) method were conducted to obtain the causal association among the neurocognitive disorders, psychiatric disorders, and iNPH. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 12 neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders were downloaded via the OpenGWAS database, GWAS Catalog, and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, whereas GWAS data of iNPH were obtained from the FinnGen consortium round 9 release, with 767 cases and 375,610 controls of European ancestry. We also conducted the sensitivity analysis in these significant causal inferences using weighted median model, Cochrane's Q test, MR-Egger regression, MR Pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier detect and the leave-one-out analysis. RESULTS: For most of the neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders, no causal association was established between them and iNPH. We have found that iNPH (odds ratio [OR] = 1.030, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.011-1.048, p = .001) is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, which failed in validation of sensitivity analysis. Notably, genetically predicted Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with increased risk of iNPH (OR = 1.256, 95% CI: 1.045-1.511, p = .015). CONCLUSION: Our study has revealed the potential causal effect in which PD associated with an increased risk of iNPH. Further study is warranted to investigate the association between PD and iNPH and the potential underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/genética , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/genética , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiologia
9.
Radiother Oncol ; 197: 110324, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to identify central symptoms and bridge symptoms among psychiatric disorders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited patients with NPC in Guangzhou, China from May 2022, to October 2022. The General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used for screening anxiety and depression, respectively. Network analysis was conducted to evaluate the centrality and connectivity of the symptoms of anxiety, depression, quality of life (QoL) and insomnia. RESULTS: A total of 2806 respondents with complete GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores out of 3828 were enrolled. The incidence of anxiety in the whole population was 26.5% (depression, 28.5%; either anxiety or depression, 34.8%). Anxiety was highest at caner diagnosis (34.2%), while depression reached a peak at late-stage radiotherapy (48.5%). Both moderate and severe anxiety and depression were exacerbated during radiotherapy. Coexisting anxiety and depression occurred in 58.3% of those with either anxiety or depression. The generated network showed that anxiety and depression symptoms were closely connected; insomnia was strongly connected with QoL. "Sad mood", "Lack of energy", and "Trouble relaxing" were the most important items in the network. Insomnia was the most significant bridge item that connected symptom groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with NPC are facing alarming disturbances of psychiatric disorders; tailored strategies should be implemented for high-risk patients. Besides, central symptoms (sad mood, lack of energy, and trouble relaxing) and bridge symptoms (insomnia) may be potential interventional targets in future clinical practice.

10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(5)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of YSCH-01 (Recombinant L-IFN adenovirus) in subjects with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: In this single-center, open-label, investigator-initiated trial of YSCH-01, 14 patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled. The study consisted of two distinct phases: (1) the dose escalation phase and (2) the dose expansion phase; with three dose groups in the dose escalation phase based on dose levels (5.0×109 viral particles (VP)/subject, 5.0×1010 VP/subject, and 5.0×1011 VP/subject). Subjects were administered YSCH-01 injection via intratumoral injections. The safety was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V.5.0, and the efficacy evaluation was performed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor V.1.1. RESULTS: 14 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 9 subjects in the dose escalation phase and 5 subjects in the dose expansion phase. Of the 13 subjects included in the full analysis set, 4 (30.8%) were men and 9 (69.2%) were women. The most common tumor type was lung cancer (38.5%, 5 subjects), followed by breast cancer (23.1%, 3 subjects) and melanoma (23.1%, 3 subjects). During the dose escalation phase, no subject experienced dose-limiting toxicities. The content of recombinant L-IFN adenovirus genome and recombinant L-IFN protein in blood showed no trend of significant intergroup changes. No significant change was observed in interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma. For 11 subjects evaluated for efficacy, the overall response rate with its 95% CI was 27.3% (6.02% to 60.97%) and the disease control rate with its 95% CI was 81.8% (48.22% to 97.72%). The median progression-free survival was 4.97 months, and the median overall survival was 8.62 months. In addition, a tendency of decrease in the sum of the diameters of target lesions was observed. For 13 subjects evaluated for safety, the overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) was 92.3%, the overall incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was 84.6%, and the overall incidence of >Grade 3 AEs was 7.7%, while no AEs/ADRs leading to death occurred. The most common AEs were fever (69.2%), nausea (30.8%), vomiting (30.8%), and hypophagia (23.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that YSCH-01 injections were safe and well tolerated and exhibited preliminary efficacy in patients with advanced solid tumors, supporting further investigation to evaluate its efficacy and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05180851.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adenoviridae/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779755

RESUMO

Diabetes is closely associated with K+ disturbances during disease progression and treatment. However, it remains unclear whether K+ imbalance occurs in diabetes with normal kidney function. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary K+ intake on systemic K+ balance and renal K+ handling in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The control and STZ mice were fed low or high K+ diet for 7 days to investigate the role of dietary K+ intake in renal K+ excretion and K+ homeostasis, and to explore the underlying mechanism by evaluating K+ secretion-related transport proteins in distal nephrons. K+-deficient diet caused excessive urinary K+ loss, decreased daily K+ balance, and led to severe hypokalemia in STZ mice compared to control mice. In contrast, STZ mice showed an increased daily K+ balance and elevated plasma K+ level under K+-loading conditions. Dysregulation of the NaCl cotransporter (NCC), epithelia Na+ channel (ENaC), and renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK) was observed in diabetic mice fed either low or high K+ diet. Moreover, amiloride treatment reduced urinary K+ excretion and corrected hypokalemia in K+-restricted STZ mice. On the other hand, inhibition of SGLT2 by dapagliflozin promoted urinary K+ excretion and normalized plasma K+ level in K+-supplemented STZ mice, at least partly by increasing ENaC activity. We conclude that STZ mice exhibited abnormal K+ balance and impaired renal K+ handling under either low or high K+ diet, which could be primarily attributed to the dysfunction of ENaC-dependent renal K+ excretion pathway, despite the possible role of NCC.

12.
J Hypertens ; 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Potassium supplementation reduces blood pressure and the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, with K+-induced natriuresis playing a potential key role in this process. However, whether these beneficial effects occur in diabetes remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we examined the impact of high-K+ intake on renal Na+/K+ transport by determining the expression of major apical Na+ transporters, diuretics responses (as a proxy for specific Na+ transporter function), urinary Na+/K+ excretion, and plasma Na+/K+ concentrations in db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Although db/m mice exhibited increased fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) and fractional excretion of potassium (FEK) under high-K+ intake, these responses were largely blunted in db/db mice, suggesting impaired K+-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis in diabetes. Consequently, high-K+ intake increased plasma K+ levels in db/db mice, which could be attributed to the abnormal activity of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3), sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), as high-K+ intake could not effectively decrease NHE3 and NCC and increase ENaC expression and activity in the diabetic group. Inhibition of NCC by hydrochlorothiazide could correct the hyperkalemia in db/db mice fed a high-K+ diet, indicating a key role for NCC in K+-loaded diabetic mice. Treatment with metformin enhanced urinary Na+/K+ excretion and normalized plasma K+ levels in db/db mice with a high-K+ diet, at least partially, by suppressing NCC activity. CONCLUSION: Collectively, the impaired K+-induced natriuresis in diabetic mice under high-K+ intake may be primarily attributed to impaired NCC-mediated renal K+ excretion, despite the role of NHE3.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 359: 14-21, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the association of peripheral inflammation and post-stroke depressive symptomology (PSDS) might provide further insights into the complex etiological mechanism of organic depression. However, studies focusing on the longitudinal patterns of PSDS were limited and it remained unclear whether peripheral inflammation influences the occurrence and development of PSDS. METHODS: A total of 427 prospectively enrolled and followed ischemic stroke patients were included in the analytical sample. Depressive symptomology was assessed on four occasions during 1 year after ischemic stroke. Peripheral inflammatory proteins on admission and repeated measures of peripheral immune markers in three stages were collected. Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was employed to delineate group-based trajectories of peripheral immune markers and PSDS. Multinomial regression was performed to investigate the association of peripheral inflammation with PSDS trajectories. RESULTS: Four distinct trajectories of PSDS were identified: stable-low (n = 237, 55.5 %), high-remitting (n = 120, 28.1 %), late-onset (n = 44, 10.3 %), and high-persistent (n = 26, 6.1 %) PSDS trajectories. The elevation of peripheral fibrinogen on admission increased the risk of high-persistent PSDS in patients with early high PSDS. Additionally, chronic elevation of innate immune levels might not only increase the risk of high-persistent PSDS in patients with early high PSDS but also increase the risk of late-onset PSDS in patients without early high PSDS. The elevation of adaptive immune levels in the convalescence of ischemic stroke may contribute to the remission of early high PSDS. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral immunity could influence the development of PSDS, and this influence might have temporal heterogeneity. These results might provide vital clues for the inflammation hypothesis of PSD.

14.
Ecol Evol ; 14(5): e11393, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746547

RESUMO

Plants can adapt to environmental changes by adjusting their functional traits and biomass allocation. The size and number of flowers are functional traits related to plant reproduction. Life history theory predicts that there is a trade-off between flower size and number, and the trade-off can potentially explain the adaptability of plants. Elevation gradients in mountains provide a unique opportunity to test how plants will respond to climate change. In this study, we tried to better explain the adaptability of the alpine plant Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri in response to climate change. We measured the flower size and number, individual size, and reproductive allocation of G. lawrencei var. farreri during the flowering period along an elevation gradient from 3200 to 4000 m, and explored their relationships using linear mixed-effect models and the structural equation model. We found that with elevation increasing, individual size and flower number decreased and flower size increased, while reproductive allocation remained unchanged. Individual size positively affected flower number, but was not related to flower size; reproductive allocation positively affected flower size, but was not related to flower number; there is a clear trade-off between flower size and number. We also found that elevation decreased flower number indirectly via directly reducing individual size. In sum, this study suggests that G. lawrencei var. farreri can adapt to alpine environments by the synergies or trade-offs among individual size, reproductive allocation, flower size, and flower number. This study increases our understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of alpine plants to climate change in alpine environments.

15.
Regen Ther ; 27: 445-454, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706569

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to investigate the impact of intrauterine adhesions (IUA) therapy and endometrial receptivity by implanting autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into the Interceed and subsequently placing them in the uterine cavity of rats. Methods: Fifty rats were divided into 5 groups according to the random number table method (10 rats in each group). Following the development of the IUA model through mechanical injury, the animals were categorized into different treatment groups: the IUA model (intrauterine perfusion of saline), Interceed therapy (intrauterine placement of Interceed), BMSCs therapy (intrauterine perfusion of BMSCs), BMSCs + Interceed therapy (intrauterine placement of BMSCs + Interceed), and a control group (intrauterine perfusion of saline). The Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining technique was employed to identify and assess the pathological alterations in the endometrium. Additionally, it facilitated the quantification of endometrial glands and the determination of endometrial thickness. Masson staining was used to detect fibrosis in rat uterus. The number of microvascular density (MVD) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the levels of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), integrin ανß3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in uterine tissue. Male and female rats were combined in cages for reproductive and conception evaluation. Results: In comparison to the control, the number of endometrial glands in the IUA model was significantly reduced, and the degree of endometrial thinning and fibrosis was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Compared with the IUA model, the number of endometrial glands did not exhibit any significant alterations in endometrial thickness and MVD number. The expressions of LIF, integrin ανß3, and VEGF in the uterine tissue were not significantly improved with Interceed therapy, resulting in no significant improvement in the pregnancy rate (p > 0.05). The number of endometrial glands, endometrial thickness, and MVD in the BMSCs therapy group were significantly increased. Moreover, the expressions of LIF, integrin ανß3, and VEGF in uterine tissue exhibited a significant increase, leading to a comparatively higher pregnancy rate (p < 0.05). In the BMSCs + Interceed therapy group, the number of endometrial glands, endometrial thickness, and MVD were significantly increased, and the expressions of LIF, integrin ανß3, and VEGF in uterine tissue were significantly increased as well, along with a corresponding rise in the pregnancy rate (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The intrauterine placement of Interceed combined with BMSCs in IUA rats can thicken the damaged endometrium, increase the number of glands, promote endometrial angiogenesis, improve endometrial receptivity, and increase the rate of pregnancy in IUA rats.

16.
Food Sci Anim Resour ; 44(3): 651-661, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765279

RESUMO

Chicken broth has a taste of umami, and the stewing time has an important effect on the quality of chicken broth, but there are fewer studies on the control of the stewing time. Based on this, the study was conducted to analyze the effects of different stewing times on the sensory, small molecular metabolites, free fatty acids, and volatile flavor compounds contents in chicken broths by liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, headspace solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighty-nine small molecular metabolites, 15 free fatty acids, and 86 volatile flavor compounds were detected. Palmitic and stearic acids were the more abundant fatty acids, and aldehydes were the main volatile flavor compounds. The study found that chicken broth had the best sensory evaluation, the highest content of taste components, and the richest content of volatile flavor components when the stewing time was 2.5 h. This study investigated the effect of stewing time on the quality of chicken broth to provide scientific and theoretical guidance for developing and utilizing local chicken.

17.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 192: 65-78, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761989

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is a central contributor to the development of most cardiovascular diseases and is characterised by the reduced synthesis or bioavailability of the vasodilator nitric oxide together with other abnormalities such as inflammation, senescence, and oxidative stress. The use of patient-specific and genome-edited human pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hPSC-ECs) has shed novel insights into the role of endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases with strong genetic components such as genetic cardiomyopathies and pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, their utility in studying complex multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and heart failure poses notable challenges. In this review, we provide an overview of the different methods used to generate and characterise hPSC-ECs before comprehensively assessing their effectiveness in cardiovascular disease modelling and high-throughput drug screening. Furthermore, we explore current obstacles that will need to be overcome to unleash the full potential of hPSC-ECs in facilitating patient-specific precision medicine. Addressing these challenges holds great promise in advancing our understanding of intricate cardiovascular diseases and in tailoring personalised therapeutic strategies.

18.
Fitoterapia ; 176: 106021, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762074

RESUMO

Acanthopanacis Cortex (A.-C) with a long history of more than1000 years, has been used to treat rheumatism effectively. Nineteen diterpenoids have been isolated from A.-C, including six new compounds (1-6). Among them, compounds 7, 9-11, 13, and 17 were discovered from A.-C for the first time. The structures of 1-6 were determined by analyzing their NMR data and comparing their experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Moreover, the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of 1, 2, 8, and 14 were provided. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1-5 and 7-18 on neutrophil elastase, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been studied in vitro, and the results showed that 15 had almost no inhibitory effects on COX-1 at 200 µM but a significant activity against COX-2 with an IC50 of 0.73 ± 0.006 µΜ. It indicated that compound 15 can provide valuable information for the design of selective COX-2 inhibitors.

19.
Res Sq ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766197

RESUMO

Reducing fibrous aggregates of protein tau is a possible strategy for halting progression of Alzheimer's dis-ease (AD). Previously we found that in vitro the D-peptide D-TLKIVWC disassembles tau fibrils from AD brains (AD-tau) into benign segments with no energy source present beyond ambient thermal agitation. This disassembly by a short peptide was unexpected, given that AD-tau is sufficiently stable to withstand disas-sembly in boiling SDS detergent. To consider D peptide-mediated disassembly as a potential therapeutic for AD, it is essential to understand the mechanism and energy source of the disassembly action. We find as-sembly of D-peptides into amyloid-like fibrils is essential for tau fibril disassembly. Cryo-EM and atomic force microscopy reveal that these D-peptide fibrils have a right-handed twist and embrace tau fibrils which have a left-handed twist. In binding to the AD-tau fibril, the oppositely twisted D-peptide fibril produces a strain, which is relieved by the disassembly of both fibrils. This strain-relief mechanism appears to operate in other examples of amyloid fibril disassembly and provides a new direction for the development of first-in-class therapeutics for amyloid diseases.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 930: 172484, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631636

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in freshwater systems has garnered increasing attention. A comprehensive analysis of the migration patterns, bioaccumulation, and consumer health risk of EDCs along the Xiangjiang River due to fish consumption from the river ecosystem was provided. Twenty natural and synthetic target EDCs were detected and analyzed from the water, sediments, and fish samples collected along the Xiangjiang River. There were significant correlations between the EDC concentrations in fish and the sediments. This revealed that EDCs in sediments play a dominant role in the uptake of EDCs by fish. The bioaccumulation factor and biota-sediment accumulation factor were calculated, with the highest values observed for nonylphenol. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that bisphenol A is the most reliable biological indicator of EDC contamination in fish. Furthermore, based on the threshold of toxicological concerns and the health risk with dietary intake, crucian carp and catfish from the Xiangjiang River pose a certain risk for children and pregnant women compared to grass carp. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicated a certain risk of cumulative ∑EDC exposure for local residents due to fish consumption.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Rios/química , Animais , Humanos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , China , Medição de Risco , Bioacumulação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
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