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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 330: 118264, 2024 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692417

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Optimized New Shengmai Powder (ONSMP) is a sophisticated traditional Chinese medicinal formula renowned for bolstering vital energy, optimizing blood circulation, and mitigating fluid retention. After years of clinical application, ONSMP has shown a significant impact in improving myocardial injury and cardiac function and has a positive effect on treating heart failure. However, many unknowns exist about the molecular biological mechanisms of how ONSMP exerts its therapeutic effects, which require further research and exploration. AIM OF THE STUDY: Exploring the potential molecular biological mechanisms by which ONSMP ameliorates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ferroptosis in ischemic heart failure (IHF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we constructed a rat model of IHF by inducing acute myocardial infarction through surgery and using echocardiography, organ coefficients, markers of heart failure, antioxidant markers, and histopathological examination to assess the effects of ONSMP on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ferroptosis in IHF rats. Next, we used bioinformatics analysis techniques to analyze the active components, signaling pathways, and core targets of ONSMP and calculated the interactions between core targets and corresponding elements. Finally, we detected the positive expression of apoptosis and ferroptosis markers and core indicators of signaling pathways by immunohistochemistry; detected the mean fluorescence intensity of core indicators of signaling pathways by immunofluorescence; detected the protein expression of signaling pathways and downstream effector molecules by western blotting; and detected the mRNA levels of p53 and downstream effector molecules by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: ONSMP can activate the Ser83 site of ASK by promoting the phosphorylation of the PI3K/AKT axis, thereby inhibiting the MKK3/6-p38 axis and the MKK4/7-JNK axis signaling to reduce p53 expression, and can also directly target and inhibit the activity of p53, ultimately inhibiting p53-mediated mRNA and protein increases in PUMA, SAT1, PIG3, and TFR1, as well as mRNA and protein decreases in SLC7A11, thereby inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ferroptosis, effectively improving cardiac function and ventricular remodeling in IHF rat models. CONCLUSION: ONSMP can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ferroptosis through the PI3K/AKT/p53 signaling pathway, delaying the development of IHF.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Combinação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ferroptose , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Miócitos Cardíacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Animais , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ratos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pós
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38103, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728448

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy caused by reduced activity of the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13), which can be life-threatening. The patient reported in this case study also had concurrent Sjögren syndrome and renal impairment, presenting multiple symptoms and posing a great challenge in treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old woman in the postpartum period visited the hospital due to indifference in consciousness for more than 1 day following cesarean section 8 days prior. DIAGNOSIS: Notable decreases were observed in platelets, hemoglobin, creatinine, and ADAMTS13 levels. After a consultative examination by an ophthalmologist, she was diagnosed with retinal hemorrhage in the right eye and dry eye syndrome in both eyes. INTERVENTIONS: Having been diagnosed with TTP with Sjögren syndrome and renal impairment, she received repeated treatments with plasmapheresis combined with rituximab. OUTCOMES: Following treatment and during the follow-up period, the patient's platelet counts and bleeding symptoms significantly improved. LESSONS: TTP has a high mortality rate, and when combined with Sjögren syndrome and renal impairment, it poses an even greater challenge in treatment. However, after administering standard plasmapheresis combined with rituximab treatment, the treatment outcome is favorable.


Assuntos
Plasmaferese , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Rituximab , Síndrome de Sjogren , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/terapia , Plasmaferese/métodos , Adulto , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/complicações , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem
3.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 29(1): 68, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Members of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain containing (NLRP) family regulate various physiological and pathological processes. However, none have been shown to regulate actin cap formation or spindle translocation during the asymmetric division of oocyte meiosis I. NLRP4E has been reported as a candidate protein in female fertility, but its function is unknown. METHODS: Immunofluorescence, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blotting were employed to examine the localization and expression levels of NLRP4E and related proteins in mouse oocytes. small interfering RNA (siRNA) and antibody transfection were used to knock down NLRP4E and other proteins. Immunoprecipitation (IP)-mass spectrometry was used to identify the potential proteins interacting with NLRP4E. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) was used to verify the protein interactions. Wild type (WT) or mutant NLRP4E messenger RNA (mRNA) was injected into oocytes for rescue experiments. In vitro phosphorylation was employed to examine the activation of steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) by NLRP4E. RESULTS: NLRP4E was more predominant within oocytes compared with other NLRP4 members. NLRP4E knockdown significantly inhibited actin cap formation and spindle translocation toward the cap region, resulting in the failure of polar body extrusion at the end of meiosis I. Mechanistically, GRIN1, and GANO1 activated NLRP4E by phosphorylation at Ser429 and Thr430; p-NLRP4E is translocated and is accumulated in the actin cap region during spindle translocation. Next, we found that p-NLRP4E directly phosphorylated SRC at Tyr418, while p-SRC negatively regulated p-CDC42-S71, an inactive form of CDC42 that promotes actin cap formation and spindle translocation in the GTP-bound form. CONCLUSIONS: NLRP4E activated by GRIN1 and GANO1 regulates actin cap formation and spindle translocation toward the cap region through upregulation of p-SRC-Tyr418 and downregulation of p-CDC42-S71 during meiosis I.


Assuntos
Actinas , Meiose , Oócitos , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP , Animais , Oócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Feminino , Actinas/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Fosforilação , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1336402, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742197

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a significant complication associated with diabetes mellitus, presents limited treatment options. The progression of DKD is marked by substantial lipid disturbances, including alterations in triglycerides, cholesterol, sphingolipids, phospholipids, lipid droplets, and bile acids (BAs). Altered lipid metabolism serves as a crucial pathogenic mechanism in DKD, potentially intertwined with cellular ferroptosis, lipophagy, lipid metabolism reprogramming, and immune modulation of gut microbiota (thus impacting the liver-kidney axis). The elucidation of these mechanisms opens new potential therapeutic pathways for DKD management. This research explores the link between lipid metabolism disruptions and DKD onset.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Humanos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Animais , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4066, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744885

RESUMO

Terrestrial geothermal springs are physicochemically diverse and host abundant populations of Archaea. However, the diversity, functionality, and geological influences of these Archaea are not well understood. Here we explore the genomic diversity of Archaea in 152 metagenomes from 48 geothermal springs in Tengchong, China, collected from 2016 to 2021. Our dataset is comprised of 2949 archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes spanning 12 phyla and 392 newly identified species, which increases the known species diversity of Archaea by ~48.6%. The structures and potential functions of the archaeal communities are strongly influenced by temperature and pH, with high-temperature acidic and alkaline springs favoring archaeal abundance over Bacteria. Genome-resolved metagenomics and metatranscriptomics provide insights into the potential ecological niches of these Archaea and their potential roles in carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism. Furthermore, our findings illustrate the interplay of competition and cooperation among Archaea in biogeochemical cycles, possibly arising from overlapping functional niches and metabolic handoffs. Taken together, our study expands the genomic diversity of Archaea inhabiting geothermal springs and provides a foundation for more incisive study of biogeochemical processes mediated by Archaea in geothermal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Archaea , Genoma Arqueal , Fontes Termais , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Archaea/genética , Archaea/classificação , China , Metagenômica/métodos , Biodiversidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Enxofre/metabolismo , Temperatura , Ecossistema
6.
J Nucl Med ; 65(Suppl 1): 46S-53S, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719239

RESUMO

Total-body PET, an emerging technique, enables high-quality simultaneous total-body dynamic PET acquisition and accurate kinetic analysis. It has the potential to facilitate the study of multiple tracers while minimizing radiation dose and improving tracer-specific imaging. This advancement holds promise for enhancing the development and clinical evaluation of drugs, particularly radiopharmaceuticals. Multiple clinical trials are using a total-body PET scanner to explore existing and innovative radiopharmaceuticals. However, challenges persist, along with the opportunities, with regard to the use of total-body PET in drug development and evaluation. Specifically, considerations relate to the role of total-body PET in clinical pharmacologic evaluations and its integration into the theranostic paradigm. In this review, state-of-the-art total-body PET and its potential roles in pharmaceutical research are explored.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Imagem Corporal Total , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Animais
7.
J Nucl Med ; 65(Suppl 1): 38S-45S, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719241

RESUMO

Radiopharmaceuticals play a critical role in nuclear medicine, providing novel tools for specifically delivering radioisotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. As the starting point for developing radiopharmaceuticals, cancer-specific biomarkers are important and receive worldwide attention. This field in China is currently experiencing a rapid expansion, with multiple radiotracers targeting novel targets being developed and translated into clinical studies. This review provides a brief overview of the exploration of novel imaging targets, preclinical evaluation of their targeting ligands, and translational research in China from 2020 to 2023, for detecting cancer, guiding targeted therapy, and visualizing the immune microenvironment. We believe that China will play an even more important role in the development of nuclear medicine in the world in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias , Traçadores Radioativos , Humanos , China , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Animais
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720447

RESUMO

Solar desalination, a green, low-cost, and sustainable technology, offers a promising way to get clean water from seawater without relying on electricity and complex infrastructures. However, the main challenge faced in solar desalination is salt accumulation, either on the surface of or inside the solar evaporator, which can impair solar-to-vapor efficiency and even lead to the failure of the evaporator itself. While many ideas have been tried to address this ″salt accumulation″, scientists have not had a clear system for understanding what works best for the enhancement of salt-rejecting ability. Therein, for the first time, we classified the state-of-the-art salt-rejecting designs into isolation strategy (isolating the solar evaporator from brine), dilution strategy (diluting the concentrated brine), and crystallization strategy (regulating the crystallization site into a tiny area). Through the specific equations presented, we have identified key parameters for each strategy and highlighted the corresponding improvements in the solar desalination performance. This Review provides a semiquantitative perspective on salt-rejecting designs and critical parameters for enhancing the salt-rejecting ability of dilution-based, isolation-based, and crystallization-based solar evaporators. Ultimately, this knowledge can help us create reliable solar desalination solutions to provide clean water from even the saltiest sources.

9.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202400557, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701359

RESUMO

In the present investigation, a series of dimethoxy or methylenedioxy substituted-cinnamamide derivatives containing tertiary amine moiety (N. N-Dimethyl, N, N-diethyl, Pyrrolidine, Piperidine, Morpholine) were synthesized and evaluated for cholinesterase inhibition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Although their chemical structures are similar, their biological activities exhibit diversity. The results showed that all compounds except for those containing morpholine group exhibited moderate to potent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Preliminary screening of BBB permeability shows that methylenedioxy substituted compounds have better brain permeability than the others. Compound 10c, containing methylenedioxy and pyrrolidine side chain, showed a better acetylcholinesterase inhibition (IC50: 1.52±0.19 µmol/L) and good blood-brain barrier permeability. Further pharmacokinetic investigation of compound 10c using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in mice showed that compound 10c in brain tissue reached its peak concentration (857.72 ± 93.56 ng/g) after dosing 30 min. Its half-life in the serum is 331 min (5.52 h), and the CBrain/CSerum at various sampling points is ranged from 1.65 to 4.71(Mean: 2.76) within 24 hours. This investigation provides valuable information on the chemistry and pharmacological diversity of cinnamic acid derivatives and may be beneficial for the discovery of central nervous system drugs.

10.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are both associated with left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) structural and functional abnormalities; however, the relationship between the left atrium and ventricle in this population is unclear. PURPOSE: To identify differences between hypertensive patients with and without T2DM as the basis for further investigation the atrioventricular coupling relationship. STUDY TYPE: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. POPULATION: 89 hypertensive patients without T2DM [HTN (T2DM-)] (age: 58.4 +/- 11.9 years, 48 male), 62 hypertensive patients with T2DM [HTN (T2DM+)] (age: 58.5 +/- 9.1 years, 32 male) and 70 matched controls (age: 55.0 +/- 9.6 years, 37 male). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 2D balanced steady-state free precession cine sequence at 3.0 T. ASSESSMENT: LA reservoir, conduit, and booster strain (εs, εe, and εa) and strain rate (SRs, SRe, and SRa), LV radial, circumferential and longitudinal peak strain (PS) and peak systolic strain rate and peak diastolic strain rate (PSSR and PDSR) were derived from LA and LV cine images and compared between groups. STATISTICAL TESTS: Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, one-way analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, Pearson's correlation, multivariable linear regression analysis, and intraclass correlation coefficient. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Compared with controls, εs, εe, SRe and PS-longitudinal, PDSR-radial, and PDSR-longitudinal were significantly lower in HTN (T2DM-) group, and they were even lower in HTN (T2DM+) group than in both controls and HTN (T2DM-) group. SRs, εa, SRa, as well as PS-radial, PS-circumferential, PSSR-radial, and PSSR-circumferential were significantly lower in HTN (T2DM+) compared with controls. Multivariable regression analyses demonstrated that: T2DM and PS-circumferential and PS-longitudinal (ß = -4.026, -0.486, and -0.670, respectively) were significantly associated with εs; T2DM and PDSR-radial and PDSR-circumferential were significantly associated with εe (ß = -3.406, -3.352, and -6.290, respectively); T2DM and PDSR-radial were significantly associated with SRe (ß = 0.371 and 0.270, respectively); T2DM and PDSR-longitudinal were significantly associated with εa (ß = -1.831 and 5.215, respectively); and PDSR-longitudinal was significantly associated with SRa (ß = 1.07). DATA CONCLUSION: In hypertensive patients, there was severer LA dysfunction in those with coexisting T2DM, which may be associated with more severe LV dysfunction and suggests adverse atrioventricular coupling. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 3. TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.

11.
Eye Contact Lens ; 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to assist prescription determination for orthokeratology (OK) lenses. METHODS: Artificial intelligence algorithm development followed by a real-world trial. A total of 11,502 OK lenses fitting records collected from seven clinical environments covering major brands. Records were randomly divided in a three-way data split. Cross-validation was used to identify the most accurate algorithm, followed by an evaluation using an independent test data set. An online AI-assisted system was implemented and assessed in a real-world trial involving four junior and three senior clinicians. RESULTS: The primary outcome measure was the algorithm's accuracy (ACC). The ACC of the best performance of algorithms to predict the targeted reduction amplitude, lens diameter, and alignment curve of the prescription was 0.80, 0.82, and 0.83, respectively. With the assistance of the AI system, the number of trials required to determine the final prescription significantly decreased for six of the seven participating clinicians (all P <0.01). This reduction was more significant among junior clinicians compared with consultants (0.76±0.60 vs. 0.32±0.60, P <0.001). Junior clinicians achieved clinical outcomes comparable to their seniors, as 93.96% (140/149) and 94.44% (119/126), respectively, of the eyes fitted achieved unaided visual acuity no worse than 0.8 ( P =0.864). CONCLUSIONS: AI can improve prescription efficiency and reduce discrepancies in clinical outcomes among clinicians with differing levels of experience. Embedment of AI in practice should ultimately help lessen the medical burden and improve service quality for myopia boom emerging worldwide.

12.
J Inflamm Res ; 17: 2775-2785, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737112

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the associations of the gut and circulating microbiota with circulating vitamin D3 (VD3), type I interferon (IFNI), systemic inflammation, and clinical profiles in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients. Methods: A total of 36 CSU patients with VD3 insufficiency (VDI; serum 25(OH)VD3 <30 ng/mL) and 36 sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched CSU patients with non-VDI were enrolled. Fecal and serum bacteria were identified through 16S rRNA sequencing, and serum 25(OH)VD3 and inflammation biomarkers were assessed using ELISA kits. IFNI response was determined by measuring the stimulatory activity of serum on IFNI-stimulated response element in HEK293 cells in vitro with luciferase assays. Results: Higher urticarial activity score over 7 days (UAS7), higher frequency of levocetirizine resistance, and more severe proinflammation but weaker IFNI response were observed in VDI than non-VDI patients (all P<0.05). IFNI response was strongly positively associated with serum 25(OH)VD3 level in both groups (P<0.001). Compared to non-VDI patients, abundance of the fecal genera Prevotella 9, Escherichia-Shigella, and Klebsiella was significantly increased, while Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, and Agathobacter were remarkably reduced in VDI patients (all P<0.05). Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia (40.95%), Acinetobacter (3.05%), and Aquabacterium (2.37%) were the top three bacteria in sera from VDI patients. Both serum 25(OH)VD3 level and IFNI response were positively associated with fecal Bacteroides in the two groups (P<0.05). In non-VDI patients, there were moderately positive associations between IFNI response and fecal Lachnoclostridium, unclassified_f__Lachnospiraceae, and Phascolarctobacterium and between serum 25(OH)VD3 level and fecal Lachnoclostridium (all P<0.01). Circulating microbiota in VDI patients was closely related only to proinflammation and UAS7 (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes in gut but not circulating microbiota composition are associated with serum 25(OH)VD3 insufficiency and impaired IFNI homeostasis, which points to greater disease severity (UAS7) and systemic proinflammation in CSU patients.

13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 316: 124382, 2024 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701579

RESUMO

MXene sheets with the unique electrical and optical properties show the excellent potential for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. In this study, we chose Ti3C2Tx, a type of MXene, to decorate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) MXene sheets. The designed Ag-MXene substrates with SERS activity showed high sensitivity, high stability, and reproducibility. The SERS signal was enhanced by the synergistic contribution of both charge-transfer (CT) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) involving the Ag NPs and the MXene sheets. Due to the strong interaction between the probe molecules and Ag NPs which provided the nanoscale gap, the substrate exhibited remarkable SERS performance. A novel experimental strategy was developed to facilitate the controlled synthesis of noble metal NPs and MXene sheets and provide insights for further improving the practical applications of these materials in SERS detection.

14.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(2): 482-489, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38645846

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The metabolism and the proliferation of tumors are regulated by both intrinsic factors within the tumor and the availability of metabolites in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The metabolic niche within the TME is primarily orchestrated at 3 levels: 1) the regulation of tumor metabolism by factors intrinsic to the tumors, 2) the interaction between tumor cells and T cells, macrophages, and stromal cells, and 3) the metabolic heterogeneity of tumor cells within the tissue space. Herein, we provided a concise overview of the various metabolic regulatory modes observed in tumor cells. Additionally, we extensively analyzed the interaction between tumor cells and other cells within the TME, as well as the metabolic characteristics and functions of different types of cells. Ultimately, this review provides a theoretical basis and novel insights for the precision treatment of tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia
15.
Adv Mater ; : e2402325, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631673

RESUMO

Perovskite quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) have been considered a promising display technology due to their wide color gamut for authentic color expression. Currently, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) for state-of-the-art blue perovskite QLEDs is about 15%, which still lags behind its green and red counterparts (>25%) and blue film-based LEDs. Here, blue perovskite QLEDs that achieve an EQE of 23.5% at 490 nm is presented, to the best knowledge, which is the highest value reported among blue perovskite-based LED fields. This impressive efficiency is achieved through a combination of quantum dot (QD) passivation and optimal device design. First, blue mixed halide perovskite CsPbCl3- xBrx QDs passivated by trifluoroacetate exhibit excellent exciton recombination behavior with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 84% due to reducing uncoordinated Pb surface defects. Furthermore, the device is designed by introducing a mixed hole-transport layer (M-HTL) to increase hole injection and transportation capacity and improve carrier balance. It is further found that M-HTL can decrease carrier leakage and increase radiative recombination in the device, evidenced by the visual electroluminescence spectrum at 2.0 V. The work breaks through the EQE gap of 20% for blue perovskite-based QLEDs and significantly promotes their commercialization process.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172238, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582121

RESUMO

Sulfide is a well-known environmental pollutant that can have detrimental effects on most organisms. However, few metazoans living in sulfide-rich environments have developed mechanisms to tolerate and adapt to sulfide stress. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, have been shown to play a vital role in environmental stress adaptation. Nevertheless, the precise function of DNA methylation in biological sulfide adaptation remains unclear. Urechis unicinctus, a benthic organism inhabiting sulfide-rich intertidal environments, is an ideal model organism for studying adaptation to sulfide environments. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the DNA methylome and transcriptome of U. unicinctus after exposure to 50 µM sulfide. The results revealed dynamic changes in the DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine) landscape in response to sulfide stress, with U. unicinctus exhibiting elevated DNA methylation levels following stress exposure. Integrating differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs), we identified a crucial role of gene body methylation in predicting gene expression. Furthermore, using a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, we validated the involvement of DNA methylation in the sulfide stress response and the gene regulatory network influenced by DNA methylation. The results indicated that by modulating DNA methylation levels during sulfide stress, the expression of glutathione S-transferase, glutamyl aminopeptidase, and cytochrome c oxidase could be up-regulated, thereby facilitating the metabolism and detoxification of exogenous sulfides. Moreover, DNA methylation was found to regulate and enhance the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, including NADH dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and ATP synthase. Additionally, DNA methylation influenced the regulation of Cytochrome P450 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor, both of which are closely associated with oxidative stress and stress resistance. Our findings not only emphasize the role of DNA methylation in sulfide adaptation but also provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms through which marine organisms adapt to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Sulfetos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/toxicidade , Epigenoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Poliquetos/genética , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(8)2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676234

RESUMO

To enhance aerial image detection in complex environments characterized by multiple small targets and mutual occlusion, we propose an aerial target detection algorithm based on an improved version of YOLOv5 in this paper. Firstly, we employ an improved Mosaic algorithm to address redundant boundaries arising from varying image scales and to augment the training sample size, thereby enhancing detection accuracy. Secondly, we integrate the constructed hybrid attention module into the backbone network to enhance the model's capability in extracting pertinent feature information. Subsequently, we incorporate feature fusion layer 7 and P2 fusion into the neck network, leading to a notable enhancement in the model's capability to detect small targets. Finally, we replace the original PAN + FPN network structure with the optimized BiFPN (Bidirectional Feature Pyramid Network) to enable the model to preserve deeper semantic information, thereby enhancing detection capabilities for dense objects. Experimental results indicate a substantial improvement in both the detection accuracy and speed of the enhanced algorithm compared to its original version. It is noteworthy that the enhanced algorithm exhibits a markedly improved detection performance for aerial images, particularly under real-time conditions.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610323

RESUMO

The mature processes of metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) have attracted considerable interest. However, the low sensitivity of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors is still challenging, and constrains its practical applications. Bimetallic nanoparticles are of interest owing to their excellent catalytic properties. This excellent feature of bimetallic nanoparticles can solve the problems existing in MOS gas sensors, such as the low response, high operating temperature and slow response time. To enhance acetone sensing performance, we successfully synthesized Au-Pd/ZnO nanorods. In this work, we discovered that Au-Pd nanoparticles modified on ZnO nanorods can remarkably enhance sensor response. The Au-Pd/ZnO gas sensor has long-term stability and an excellent response/recovery process. This excellent sensing performance is attributed to the synergistic catalytic effect of bimetallic AuPd nanoparticles. Moreover, the electronic and chemical sensitization of noble metals also makes a great contribution. This work presents a simple method for preparing Au-Pd/ZnO nanorods and provides a new solution for the detection of acetone based on metal oxide semiconductor.

19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 133, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can increase the risk of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease and obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD), which usually have a poor prognosis. This study aimed to explore the impact of MetS on left ventricular (LV) deformation and function in OCAD patients and investigate the independent factors of impaired LV function and deformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients with OCAD and 52 sex- and age-matched controls who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance scanning were enrolled in the study. All OCAD patients were divided into two groups: OCAD with MetS [OCAD(MetS+), n = 83] and OCAD without MetS [OCAD(MetS-), n = 38]. LV functional and global strain parameters were measured and compared among the three groups. Multivariable linear regression analyses were constructed to investigate the independent factors of LV impairment in OCAD patients. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to test the prediction efficiency of MetS for LV impairment. RESULTS: From controls to the OCAD(MetS-) group to the OCAD(MetS+) group, LV mass (LVM) increased, and LV global function index (LVGFI) and LV global longitudinal peak strain (GLPS) decreased (all p < 0.05). Compared with the OCAD(MetS-) group, the LV GLPS declined significantly (p = 0.027), the LVM increased (p = 0.006), and the LVGFI decreased (p = 0.043) in the OCAD(MetS+) group. After adjustment for covariates in OCAD patients, MetS was an independent factor of decreased LV GLPS (ß = - 0.211, p = 0.002) and increased LVM (ß = 0.221, p = 0.003). The logistic multivariable regression analysis and ROC analysis showed that combined MetS improved the efficiency of predicting LV GLPS reduction (AUC = 0.88) and LVM (AUC = 0.89) increase. CONCLUSIONS: MetS aggravated the damage of LV deformation and function in OCAD patients and was independently associated with LV deformation and impaired LV strain. Additionally, MetS increased the prediction efficiency of increased LVM and decreased LV GLPS. Early detection and intervention of MetS in patients with OCAD is of great significance.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Medição de Risco , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Fatores de Risco , Prognóstico , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/complicações
20.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1360574, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38659670

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this review is to identify the impact of virtual reality (VR) technology on student engagement, specifically cognitive engagement, behavioral engagement, and affective engagement. Methods: A comprehensive search of databases such as Google, Scopus, and Elsevier was conducted to identify English-language articles related to VR and classroom engagement for the period from 2014 to 2023. After systematic screening, 33 articles were finally reviewed. Results: The use of VR in the classroom is expected to improve student engagement and learning outcomes, and is particularly effective for students with learning disabilities. However, introducing VR into middle school education poses several challenges, including difficulties in the education system to keep up with VR developments, increased demands on students' digital literacy, and insufficient proficiency of teachers in using VR. Conclusion: To effectively utilize VR to increase student engagement, we advocate for educational policymakers to provide training and technical support to teachers to ensure that they can fully master and integrate VR to increase student engagement and instructional effectiveness.

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