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1.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470049

RESUMO

Sustained androgen receptor (AR) signaling and apoptosis evasion are among the main hurdles of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treatment. We designed and synthesized isothiocyanate (ITC)-containing hybrid AR antagonist (ITC-ARi) and rationally combined ITC-ARi with GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) to efficiently downregulate AR/AR splice variant and induce ferroptosis in CRPC cells. The representative ITC-ARi 13 is an AR ligand that contains an N-acetyl cysteine-masked ITC moiety and gradually releases parental unconjugated ITC 12b in aqueous solution. The in vitro anti-PCa activities of 13, such as growth inhibition and AR downregulation, are significantly enhanced when combined with BSO. The drug combination caused notable lipid peroxidation and the cell viability was effectively rescued by iron chelator, antioxidants or the inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1, supporting the induction of ferroptosis. 13 and BSO cooperatively downregulate AR and induce ferroptosis likely through increasing the accessibility of 13/12b to cellular targets, escalating free intracellular ferrous iron and attenuating GSH-centered cellular defense and adaptation. Further studies on the combination of ITC-ARi and GSH synthesis inhibitor could result in a new modality against CRPC.

2.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129520, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445021

RESUMO

Monochlorobenzene (MCB), a solvent and synthetic intermediate, has been widely detected in groundwater at industrial contaminated sites. Cysteine (Cys) enhanced Fe2+/persulfate (Fe2+/Cys/PS) process with high degradation efficiency of organic pollutants has the potential for in-situ chemical oxidation of MCB. In this study, we systematically explored the impacts of common anions (CO32-, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, HPO42-, H2PO4-, Cl-, Br-), cations (NH4+, Mg2+, Al3+, Mn2+, Cu2+) and natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation kinetics of MCB by the novel Fe2+/Cys/PS process and evaluated the ecotoxicity. The results showed that the removal of MCB in absence of matrices was enhanced by Cys due to its reduction and complexation ability. All of the anions inhibited the MCB degradation through the scavenging of SO4•- and HO•, though the inhibition degree of SO42-and NO3- was slight. Cations such as NH4+, Mg2+ and Al3+ hardly interfered with the reaction. Low concentrations of Cu2+ and NOM promoted the MCB oxidation, but the promotion strength weakened and turned into inhibition with the increased concentration of Cu2+ and NOM. The toxicity assessment of the transformation products (TPs) in the presence of Cl- and Br- based on the quantitative structure-activity relationships model showed the potentially higher toxicity of some TPs than their parent MCB. These results indicate that groundwater matrices may interfere with the MCB oxidation process. To accurately evaluate the effects of groundwater matrices on Fe2+/Cys/PS process for MCB oxidation and its potential toxicity, the field tests should be carried out in the future.

3.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20(1): 565, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292264

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

4.
Traffic ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347683

RESUMO

Retromer core complex is an endosomal scaffold that plays a critical role in orchestrating protein trafficking within the endosomal system. Here we characterized the effect of the Parkinson's disease-linked Vps35 D620N in the endo-lysosomal system using Vps35 D620N rescue cell models. Vps35 D620N fully rescues the lysosomal and autophagy defects caused by retromer knock-out. Analogous to Vps35 knock out cells, the endosome-to-trans-Golgi network transport of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) is impaired in Vps35 D620N rescue cells because of a reduced capacity to form endosome transport carriers. Cells expressing the Vps35 D620N variant have altered endosomal morphology, resulting in smaller, rounder structures with less tubule-like branches. At the molecular level retromer incorporating Vps35 D620N variant has a decreased binding to retromer associated proteins wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) and SNX3 which are known to associate with retromer to form the endosome transport carriers. Hence, the partial defects on retrograde protein trafficking carriers in the presence of Vps35 D620N represents an altered cellular state able to cause Parkinson's disease.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372369

RESUMO

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a kind of endocrine disorder which is prevalent in adult women, so exploring more biomarkers for PCOS is imperative. Recently, circular RNA and microRNA are confirmed to be related with PCOS development. Whether circular RNA ASPH (circASPH) is involved in PCOS need to be studied further. We utilized RT-qPCR to measure the expression levels of circASPH, miR-375 and MAP2K6 in PCOS patients and normal group. The effects of circASPH and miR-375 on KGN cells proliferation and apoptosis were observed by CCK-8 assay, EdU incorporation assay and apoptosis assay, separately. Then Dual-luciferase reporter assay was carried out to verify the circASPH/miR375 axis and miR375/MAP2K6 axis. The interaction between circASPH and MAP2K6 were detected with the support of RT-qPCR and Western blot. We found circASPH and MAP2K6 were both over-expressed in PCOS patients, while miR-375 was in the opposite direction. Moreover, miR-375 was negatively regulated by circASPH, while MAP2K6 was positively regulated by circASPH. In addition, circASPH directly targeted miR-375, which targeted MAP2K6. More than that, the knockdown of circASPH repressed KGN cells proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, while the silence of miR-375 reversed the above effects. In conclusion, circASPH promotes KGN cells proliferation through miR-375/MAP2K6 axis in PCOS, and they are thought-provoking biomarkers for PCOS diagnosis and therapy.

6.
Front Public Health ; 8: 565849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194967

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) status and explore its associated factors in pediatric medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic so as to provide fundamental evidence for clinicians and administrators to formulate targeted intervention measures to improve the HRQoL and mental health status in pediatric medical staff during this, and future pandemics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze the associated factors. Results: A total of 2,997 participants were recruited. Females scored worse than males in terms of emotional functioning (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and cognitive functioning (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). The respondents aged 30-39 and 40-49 years scored worse in nearly all domains of HRQoL compared health care professionals under 30 years old. Respondents with high education had lower scores in physical functioning (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7) and emotional functioning (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Compared with doctors, nurses had higher scores in all domains except for summary score and worry. The respondents whose working places had not set up pediatric fever clinics and isolated observation areas independently had lower scores in all domains except for worry. The respondents who had ever treated patients with COVID-19 had lower scores in all domains. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the HRQoL of pediatric medical staff decreased. The factors associated with HRQoL can be used to develop intervention to improve HRQoL in pediatric medical staff.

7.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 12003-12013, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244242

RESUMO

Background: The present study constructed and validated models to predict PD-L1 and CD8+TILs expression levels in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients using radiomics features and clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study randomly assigned 220 ESCC patients to a discovery dataset (n= 160) and validation dataset (n= 60). A total of 462 radiomics features were extracted from the segmentation of regions of interest (ROIs) based on pretreatment CT images of each patient. The LASSO algorithm was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the data and select features. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was adopted to build radiomics signatures. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive accuracy of these models. Results: There was no significant difference between the training and validation datasets for any clinical factors in patients with ESCC. The PD-L1 expression level correlated with the differentiation degree (p= 0.011) and tumor stage (p= 0.032). Smoking status (p= 0.043) and differentiation degree (p= 0.025) were associated with CD8+TILs expression levels. The radiomics signatures achieved good performance in predicting PD-L1 and CD8+TILs with AUCs= 0.784 and 0.764, respectively. The combined model showed a favorable predictive ability compared to radiomics signatures or clinical factors alone and improved the AUCs from 0.669 to 0.871 for PD-L1 and from 0.672 to 0.832 for CD8+TILs. These results were verified in the validation dataset with the AUCs of 0.817 and 0.795, respectively. Conclusion: CT-based radiomics features have a potential value for classifying patients according to PD-L1 and CD8+TILs expression levels. The combination of clinical factors and radiomics signatures significantly improved the predictive performance in ESCC.

8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148709

RESUMO

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is caused by the excessive and imbalanced growth of bacteria in vagina, affecting 30-50% of women in their lives. Gram stain followed by Nugent scoring based on bacterial morphotypes under the microscope (NS) has been considered the golden standard for BV diagnosis, which is often labor-intensive, time-consuming, and variable results from person to person.Methods: We developed and optimized a convolutional neural networks (CNN) model, and evaluated its ability to automatically identify and classify three categories of Nugent scores from microscope images. The CNN model was first established with a panel of microscopic images with Nugent scores determined by experts. The model was trained by minimizing the cross entropy loss function and optimized by using a momentum optimizer. The separate test sets of images collected from three hospitals were evaluated by the CNN models.Results: The CNN model consisted of 25 convolutional layers, 2 pooling layers, and a fully connected layer. The model obtained 82.4% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity on the 5,815 validation images when considered altered vaginal flora and BV as the positive samples, which was better than the top-level technologists and obstetricians in China. The ability of generalization for our model was strong that it obtained 75.1% accuracy of three categories of Nugent scores on the independent test set of 1082 images, which was 6.6% higher than the average of three technologists, who are with a bachelor degree in medicine and eligible making diagnostic decisions. When three technologists ran one specimen in triplicate, the precision of three categories of Nugent scores was 54.0%. 103 samples diagnosed by two technologists at different days showed repeatability of 90.3%.Conclusion: The CNN model over-performed human healthcare practitioners on accuracy and stability for three categories of Nugent scores diagnosis. The deep learning model may offer translational applications in automating diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis with proper supporting hardware.

9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of long-standing facial paralysis has always been a challenge for plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the free functional gracilis transfer innervated by the cross-facial nerve graft (CFNG) is still an ideal option, even though there are many new surgical options available. METHODS: A retrospective survey was made on 12 patients who received free functional gracilis transfer innervated by the CFNG. A modified version of the House-Brackmann scale was used to evaluate the movement of the corners of mouth after surgery. Patients were also asked about their satisfaction with the operation. In addition, an objective test was performed to assess the postoperative angle improvement by measuring the angle formed between the horizontal line of both corners of the lips and the vertical midline. RESULTS: All grafts survived well. No severe complication occurred. Three patients received further surgical operations for aesthetic reasons. The movement of the corners of mouth was classified as excellent in 8 cases, good in three cases, and fair in one cases. The static angle and dynamic angle of postoperation improved and the range of dynamic angle improvement was larger than that of static angle. CONCLUSION: Free functional gracilis transfer innervated by the CFNG is an ideal technique for facial paralysis. It can effectively improve the facial dynamic of the affected side.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166111

RESUMO

Nanomedicine, acting as the magic bullet, is capable of combining immunotherapy with other treatments to reverse a cold tumor (immune depletion) into a hot tumor. However, how to comprehensively inhibit the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) remains a major challenge for immunotherapy to achieve the maximum benefits. Thus, a strategy that can simultaneously increase the recruitment of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and comprehensively reprogram the immunosuppressive TME is still urgently needed. Herein, a thermal-sensitive nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosothiols (SNO)-pendant copolymer (poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile-co-vinylimidazole)-SNO copolymer, PAAV-SNO) with upper critical solution temperature (UCST) was synthesized and employed to fabricate an erythrocyte membrane-camouflaged nanobullet for codelivery of NIR II photothermal agent IR1061 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1) inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT). This multifunctional nanobullet possessed long circulation in vivo, enhanced accumulation at the tumor site, and therapeutics-controlled release by NIR II laser, thereby it could avoid unspecific drug leakage while enhancing biosecurity. More importantly, the immunogenic cell death (ICD) induced by local hyperthermia from photothermal therapy (PTT) could be conducive for the increased recruitment of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) at the tumor site. Furthermore, through interfering in the IDO-1 activity by 1-MT and normalizing the tumor vessels by in situ generated NO, the immunosuppressive TME was comprehensively reprogrammed toward an immunostimulatory phenotype, achieving the excellent therapeutic efficacy against both primary breast cancer and metastases. Collectively, this multifunctional nanobullet described in this study developed an effective and promising strategy to comprehensively reprogram suppressive TME and treat "immune cold" tumors.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213143

RESUMO

The separation properties of polyamide reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes, widely applied for desalination and water reuse, are constrained by the permeability-selectivity upper bound. Although thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes incorporating nanomaterials exhibit enhanced water permeance, their rejection is only moderately improved or even impaired due to agglomeration of nanomaterials and formation of defects. A novel type of TFN membranes featuring an interlayer of nanomaterials (TFNi) has emerged in recent years. These novel TFNi membranes show extraordinary improvement in water flux (e.g., up to an order of magnitude enhancement) along with better selectivity. Such enhancements can be achieved by a wide selection of nanomaterials, ranging from nanoparticles, one-/two-dimensional materials, to interfacial coatings. The use of nanostructured interlayers not only improves the formation of polyamide rejection layers but also provides an optimized water transport path, which enables TFNi membranes to potentially overcome the longstanding trade-off between membrane permeability and selectivity. Furthermore, TFNi membranes can potentially enhance the removal of heavy metals and micropollutants, which is critical for many environmental applications. This review critically examines the recent developments of TFNi membranes and discusses the underlying mechanisms and design criteria. Their potential environmental applications are also highlighted.

12.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20: 483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041664

RESUMO

Background: Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) serves key roles in cancer cell metabolic reprogramming, and has been reported to be involved in certain carcinogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory demonstrated that overexpressed G6PD was a potential prognostic biomarker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common subtype of kidney cancer. G6PD could stimulate ccRCC growth and invasion through facilitating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) activation and ROS-MAPK-MMP2 axis pathway, respectively. However, the reasons for ectopic G6PD overexpression and the proliferation repressive effect of G6PD inhibition in ccRCC are still unclear. Methods: The impact of ROS accumulation on NF-κB signaling pathway and G6PD expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot in ccRCC cells following treatment with ROS stimulator or scavenger. The regulatory function of NF-κB signaling pathway in G6PD transcription was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, luciferase and ChIP assay in ccRCC cells following treatment with NF-κB signaling activator/inhibitor or lentivirus infection. ChIP and Co-IP assay was performed to demonstrate protein-DNA and protein-protein interaction of NF-κB and pSTAT3, respectively. MTS assay, human tissue detection and xenograft model were conducted to characterize the association between NF-κB, pSTAT3, G6PD expression level and proliferation functions. Results: ROS-stimulated NF-κB and pSTAT3 signaling over-activation could activate each other, and exhibit cross-talks in G6PD aberrant transcriptional regulation. The underlying mechanism was that NF-κB signaling pathway facilitated G6PD transcription via direct DNA-protein interaction with p65 instead of p50. p65 and pSTAT3 formed a p65/pSTAT3 complex, occupied the pSTAT3-binding site on G6PD promoter, and contributed to ccRCC proliferation following facilitated G6PD overexpression. G6PD, pSTAT3, and p65 were highly expressed and positively correlated with each other in ccRCC tissues, confirming that NF-κB and pSTAT3 synergistically promote G6PD overexpression. Moreover, G6PD inhibitor exhibited tumor-suppressor activities in ccRCC and attenuated the growth of ccRCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: ROS-stimulated aberrations of NF-κB and pSTAT3 signaling pathway synergistically drive G6PD transcription through forming a p65/pSTAT3 complex. Moreover, G6PD activity inhibition may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ccRCC treatment.

13.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(11): 3046-3059, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100864

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the long-term scar hypertrophy in the rabbit transplanted oral mucosa and scrotal skin with changed matrix environment, as well as the scar location expression, quantitative analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and biomechanical changes in the transplanted tissues. The split-thickness skin grafts were collected from the oral mucosas and scrotal skins of 30 male rabbits, and prepared into reelpipes for autologous transplantation into the rabbit back muscular tissues. Samples were collected to carry out elastic tensile mechanical detection and histological observation. The maximum longitudinal tensile displacement of scrotal skin before 8 weeks of transplantation was greater than that after 8 weeks of transplantation (P < 0.05). The expression intensities of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the oral mucosa and in scrotal skin at 2 W time point were higher than those at T o time point (P < 0.05). The expression quantities of TIMP-2 in oral mucosa and scrotal skin during 8-24 W were higher than those of MMP-2 (P < 0.05). At 8 W time point, the TIMP-2/MMP-2 ratio in scrotal skin was higher than that in oral mucosa (P < 0.05). MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expression in normal oral mucosa and scrotal skin is weak, but their expression is remarkably up-regulated after 2 weeks of transplantation, revealing that scar formation was related to the high expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2. At the 8th-24th weeks, the AOD values of TIMP-2 in oral mucosa and scrotal skin are apparently higher than those of MMP-2; moreover, the TIMP-2/MMP-2 ratio in scrotal skin at the 8th week was higher than that in oral mucosa, which can well explain the earlier scar formation in scrotal skin than in oral mucosa, and it also suggests that the different expression levels between TIMP-2 and MMP-2 may account for the important cause of scar formation.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053685

RESUMO

Medium-chain fatty acid glycerides have been shown to provide energy for rapid oxidation in the body. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with medium-chain fatty acid glyceride on the growth performance and intestinal health of weaned piglets fed with a low-protein diet. Nighty healthy weaned piglets were randomly divided into five treatments: NP (Normal protein treatment, normal-protein diet no antibiotics included); NC (Negative control, low-protein diet no antibiotics included); PC (Positive control, low-protein diet +75 mg/kg quinocetone, 20 mg/kg virginiamycin and 50 mg/kg aureomycin); MCT (tricaprylin + tricaprin treatment, low-protein diet + tricaprylin + tricaprin); GML (glycerol monolaurate treatment, low-protein diet + glycerol monolaurate). The results showed that the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the MCT treatment was significantly higher than that of the NP, NC treatments (p < 0.05). In the jejunum, the villus height of the GML treatment was significantly lower than that of the PC treatment (p < 0.05), and the number of goblet cells in the GML treatment was higher than that in the NC treatment (p < 0.05). Compared with the NC treatment, the MCT treatment significantly increased the level of claudin-1, Zonula occludens-1(ZO-1), while the GML treatment significantly increased the level of claudin-1, occludin, ZO-1 (p < 0.05). In the ileum, the level of ZO-1 in the GML treatment was significantly higher than that in the NP, NC, PC treatments (p < 0.05). Compared with the NC treatment, the GML treatment significantly increased the level of Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in the ileum and serum, while the MCT treatment significantly increased the level of SIgA and decreased the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the ileum (p < 0.05). These results showed that the addition of medium-chain fatty acid glycerides to a low-protein diet could improve the growth performance and intestinal functional barrier of weaned piglets and also improve the immune function of weaned piglets.

15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-16, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016237

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, an emerging coronavirus, has spread rapidly around the world, resulting in over ten million cases and more than half a million deaths as of July 1, 2020. Effective treatments and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 infection do not currently exist. Previous studies demonstrated that nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) of coronavirus is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent 2'-O-methyltransferase (2'-O-MTase) that has an important role in viral replication and prevents recognition by the host innate immune system. In the present study, we employed structural analysis, virtual screening, and molecular simulation approaches to identify clinically investigated and approved drugs which can act as promising inhibitors against nsp16 2'-O-MTase of SARS-CoV-2. Comparative analysis of primary amino acid sequences and crystal structures of seven human CoVs defined the key residues for nsp16 2-O'-MTase functions. Virtual screening and docking analysis ranked the potential inhibitors of nsp16 from more than 4,500 clinically investigated and approved drugs. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on eight top candidates, including Hesperidin, Rimegepant, Gs-9667, and Sonedenoson, to calculate various structural parameters and understand the dynamic behavior of the drug-protein complexes. Our studies provided the foundation to further test and repurpose these candidate drugs experimentally and/or clinically for COVID-19 treatment. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

16.
Eur J Radiol ; 132: 109324, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurocognitive impairment is a common complication in cirrhosis and is associated with alterations in static functional network connectivity (FNC) between distinct brain systems. However, accumulating evidence suggests temporal variability in FNC even at rest. This study aimed to explore dynamic FNC (dFNC) differences and to elucidate their association with neurocognitive changes in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Fifty-four cirrhotic patients and 42 controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) was used to assess neurocognitive function. Independent component analysis was performed to identify the components of seven intrinsic brain networks, including sensorimotor (SMN), auditory, visual, cognitive control (CCN), default mode (DMN), subcortical (SC), and cerebellar networks. Sliding window correlation approach was employed to calculate dFNC. FNC states were determined by k-means clustering method, and then functional state analysis was conducted to measure dynamic indices. RESULTS: The patients showed decreased dFNC in State 2, involving the connectivity between posterior subsystem of DMN and CCN (represented by bilateral insular cortex), and in State 3, involving the connectivity between SMN (represented by bilateral precentral gyrus) and SC (represented by bilateral putamen and caudate). The patients spent significantly longer time in State 4 that was with weakest FNC across all networks. We observed a significant correlation between PHES and fraction time/mean dwell time in State 4. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant dFNC may be the underlying mechanism of neurocognitive impairments in cirrhosis. Dynamic FNC analysis may potentially be utilized in investigating cirrhosis-related neuropathological processes.

17.
J Dev Biol ; 8(3)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906663

RESUMO

Formation and regulation of properly sized epithelial tubes is essential for multicellular life. The excretory canal cell of C. elegans provides a powerful model for investigating the integration of the cytoskeleton, intracellular transport, and organismal physiology to regulate the developmental processes of tube extension, lumen formation, and lumen diameter regulation in a narrow single cell. Multiple studies have provided new understanding of actin and intermediate filament cytoskeletal elements, vesicle transport, and the role of vacuolar ATPase in determining tube size. Most of the genes discovered have clear homologues in humans, with implications for understanding these processes in mammalian tissues such as Schwann cells, renal tubules, and brain vasculature. The results of several new genetic screens are described that provide a host of new targets for future studies in this informative structure.

18.
Acta Biomater ; 116: 329-343, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890751

RESUMO

By using an oil-in-water single emulsion method, a series of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared which consisted of a core of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with a lipoid shell of n-hexadecylamine-substituted hyaluronic acid (HA), encapsulating a zinc(II) phthalocyanine-based photosensitizer (ZnPc). As determined by laser light scattering, these hybrid NPs labeled as ZnPc@PLGA-HA NPs possessed a hydrodynamic diameter of 280 nm and a surface charge of -30 mV, showing high stability in serum. The Q-band absorption of ZnPc exhibited a large red-shift from 674 nm for free ZnPc in dimethylsulfoxide to 832 nm for this nanosystem in water. Upon light irradiation at 808 nm, the encapsulated ZnPc induced a strong photothermal effect instead of photodynamic action, which is usually observed for ZnPc-containing NPs. The tumor-targeting effect of these NPs due to the HA coating was investigated against the human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and human lung carcinoma A549 cells, both of which overexpress cluster determinant 44 (CD44) receptors, using the CD44-negative human normal hepatic LO2 cells as a negative control. The photothermal cell-killing effect of these NPs was significantly higher for the two CD44-positive cell lines than that for the negative control. Their in vivo photothermal efficacy was also examined on HT29 tumor-bearing nude mice. Upon irradiation, the NPs caused significant temperature increase at the tumor site and ablation of the tumor. The results showed that these multifunctional NPs could serve as an effective photothermal agent for targeted photothermal therapy. Statement of significance Phthalocyanines are well-known photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. By encapsulating these molecules into various nanoplatforms, a range of multifunctional photosensitizing systems have been developed for cancer therapy. In this study, we have demonstrated that by careful selection of phthalocyanines and the nanocarriers, as well as the self-assembly and encapsulation methods, the encapsulated phthalocyanine molecules could switch the photoinduced action from photodynamic therapy to photothermal therapy as a result of the enhanced aggregation of the macrocyclic molecules in the nanoparticles. The unique packing of the molecules also resulted in a large red-shift of the Q-band absorption to 832 nm, facilitating the in vitro and in vivo photothermal treatment.

19.
Sci Adv ; 6(25)2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937495

RESUMO

Behavioral variability often arises from variable activity in the behavior-generating neural network. The synaptic mechanisms underlying this variability are poorly understood. We show that synaptic noise, in conjunction with weak feedforward excitation, generates variable motor output in the Aplysia feeding system. A command-like neuron (CBI-10) triggers rhythmic motor programs more variable than programs triggered by CBI-2. CBI-10 weakly excites a pivotal pattern-generating interneuron (B34) strongly activated by CBI-2. The activation properties of B34 substantially account for the degree of program variability. CBI-10- and CBI-2-induced EPSPs in B34 vary in amplitude across trials, suggesting that there is synaptic noise. Computational studies show that synaptic noise is required for program variability. Further, at network state transition points when synaptic conductance is low, maximum program variability is promoted by moderate noise levels. Thus, synaptic strength and noise act together in a nonlinear manner to determine the degree of variability within a feedforward network.

20.
Genes Dev ; 34(19-20): 1392-1405, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883681

RESUMO

TRF1 facilitates the replication of telomeric DNA in part by recruiting the BLM helicase, which can resolve G-quadruplexes on the lagging-strand template. Lagging-strand telomeres lacking TRF1 or BLM form fragile telomeres-structures that resemble common fragile sites (CFSs)-but how they are formed is not known. We report that analogous to CFSs, fragile telomeres in BLM-deficient cells involved double-strand break (DSB) formation, in this case by the SLX4/SLX1 nuclease. The DSBs were repaired by POLD3/POLD4-dependent break-induced replication (BIR), resulting in fragile telomeres containing conservatively replicated DNA. BIR also promoted fragile telomere formation in cells with FokI-induced telomeric DSBs and in alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) cells, which have spontaneous telomeric damage. BIR of telomeric DSBs competed with PARP1-, LIG3-, and XPF-dependent alternative nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ), which did not generate fragile telomeres. Collectively, these findings indicate that fragile telomeres can arise from BIR-mediated repair of telomeric DSBs.

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