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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2212105120, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623184


Windthrow, or the uprooting of trees by extreme wind gusts, is a natural forest disturbance that creates microhabitats, turns over soil, alters hydrology, and removes carbon from the above-ground carbon stock. Long recurrence intervals between extreme wind events, however, make direct observations of windthrow rare, challenging our understanding of this important disturbance process. To overcome this difficulty, we present an approach that uses the geomorphic record of hillslope topographic roughness as a proxy for the occurrence of windthrow. The approach produces a probability function of the number of annual windthrow events for a maximum wind speed, allowing us to explore how windthrow or tree strengths may change due to shifting wind climates. Slight changes to extreme wind speeds may drive comparatively large changes in windthrow production rates or force trees to respond and change the distribution. We also highlight that topographic roughness has the potential to serve as an important archive of extreme wind speeds.

Florestas , Vento , Clima , Carbono
Sci Adv ; 7(48): eabj2938, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818050


Subglacial landscapes, revealed in regions of recent ice-sheet retreat, provide a window into ice-sheet dynamics and interactions with evolving subglacial topography. Here, we document landscape evolution beneath the southern Laurentide Ice Sheet of North America since the end of the Pliocene, 2.6 million years (Ma) ago, by reconstructing the isostatically adjusted preglacial surface and modern bedrock topography at 250 m horizontal resolution. We use flow routing to reconstruct drainage networks and river longitudinal profiles, revealing the pattern and extent of their glacially forced reorganization. The overall mean Quaternary (2.6 Ma ago to present) erosion rate is 27 m/Ma, rising within ice-streaming corridors to 35 m/Ma (and locally reaching 400 m/Ma) and falling to 22 m/Ma in non­ice-streaming regions. Our results suggest that subglacial erosion was sufficient to lower the southern Laurentide Ice Sheet into warmer environments, thereby enhancing ablation and reducing ice-sheet extent over time.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15577, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341457


Landslide dam outburst floods have a significant impact on landform evolution in high mountainous areas. Historic landslide dams on the Yigong River, southeastern Tibet, generated two outburst superfloods > 105 m3/s in 1902 and 2000 AD. One of the slackwater deposits, which was newly found immediately downstream of the historic dams, has been dated to 7 ka BP. The one-dimensional backwater stepwise method gives an estimate of 225,000 m3/s for the peak flow related to the paleo-stage indicator of 7 ka BP. The recurrence of at least three large landslide dam impoundments and super-outburst floods at the exit of Yigong Lake during the Holocene greatly changed the morphology of the Yigong River. More than 0.26 billion m3 of sediment has been aggraded in the dammed lake while the landslide sediment doubles the channel slope behind the dam. Repeated landslide damming may be a persistent source of outburst floods and impede the upstream migration of river knickpoints in the southeastern margin of Tibet.

Trends Ecol Evol ; 32(3): 211-226, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196688


Topographically complex regions on land and in the oceans feature hotspots of biodiversity that reflect geological influences on ecological and evolutionary processes. Over geologic time, topographic diversity gradients wax and wane over millions of years, tracking tectonic or climatic history. Topographic diversity gradients from the present day and the past can result from the generation of species by vicariance or from the accumulation of species from dispersal into a region with strong environmental gradients. Biological and geological approaches must be integrated to test alternative models of diversification along topographic gradients. Reciprocal illumination among phylogenetic, phylogeographic, ecological, paleontological, tectonic, and climatic perspectives is an emerging frontier of biogeographic research.

Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Clima , Ecologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia