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1.
Plant Methods ; 20(1): 70, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytophthora sojae, a soil-borne oomycete pathogen, has been a yield limiting factor for more than 60 years on soybean. The resurgence of P. sojae (Phytophthora sojae) is primarily ascribed to the durable oospores found in soil and remnants of the disease. P. sojae is capable of infesting at any growth periods of the soybean, and the succeed infestation of P. sojae is predominantly attributed to long-lived oospores present in soil. Comprehending the molecular mechanisms that drive oospores formation and their significance in infestation is the key for effective management of the disease. However, the existing challenges in isolating and extracting significant quantities of oospores pose limitations in investigating the sexual reproductive stages of P. sojae. RESULTS: The study focused on optimizing and refining the culture conditions and extraction process of P. sojae, resulting in establishment of an efficient and the dependable method for extraction. Novel optimized approach was yielded greater quantities of high-purity P. sojae oospores than traditional methods. The novel approach exceeds the traditional approaches with respect to viability, survival ability, germination rates of new oospores and the pathogenicity of oospores in potting experiments. CONCLUSION: The proposed method for extracting P. sojae oospores efficiently yielded a substantial quantity of highly pure, viable, and pathogenic oospores. The enhancements in oospores extraction techniques will promote the research on the sexual reproductive mechanisms of P. sojae and lead to the creation of innovative and effective approaches for managing oomycete diseases.

2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4318, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773067

RESUMO

Neural circuits with specific structures and diverse neuronal firing features are the foundation for supporting intelligent tasks in biology and are regarded as the driver for catalyzing next-generation artificial intelligence. Emulating neural circuits in hardware underpins engineering highly efficient neuromorphic chips, however, implementing a firing features-driven functional neural circuit is still an open question. In this work, inspired by avoidance neural circuits of crickets, we construct a spiking feature-driven sensorimotor control neural circuit consisting of three memristive Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. The ascending neurons exhibit mixed tonic spiking and bursting features, which are used for encoding sensing input. Additionally, we innovatively introduce a selective communication scheme in biology to decode mixed firing features using two descending neurons. We proceed to integrate such a neural circuit with a robot for avoidance control and achieve lower latency than conventional platforms. These results provide a foundation for implementing real brain-like systems driven by firing features with memristive neurons and put constructing high-order intelligent machines on the agenda.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neurônios , Robótica , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia
3.
Cancer Lett ; 592: 216923, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697462

RESUMO

Liver metastasis is common in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC), imposing a significant challenge in clinical management and serving as a poor prognostic indicator. However, the mechanisms underlying liver metastasis remain largely unknown. Here, we report a crucial role of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) in liver metastasis of GBC. TAT is frequently up-regulated in GBC tissues. Increased TAT expression is associated with frequent liver metastasis and poor prognosis of GBC patients. Overexpression of TAT promotes GBC cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as liver metastasis in vivo. TAT knockdown has the opposite effects. Intriguingly, TAT promotes liver metastasis of GBC by potentiating cardiolipin-dependent mitophagy. Mechanistically, TAT directly binds to cardiolipin and leads to cardiolipin externalization and subsequent mitophagy. Moreover, TRIM21 (Tripartite Motif Containing 21), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with TAT. The histine residues 336 and 338 at TRIM21 are essential for this binding. TRIM21 preferentially adds the lysine 63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains on TAT principally at K136. TRIM21-mediated TAT ubiquitination impairs its dimerization and mitochondrial location, subsequently inhibiting tumor invasion and migration of GBC cells. Therefore, our study identifies TAT as a novel driver of GBC liver metastasis, emphasizing its potential as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Ribonucleoproteínas , Ubiquitinação , Humanos , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Feminino , Mitofagia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 60(42): 5514-5517, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693792

RESUMO

In this study, we propose a novel therapy system composed of UiO-66 nanoparticles, which contain quercetin combined with chloroquine (UQCNP), to achieve dual autophagy-ubiquitination blockade. Through UiO-66 NP drug loading, the solubility of quercetin (a proteasome inhibitor) was improved under physiological conditions, thereby increasing its effective concentration at the tumor site. The cell experiment results showed that UQCNP significantly increased the apoptosis rate of 4T1 cells by 73.6%, which was significantly higher than other groups. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the autophagosome of cells in the UQCNP treatment group was significantly lower than that in other treatment groups. Moreover, western blot results showed that, compared with other groups, LC3 expression and proteasome activity (p < 0.01), as well as the tumor volume of mice treated with UQCNP (p < 0.01) were significantly reduced. These results indicate that UQCNP achieves effective tumor therapy by blocking the autophagy and proteasome pathways synchronously.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Cloroquina , Nanopartículas , Quercetina , Ubiquitinação , Quercetina/farmacologia , Quercetina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cloroquina/química , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Humanos
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1325908, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720896

RESUMO

Objective: Previous studies reported possible connections between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and several neurodegenerative disorders. However, the comprehensive relationships between IBD and various neurodegenerative disorders were not summarized. We executed a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies to provide an estimate of the strength of the two-directional prospective association between IBD and neurodegenerative disorders. Methods: We accomplished a thorough bibliographic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases until June 2023 to locate relevant longitudinal studies. The extracted data were then analyzed via meta-analysis using either a fixed or random effects model. Results: The final analysis encompassed 27 studies. Individuals with IBD faced an increased risk of developing four neurodegenerative disorders than the general public, namely, Alzheimer's disease (hazard ratio[HR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.77, P=0.031), dementia (HR =1.24, 95% CI: 1.13-1.36, P<0.001), multiple sclerosis (HR =2.07, 95% CI:1.42-3.02, P<0.001) and Parkinson's disease (HR =1.23, 95% CI:1.10-1.38, P<0.001). Two articles reported an increased incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or multiple system atrophy in IBD patients. Three studies investigated the prospective association between multiple sclerosis and IBD, revealing an elevated risk of the latter in patients with the former. (HR=1.87, 95% CI:1.66-2.10, P<0.001). Interpretation: These findings verified the two-directional relationship between the brain-gut axis, specifically demonstrating a heightened risk of various neurodegenerative diseases among IBD patients. It may be profitable to prepare screening strategies for IBD patients to find neurodegenerative diseases during the long-term course of treatment for IBD with a view to potential earlier diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, reducing public health and social burden. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42023437553).


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
J Org Chem ; 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805026

RESUMO

Activation of O-glycosyl trihaloacetimidate glycosyl donors with AuCl3 as a catalyst and pivalonitrile (tBuCN) as a ligand led to excellent glycosidation results in terms of yield and anomeric selectivity. In this way, various ß-d-gluco- and ß-d-galactopyranosides were obtained conveniently and efficiently. Experimental studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, in order to elucidate the reaction course, support formation of the tBuCN-AuCl2-OR(H)+ AuCl4- complex as a decisive intermediate in the glycosidation event. Proton transfer from this acceptor complex to the imidate nitrogen leads to donor activation. In this way, guided by the C-2 configuration of the glycosyl donor, the alignment of the acceptor complex enforces the stereoselective ß-glycoside formation in an intramolecular fashion, thus promoting also a fast reaction course. The high stereocontrol of this novel 'Lewis acid-nitrile cooperative effect' is independent of the glycosyl donor anomeric configuration and without the support of neighboring group or remote group participation. The power of the methodology is shown by a successful glycoalkaloid solamargine synthesis.

7.
Redox Biol ; 73: 103143, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) can serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the efficacy of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) may play a crucial role in KOA pain as well as in the progression of the pathology. OBJECTIVE: By analyzing the GSE29746 dataset and collecting synovial samples from patients with different Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades for validation, we focused on exploring the potential effect of LXA4 on ferroptosis in FLSs through the ESR2/LPAR3/Nrf2 axis to alleviate pain and pathological advancement in KOA. METHODS: The association between FLSs ferroptosis and chondrocyte matrix degradation was explored by cell co-culture. We overexpressed and knocked down LPAR3 in vitro to explore its potential mechanism in FLSs. A rat model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced KOA was constructed and intervened with moderate-intensity treadmill exercise and intraperitoneal injection of PHTPP to investigate the effects of the LXA4 intracellular receptor ESR2 on exercise therapy. RESULTS: ESR2, LPAR3, and GPX4 levels in the synovium decreased with increasing KL grade. After LXA4 intervention in the co-culture system, GPX4, LPAR3, and ESR2 were upregulated in FLSs, collagen II was upregulated in chondrocytes, and MMP3 and ADAM9 were downregulated. LPAR3 overexpression upregulated the expression of GPX4, Nrf2, and SOD1 in FLSs, while downregulating the expression of MMP13 and MMP3; LPAR3 knockdown reversed these changes. Moderate-intensity platform training improved the behavioral manifestations of pain in KOA rats, whereas PHTPP treatment partially reversed the improvement in synovial and cartilage pathologies induced by platform training. CONCLUSION: LXA4 inhibited FLSs ferroptosis by activating the ESR2/LPAR3/Nrf2 axis, thereby alleviating the pain and pathological progression of KOA. This study brings a new target for the treatment of KOA and also leads to a deeper understanding of the potential mechanisms of exercise therapy for KOA.

8.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 142, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidences shows that the ubiquitin‒proteasome pathway plays a pivotal role in tumor progression. The expression of 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 9 (PSMD9) is correlated with recurrence and radiotherapy resistance in several tumor types. However, the role and mechanism of PSMD9 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain largely unclear. METHODS: PSMD9 was identified as a prognosis-related biomarker for HCC based on analysis of clinical characteristics and RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the JP Project of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC-LIRI-JP). PSMD9 expression was analyzed in cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues via immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Multiple in vivo and in vitro experimental techniques (such as CCK-8, colony formation, EdU, and Transwell assays; flow cytometry; Western blotting; quantitative RT-PCR; Coimmunoprecipitation assay and immunofluorescence confocal imaging) were used to assess the functions of PSMD9 in the pathogenesis of HCC. RESULTS: We found that the expression of PSMD9 was upregulated and associated with a poor prognosis in HCC patients. PSMD9 promoted HCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. Knockdown of PSMD9 significantly inhibited HCC cell proliferation by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that PSMD9 promoted HCC cell proliferation and metastasis via direct interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, suppresses EGFR ubiquitination, influenced EGFR endosomal trafficking and degradation and subsequently activated ERK1/2 and Akt signaling. In addition, we showed that PSMD9 knockdown sensitized HCC cells to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicate that PSMD9 drives HCC progression and erlotinib resistance by suppressing c-Cbl mediated EGFR ubiquitination and therefore can be a potential therapeutic target for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/genética , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Prognóstico , Camundongos Nus , Apoptose , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento Celular
9.
ACS Nano ; 18(21): 13885-13898, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757565

RESUMO

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), characterized by pancreatic acinar cell death, currently lacks effective targeted therapies. Ellagic acid (EA), rich in pomegranate, shows promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in SAP treatment. However, the roles of other forms of EA, such as plant extracellular vesicles (EVs) extracted from pomegranate, and Urolithin A (UA), converted from EA through gut microbiota metabolism in vivo, have not been definitively elucidated. Our research aimed to compare the effects of pomegranate-derived EVs (P-EVs) and UA in the treatment of SAP to screen an effective formulation and to explore its mechanisms in protecting acinar cells in SAP. By comparing the protective effects of P-EVs and UA on injured acinar cells, UA showed superior therapeutic effects than P-EVs. Subsequently, we further discussed the mechanism of UA in alleviating SAP inflammation. In vivo animal experiments found that UA could not only improve the inflammatory environment of pancreatic tissue and peripheral blood circulation in SAP mice but also revealed that the mechanism of UA in improving SAP might be related to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the results including pancreatic tissue transcriptomics and transmission electron microscopy. Further research found that UA could regulate ER-mitochondrial calcium channels and reduce pancreatic tissue necroptosis. In vitro experiments of mouse pancreatic organoids and acinar cells also confirmed that UA could improve pancreatic inflammation by regulating the ER-mitochondrial calcium channel and necroptosis pathway proteins. This study not only explored the therapeutic effect of plant EVs on SAP but also revealed that UA could alleviate SAP by regulating ER-mitochondrial calcium channel and reducing acinar cell necroptosis, providing insights into the pathogenesis and potential treatment of SAP.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos , Retículo Endoplasmático , Mitocôndrias , Pancreatite , Animais , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/química , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Pancreatite/patologia , Camundongos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Punica granatum/química , Células Acinares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Células Acinares/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/química
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Both nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are prevalent worldwide. The effects of concomitant NAFLD on the risk of colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) and its mechanisms have not been definitively elucidated. METHODS: We observed the effect of concomitant NAFLD on CRLM in the mouse model and explored the underlying mechanisms of specific myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment and then tested the therapeutic application based on the mechanisms. Finally we validated our findings in the clinical samples. RESULTS: Here we prove that in different mouse models, NAFLD induces F4/80+ Kupffer cells to secret chemokine CXCL5 and then recruits CXCR2+ MDSCs to promote the growth of CRLM. CRLM with NAFLD background is refractory to the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody treatment, but when combined with Reparixin, an inhibitor of CXCR1/2, dual therapy cures the established CRLM in mice with NAFLD. Our clinical studies also indicate that fatty liver diseases increase the infiltration of CXCR2+ MDSCs, as well as the hazard of liver metastases in CRC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings highlight the significance of selective CXCR2+/CD11b+/Gr-1+ subset myeloid cells in favoring the development of CRLM with NAFLD background and identify a pharmaceutical medicine that is already available for the clinical trials and potential treatment.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118305, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729536

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Coptidis rhizoma, first recorded in the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", is one of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used to treat infectious diseases, with reputed effectiveness against oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Studies have demonstrated the inhibitory properties of C. rhizoma (CRE) against Candida albicans, yet there is limited information available regarding its treatment mechanism for OPC. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our previous research has suggested that CRE can prevent the formation of C. albicans hyphae and their invasion of the oral mucosa, thereby exerting a therapeutic effect on OPC. Nevertheless, the precise therapeutic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Previous studies have revealed that a receptor for globular heads of C1q (gC1qR), a crucial co-receptor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), facilitates the EGFR-mediated internalization of C. albicans. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the potential mechanism of action of CRE and its primary component, berberine (BBR), in treating OPC by exploring their effects on the gC1qR-EGFR co-receptor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify the chemical components of CRE, we utilized Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MSE), revealing the presence of at least 18 distinct components. To observe the therapeutic effects of CRE on OPC at the animal level, we employed hematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid-Schiff staining, scanning electron microscopy, and fungal load detection. Subsequently, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of CRE and its main component, BBR, in treating OPC. This was achieved through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) both at the animal and cellular levels. Additionally, we assessed the ability of C. albicans to disrupt the epithelial barrier of FaDu cells by studying the protective effects of BBR on the fusion barrier using the transwell assay. To further explore the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the effects of BBR on the gC1qR-EGFR/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Fos signaling pathway at the cellular level using qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, we validated the effects of BBR on the gC1qR-EGFR co-receptor through ELISA, qRT-PCR, and western blotting. Finally, to confirm the outcomes observed at the cellular level, we validated the impact of CRE on the gC1qR-EGFR co-receptor in vivo using qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. These comprehensive methods allowed us to gain a deeper understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of CRE and BBR in treating OPC. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that CRE and its primary component, BBR, effectively alleviated the symptoms of OPC by modulating the gC1qR-EGFR co-receptor. The chemical composition of CRE and BBR was accurately identified using UPLC-Q/TOF-MSE. The gC1qR-EGFR co-receptor plays a crucial role in regulating downstream signaling pathways, emerging as a potential therapeutic target for OPC treatment. Through both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we explored the therapeutic potential of CRE and BBR in OPC. Additionally, we employed overexpression and silencing techniques to confirm that BBR can indeed influence the gC1qR-EGFR co-receptor and regulate the gC1qR-EGFR/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos signaling pathway, leading to improved OPC outcomes. Furthermore, the significance of CRE's effect on the gC1qR-EGFR co-receptor was validated in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that CRE and its main component, BBR, can effectively alleviate OPC symptoms by targeting the gC1qR-EGFR heterodimer receptor. This discovery offers a promising new therapeutic approach for the treatment of OPC.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Candidíase Bucal , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Células Epiteliais , Receptores ErbB , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Berberina/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Linhagem Celular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Coptis chinensis
12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202403066, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752880

RESUMO

Pure aromatic hydrocarbon materials (PHC) represent a new generation of host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs), free of heteroatoms. They reduce the molecular complexity, can be easily synthesized and are an important direction towards robust devices. As heteroatoms can be involved in bonds dissociations in operating OLEDs through exciton induced degradation process, developing novel PHCs appear particularly relevant for the future of this technology. In the present work, we report a series of extended PHCs constructed on the assembly of three spirobifluorene fragments. The resulting positional isomers present a high triplet energy level, a wide HOMO/LUMO difference and improved thermal and morphological properties compared to previously reported PHCs. These characteristics are beneficial for the next generation of host materials for PhOLEDs and provide relevant design guidelines. Used as host in blue-emitting PhOLEDs, which are still the weakest link of the field, a very high EQE of 24 % and low threshold voltage of 3.56 V were obtained with a low-efficiency roll-off. This high performance strengthens the position of PHC strategy as an efficient alternative for OLED technology and opens the way to a more simple electronic.

13.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2351620, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738766

RESUMO

Gut microbiota plays an essential role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the contribution of individual bacterial strains and their metabolites to childhood NAFLD pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Herein, the critical bacteria in children with obesity accompanied by NAFLD were identified by microbiome analysis. Bacteria abundant in the NAFLD group were systematically assessed for their lipogenic effects. The underlying mechanisms and microbial-derived metabolites in NAFLD pathogenesis were investigated using multi-omics and LC-MS/MS analysis. The roles of the crucial metabolite in NAFLD were validated in vitro and in vivo as well as in an additional cohort. The results showed that Enterococcus spp. was enriched in children with obesity and NAFLD. The patient-derived Enterococcus faecium B6 (E. faecium B6) significantly contributed to NAFLD symptoms in mice. E. faecium B6 produced a crucial bioactive metabolite, tyramine, which probably activated PPAR-γ, leading to lipid accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. Moreover, these findings were successfully validated in an additional cohort. This pioneering study elucidated the important functions of cultivated E. faecium B6 and its bioactive metabolite (tyramine) in exacerbating NAFLD. These findings advance the comprehensive understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and provide new insights for the development of microbe/metabolite-based therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Tiramina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Camundongos , Criança , Tiramina/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/microbiologia , Obesidade Infantil/microbiologia , Obesidade Infantil/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 135: 112283, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772299

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in mediating immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), as well as facilitating apoptotic cell (ACs) clearance (efferocytosis), thus contributing significantly to maintaining homeostasis and promoting tissue resolution. In this study, we investigate the impact of TLR agonists on macrophage efferocytosis. Our findings demonstrate that pretreatment with the TLR agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly enhances macrophage phagocytic ability, thereby promoting efferocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, LPS pretreatment confers tissue protection against damage by augmenting macrophage efferocytic capacity in murine models. Further examination reveals that LPS modulates efferocytosis by upregulating the expression of Tim4.These results underscore the pivotal role of TLR agonists in regulating the efferocytosis process and suggest potential therapeutic avenues for addressing inflammatory diseases. Overall, our study highlights the intricate interplay between LPS pretreatment and efferocytosis in maintaining tissue homeostasis and resolving inflammation.

15.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2355353, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the incidence and prognosis of malignancy in individuals with thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A)-associated membranous nephropathy (MN). METHODS: First, we performed a systematic literature review of prevalence of malignancy in THSD7A-associated MN. Then, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 454 patients diagnosed with MN through renal biopsy at our hospital between January 2016 and December 2020. We assessed the presence of serum anti-THSD7A antibodies and performed immunohistochemical staining of renal tissue for THSD7A. Subsequently, we followed patients with THSD7A-associated MN for a minimum of 3-5 years, collecting their clinical, pathological characteristics, and prognosis. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on patients with THSD7A-associated MN in conjunction with malignancy. RESULTS: We identified a total of nine articles containing comprehensive data on THSD7A-associated MN and malignancy. Among 235 patients with THSD7A-positive MN, 36 individuals had concurrent malignancies, resulting in a malignancy prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 8.9-17.7%). In our center, we followed up with 15 patients diagnosed with THSD7A-associated MN and observed three cases of concomitant tumors: two cases of lung adenocarcinoma and one case of small cell lung cancer with multiple metastases. The prevalence of malignancy in our cohort was 20%. Notably, we detected positive THSD7A staining in both renal and lung cancer tissues in one patient with small cell lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with THSD7A-associated MN should undergo vigilant follow-up assessments, with a particular focus on actively seeking potential tumorigenic lesions to prevent misdiagnosis or oversight.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Trombospondinas , Humanos , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Trombospondinas/imunologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Adulto , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Rim/patologia
16.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712084

RESUMO

The melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) comprise a subset of the ∼40 retinal ganglion cell types in the mouse retina and drive a diverse array of light-evoked behaviors from circadian photoentrainment to pupil constriction to contrast sensitivity for visual perception. Central to the ability of ipRGCs to control this diverse array of behaviors is the distinct complement of morphophysiological features and gene expression patterns found in the M1-M6 ipRGC subtypes. However, the genetic regulatory programs that give rise to subtypes of ipRGCs are unknown. Here, we identify the transcription factor Brn3b (Pou4f2) as a key genetic regulator that shapes the unique functions of ipRGC subtypes and their diverse downstream visual behaviors.

17.
Exp Cell Res ; 439(1): 114074, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710403

RESUMO

Ferroptosis inhibits tumor progression in pancreatic cancer cells, while PITX2 is known to function as a pro-oncogenic factor in various tumor types, protecting them from ferroptosis and thereby promoting tumor progression. In this study, we sought to investigate the regulatory role of PITX2 in tumor cell ferroptosis within the context of pancreatic cancer. We conducted PITX2 knockdown experiments using lentiviral infection in two pancreatic cancer cell lines, namely PANC-1 and BxPC-3. We assessed protein expression through immunoblotting and mRNA expression through RT-PCR. To confirm PITX2 as a transcription factor for GPX4, we employed Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Dual-luciferase assays. Furthermore, we used flow cytometry to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis and employed confocal microscopy to assess mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, electron microscopy was used to observe mitochondrial structural changes and evaluate PITX2's regulation of ferroptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings demonstrated that PITX2, functioning as a transcription factor for GPX4, promoted GPX4 expression, thereby exerting an inhibitory effect on ferroptosis in pancreatic cancer cells and consequently promoting tumor progression. Moreover, PITX2 enhanced the invasive and migratory capabilities of pancreatic cancer cells by activating the WNT signaling pathway. Knockdown of PITX2 increased ferroptosis and inhibited the proliferation of PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Notably, the inhibitory effect on ferroptosis resulting from PITX2 overexpression in these cells could be countered using RSL3, an inhibitor of GPX4. Overall, our study established PITX2 as a transcriptional regulator of GPX4 that could promote tumor progression in pancreatic cancer by reducing ferroptosis. These findings suggest that PITX2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for combating ferroptosis in pancreatic cancer.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719955

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive fatal disease with no cure. Canagliflozin (CANA), a novel medication for diabetes, has been found to have remarkable cardiovascular benefits. However, few studies have addressed the effect and pharmacological mechanism of CANA in the treatment of PH. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effect and pharmacological mechanism of CANA in treating PH. First, CANA suppressed increased pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling in both mouse and rat PH models. Network pharmacology, transcriptomics, and biological results suggested that CANA could ameliorate PH by suppressing excessive oxidative stress and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation partially through the activation of PPARγ. Further studies demonstrated that CANA inhibited phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser225 (a novel serine phosphorylation site in PPARγ), thereby promoting the nuclear translocation of PPARγ and increasing its ability to resist oxidative stress and proliferation. Taken together, our study not only highlighted the potential pharmacological effect of CANA on PH but also revealed that CANA-induced inhibition of PPARγ Ser225 phosphorylation increases its capacity to counteract oxidative stress and inhibits proliferation. These findings may stimulate further research and encourage future clinical trials exploring the therapeutic potential of CANA in PH treatment.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202320014, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598078

RESUMO

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are widely used as important ingredients for other nitrogen-containing molecules. Here, we report the sustainable production of amino acids from biomass-derived hydroxy acids with high activity under visible-light irradiation and mild conditions, using atomic ruthenium-promoted cadmium sulfide (Ru1/CdS). On a metal basis, the optimized Ru1/CdS exhibits a maximal alanine formation rate of 26.0 molAla ⋅ gRu -1 ⋅ h-1, which is 1.7 times and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of its nanoparticle counterpart and the conventional thermocatalytic process, respectively. Integrated spectroscopic analysis and density functional theory calculations attribute the high performance of Ru1/CdS to the facilitated charge separation and O-H bond dissociation of the α-hydroxy group, here of lactic acid. The operando nuclear magnetic resonance further infers a unique "double activation" mechanism of both the CH-OH and CH3-CH-OH structures in lactic acid, which significantly accelerates its photocatalytic amination toward alanine.

20.
Opt Express ; 32(7): 12012-12023, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571036

RESUMO

We demonstrated a narrow linewidth semiconductor laser based on a deep-etched sidewall grating active distributed Bragg reflector (SG-ADBR). The coupling coefficients and reflectance were numerically simulated for deep-etched fifth-order SG-ADBR, and a reflectance of 0.86 with a bandwidth of 1.04 nm was obtained by the finite element method for a 500-period SG-ADBR. Then the fifth-order SG-ADBR lasers were fabricated using projection i-line lithography processes. Single-mode lasing at 1537.9 nm was obtained with a high side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 65 dB, and a continuous tuning range of 10.3 nm was verified with SMSRs greater than 53 dB. Furthermore, the frequency noise power spectral density was characterized, from which a Lorentzian linewidth of 288 kHz was obtained.

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