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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8848, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632390

RESUMO

UK Biobank is a large-scale epidemiological resource for investigating prospective correlations between various lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors with health and disease progression. In addition to individual subject information obtained through surveys and physical examinations, a comprehensive neuroimaging battery consisting of multiple modalities provides imaging-derived phenotypes (IDPs) that can serve as biomarkers in neuroscience research. In this study, we augment the existing set of UK Biobank neuroimaging structural IDPs, obtained from well-established software libraries such as FSL and FreeSurfer, with related measurements acquired through the Advanced Normalization Tools Ecosystem. This includes previously established cortical and subcortical measurements defined, in part, based on the Desikan-Killiany-Tourville atlas. Also included are morphological measurements from two recent developments: medial temporal lobe parcellation of hippocampal and extra-hippocampal regions in addition to cerebellum parcellation and thickness based on the Schmahmann anatomical labeling. Through predictive modeling, we assess the clinical utility of these IDP measurements, individually and in combination, using commonly studied phenotypic correlates including age, fluid intelligence, numeric memory, and several other sociodemographic variables. The predictive accuracy of these IDP-based models, in terms of root-mean-squared-error or area-under-the-curve for continuous and categorical variables, respectively, provides comparative insights between software libraries as well as potential clinical interpretability. Results demonstrate varied performance between package-based IDP sets and their combination, emphasizing the need for careful consideration in their selection and utilization.

2.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 16(1): e12542, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Virtually all people with Down syndrome (DS) develop neuropathology associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Atrophy of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (EC), as well as elevated plasma concentrations of neurofilament light chain (NfL) protein, are markers of neurodegeneration associated with late-onset AD. We hypothesized that hippocampus and EC gray matter loss and increased plasma NfL concentrations are associated with memory in adults with DS. METHODS: T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected from 101 participants with DS. Hippocampus and EC volume, as well as EC subregional cortical thickness, were derived. In a subset of participants, plasma NfL concentrations and modified Cued Recall Test scores were obtained. Partial correlation and mediation were used to test relationships between medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy, plasma NfL, and episodic memory. RESULTS: Hippocampus volume, left anterolateral EC (alEC) thickness, and plasma NfL were correlated with each other and were associated with memory. Plasma NfL mediated the relationship between left alEC thickness and memory as well as hippocampus volume and memory. DISCUSSION: The relationship between MTL gray matter and memory is mediated by plasma NfL levels, suggesting a link between neurodegenerative processes underlying axonal injury and frank gray matter loss in key structures supporting episodic memory in people with DS.

3.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328085

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in older adults and is associated with medial temporal lobe (MTL) degeneration and memory decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms linking OSA to MTL degeneration and impaired memory remains unclear. By combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments of cerebrovascular pathology and MTL structure with clinical polysomnography and assessment of overnight emotional memory retention in older adults at risk for AD, cerebrovascular pathology in fronto-parietal brain regions was shown to statistically mediate the relationship between OSA-related hypoxemia, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and entorhinal cortical thickness. Reduced entorhinal cortical thickness was, in turn, associated with impaired overnight retention in mnemonic discrimination ability across emotional valences for high similarity lures. These findings identify cerebrovascular pathology as a contributing mechanism linking hypoxemia to MTL degeneration and impaired sleep-dependent memory in older adults.

4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 215, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172140

RESUMO

Enhanced memory for emotional experiences is hypothesized to depend on amygdala-hippocampal interactions during memory consolidation. Here we show using intracranial recordings from the human amygdala and the hippocampus during an emotional memory encoding and discrimination task increased awake ripples after encoding of emotional, compared to neutrally-valenced stimuli. Further, post-encoding ripple-locked stimulus similarity is predictive of later memory discrimination. Ripple-locked stimulus similarity appears earlier in the amygdala than in hippocampus and mutual information analysis confirms amygdala influence on hippocampal activity. Finally, the joint ripple-locked stimulus similarity in the amygdala and hippocampus is predictive of correct memory discrimination. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence that post-encoding ripples enhance memory for emotional events.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Memória , Vigília , Humanos , Vigília/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Emoções , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia
5.
Geroscience ; 46(1): 309-325, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37318716

RESUMO

This study examined whether a 3-month mild-exercise intervention could improve executive function in healthy middle-aged and older adults in a randomized control trial. Ultimately, a total of 81 middle-aged and older adults were randomly assigned to either an exercise group or a control group. The exercise group received 3 months of mild cycle exercise intervention (3 sessions/week, 30-50 min/session). The control group was asked to behave as usual for the intervention period. Before and after the intervention, participants did color-word matching Stroop tasks (CWST), and Stroop interference (SI)-related reaction time (RT) was assessed as an indicator of executive function. During the CWST, prefrontal activation was monitored using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). SI-related oxy-Hb changes and SI-related neural efficiency (NE) scores were assessed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of the exercise intervention. Although the mild-exercise intervention significantly decreased SI-related RT, there were no significant effects of exercise intervention on SI-related oxy-Hb changes or SI-related NE scores in prefrontal subregions. Lastly, changes in the effects of mild exercise on NE with advancing age were examined. The 81 participants were divided into two subgroups (younger-aged subgroup [YA], older-aged subgroup [OA], based on median age [68 years.]). Interestingly, SI-related RT significantly decreased, and SI-related NE scores in all ROIs of the prefrontal cortex significantly increased only in the OA subgroup. These results reveal that a long-term intervention of very light-intensity exercise has a positive effect on executive function especially in older adults, possibly by increasing neural efficiency in the prefrontal cortex.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal mood dysregulation influences child cognitive and emotional development, which may have long-lasting implications for mental health. However, the neurobiological alterations associated with this dimension of adversity have yet to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fetal exposure to entropy, a novel index of dysregulated maternal mood, would predict the integrity of the salience network, which is involved in emotional processing. METHODS: A sample of 138 child-mother pairs (70 females) participated in this prospective longitudinal study. Maternal negative mood level and entropy (an index of variable and unpredictable mood) were assessed 5 times during pregnancy. Adolescents engaged in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that was acquired between 2 resting-state scans. Changes in network integrity were analyzed using mixed-effect and latent growth curve models. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations was analyzed to corroborate findings. RESULTS: Prenatal maternal mood entropy, but not mood level, was associated with salience network integrity. Both prenatal negative mood level and entropy were associated with the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the salience network. Latent class analysis yielded 2 profiles based on changes in network integrity across all functional magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The profile that exhibited little variation in network connectivity (i.e., inflexibility) consisted of adolescents who were exposed to higher negative maternal mood levels and more entropy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that fetal exposure to maternal mood dysregulation is associated with a weakened and inflexible salience network. More broadly, they identify maternal mood entropy as a novel marker of early adversity that exhibits long-lasting associations with offspring brain development.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Humanos , Adolescente , Gravidez , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Entropia , Estudos Prospectivos , Encéfalo/fisiologia
7.
Neurobiol Aging ; 133: 107-114, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37939430

RESUMO

Physical exercise has positive impacts on hippocampal memory decline with aging. One of the postulated neurobiological mechanisms of the decline is reduced catecholaminergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus. Recent human studies revealed that very light exercise rapidly enhances memory and pupil diameter, which suggests that light exercise may improve memory via neural circuits involved in the ascending arousal system, including the locus coeruleus, even in older adults. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of a single bout of light-intensity exercise (60% ventilatory threshold) on mnemonic discrimination performance, an index of hippocampal memory function, in healthy older adults using a randomized crossover design. Pupil diameter was measured during exercise as a physiological marker of the ascending arousal system. Discrimination of highly similar stimuli to the targets improved after exercise when compared to the resting control performance. Importantly, causal mediation analysis showed that pupil dilation during exercise mediated the memory improvement. These results suggest that brief light exercise rapidly enhances memory, possibly by upregulating the ascending arousal system.


Assuntos
Memória , Pupila , Idoso , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipocampo , Memória/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over
8.
medRxiv ; 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38076904

RESUMO

Importance: By age 40 years over 90% of adults with Down syndrome (DS) have Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and most progress to dementia. Despite having few systemic vascular risk factors, individuals with DS have elevated cerebrovascular disease (CVD) markers that track with the clinical progression of AD, suggesting a role for CVD that is hypothesized to be mediated by inflammatory factors. Objective: To examine the pathways through which small vessel CVD contributes to AD-related pathophysiology and neurodegeneration in adults with DS. Design: Cross sectional analysis of neuroimaging, plasma, and clinical data. Setting: Participants were enrolled in Alzheimer's Biomarker Consortium - Down Syndrome (ABC-DS), a multisite study of AD in adults with DS. Participants: One hundred eighty-five participants (mean [SD] age=45.2 [9.3] years) with available MRI and plasma biomarker data were included. White matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes were derived from T2-weighted FLAIR MRI scans and plasma biomarker concentrations of amyloid beta (Aß42/Aß40), phosphorylated tau (p-tau217), astrocytosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP), and neurodegeneration (neurofilament light chain, NfL) were measured with ultrasensitive immunoassays. Main Outcomes and Measures: We examined the bivariate relationships of WMH, Aß42/Aß40, p-tau217, and GFAP with age-residualized NfL across AD diagnostic groups. A series of mediation and path analyses examined causal pathways linking WMH and AD pathophysiology to promote neurodegeneration in the total sample and groups stratified by clinical diagnosis. Results: There was a direct and indirect bidirectional effect through GFAP of WMH on p-tau217 concentration, which was associated with NfL concentration in the entire sample. Among cognitively stable participants, WMH was directly and indirectly, through GFAP, associated with p-tau217 concentration, and in those with MCI, there was a direct effect of WMH on p-tau217 and NfL concentrations. There were no associations of WMH with biomarker concentrations among those diagnosed with dementia. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that among individuals with DS, CVD promotes neurodegeneration by increasing astrocytosis and tau pathophysiology in the presymptomatic phases of AD. This work joins an emerging literature that implicates CVD and its interface with neuroinflammation as a core pathological feature of AD in adults with DS.

9.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 8505, 2023 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38129375

RESUMO

Episodic memory arises as a function of dynamic interactions between the hippocampus and the neocortex, yet the mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, using human intracranial recordings during a mnemonic discrimination task, we report that 4-5 Hz (theta) power is differentially recruited during discrimination vs. overgeneralization, and its phase supports hippocampal-neocortical when memories are being formed and correctly retrieved. Interactions were largely bidirectional, with small but significant net directional biases; a hippocampus-to-neocortex bias during acquisition of new information that was subsequently correctly discriminated, and a neocortex-to-hippocampus bias during accurate discrimination of new stimuli from similar previously learned stimuli. The 4-5 Hz rhythm may facilitate the initial stages of information acquisition by neocortex during learning and the recall of stored information from cortex during retrieval. Future work should further probe these dynamics across different types of tasks and stimuli and computational models may need to be expanded accordingly to accommodate these findings.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Neocórtex , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Hipocampo , Rememoração Mental , Ritmo Teta
10.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37961192

RESUMO

Memory consolidation occurs via reactivation of a hippocampal index during non-rapid eye movement slow-wave sleep (NREM SWS) which binds attributes of an experience existing within cortical modules. For memories containing emotional content, hippocampal-amygdala dynamics facilitate consolidation over a sleep bout. This study tested if modularity and centrality-graph theoretical measures that index the level of segregation/integration in a system and the relative import of its nodes-map onto central tenets of memory consolidation theory and sleep-related processing. Findings indicate that greater network integration is tied to overnight emotional memory retention via NREM SWS expression. Greater hippocampal and amygdala influence over network organization supports emotional memory retention, and hippocampal or amygdala control over information flow are differentially associated with distinct stages of memory processing. These centrality measures are also tied to the local expression and coupling of key sleep oscillations tied to sleep-dependent memory consolidation. These findings suggest that measures of intrinsic network connectivity may predict the capacity of brain functional networks to acquire, consolidate, and retrieve emotional memories.

11.
Res Sq ; 2023 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37961236

RESUMO

UK Biobank is a large-scale epidemiological resource for investigating prospective correlations between various lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors with health and disease progression. In addition to individual subject information obtained through surveys and physical examinations, a comprehensive neuroimaging battery consisting of multiple modalities provides imaging-derived phenotypes (IDPs) that can serve as biomarkers in neuroscience research. In this study, we augment the existing set of UK Biobank neuroimaging structural IDPs, obtained from well-established software libraries such as FSL and FreeSurfer, with related measurements acquired through the Advanced Normalization Tools Ecosystem. This includes previously established cortical and subcortical measurements defined, in part, based on the Desikan-Killiany-Tourville atlas. Also included are morphological measurements from two recent developments: medial temporal lobe parcellation of hippocampal and extra-hippocampal regions in addition to cerebellum parcellation and thickness based on the Schmahmann anatomical labeling. Through predictive modeling, we assess the clinical utility of these IDP measurements, individually and in combination, using commonly studied phenotypic correlates including age, fluid intelligence, numeric memory, and several other sociodemographic variables. The predictive accuracy of these IDP-based models, in terms of root-mean-squared-error or area-under-the-curve for continuous and categorical variables, respectively, provides comparative insights between software libraries as well as potential clinical interpretability. Results demonstrate varied performance between package-based IDP sets and their combination, emphasizing the need for careful consideration in their selection and utilization.

12.
medRxiv ; 2023 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37961444

RESUMO

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are less likely to have hypertension than neurotypical adults. However, whether blood pressure measures are associated with brain health and clinical outcomes in this population has not been studied in detail. Here, we assessed whether pulse pressure is associated with markers of cerebrovascular disease, entorhinal cortical atrophy, and diagnosis of dementia in adults with DS. Participants with DS from the Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome study (ADDS; n=195, age=50.6±7.2 years, 44% women, 18% diagnosed with dementia) were included. Higher pulse pressure was associated with greater global, parietal, and occipital WMH volume. Pulse pressure was not related to enlarged PVS, microbleeds, infarcts, entorhinal cortical thickness, or dementia diagnosis. However, in a serial mediation model, we found that pulse pressure was indirectly related to dementia diagnosis through parieto-occipital WMH and, subsequently through entorhinal cortical thickness. Higher pulse pressure may be a risk factor for dementia in people with DS by promoting cerebrovascular disease, which in turn affects neurodegeneration. Pulse pressure is an important determinant of brain health and clinical outcomes in individuals with Down syndrome despite the low likelihood of frank hypertension.

13.
Neuropsychologia ; 191: 108727, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37939874

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, characterized by early memory impairments and gradual worsening of daily functions. AD-related pathology, such as amyloid-beta (Aß) plaques, begins to accumulate many years before the onset of clinical symptoms. Predicting risk for AD via related pathology is critical as the preclinical stage could serve as a therapeutic time window, allowing for early management of the disease and reducing health and economic costs. Current methods for detecting AD pathology, however, are often expensive and invasive, limiting wide and easy access to a clinical setting. A non-invasive, cost-efficient platform, such as computerized cognitive tests, could be potentially useful to identify at-risk individuals as early as possible. In this study, we examined the diagnostic value of an episodic memory task, the mnemonic discrimination task (MDT), for predicting risk of cognitive impairment or Aß burden. We constructed a random forest classification algorithm, utilizing MDT performance metrics and various neuropsychological test scores as input features, and assessed model performance using area under the curve (AUC). Models based on MDT performance metrics achieved classification results with an AUC of 0.83 for cognitive status and an AUC of 0.64 for Aß status. Our findings suggest that mnemonic discrimination function may be a useful predictor of progression to prodromal AD or increased risk of Aß load, which could be a cost-efficient, noninvasive cognitive testing solution for potentially wide-scale assessment of AD pathological and cognitive risk.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Disfunção Cognitiva , Memória Episódica , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
14.
Learn Mem ; 30(11): 296-309, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37923355

RESUMO

The mnemonic discrimination task (MDT) is a widely used cognitive assessment tool. Performance in this task is believed to indicate an age-related deficit in episodic memory stemming from a decreased ability to pattern-separate among similar experiences. However, cognitive processes other than memory ability might impact task performance. In this study, we investigated whether nonmnemonic decision-making processes contribute to the age-related deficit in the MDT. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian version of the Ratcliff diffusion model to the MDT performance of 26 younger and 31 cognitively normal older adults. It allowed us to decompose decision behavior in the MDT into different underlying cognitive processes, represented by specific model parameters. Model parameters were compared between groups, and differences were evaluated using the Bayes factor. Our results suggest that the age-related decline in MDT performance indicates a predominantly mnemonic deficit rather than differences in nonmnemonic decision-making processes. In addition, this mnemonic deficit might also involve a slowing in processes related to encoding and retrieval strategies, which are relevant for successful memory as well. These findings help to better understand what cognitive processes contribute to the age-related decline in MDT performance and may help to improve the diagnostic value of this popular task.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Teorema de Bayes , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão
15.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37905117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffusion tensor imaging has been used to assess white matter (WM) changes in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the tensor model is necessarily limited by its assumptions. Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) can offer insights into microstructural features of WM change. We assessed whether NODDI more sensitively detects AD-related changes in medial temporal lobe WM than traditional tensor metrics. METHODS: Standard diffusion and NODDI metrics were calculated for medial temporal WM tracts from 199 older adults drawn from ADNI3 who also received PET to measure pathology and neuropsychological testing. RESULTS: NODDI measures in medial temporal tracts were more strongly correlated to cognitive performance and pathology than standard measures. The combination of NODDI and standard metrics exhibited the strongest prediction of cognitive performance in random forest analyses. CONCLUSIONS: NODDI metrics offer additional insights into contributions of WM degeneration to cognitive outcomes in the aging brain.

16.
FASEB J ; 37(11): e23224, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37779389

RESUMO

A wealth of data has consistently demonstrated that a diverse faculty maximizes productivity and innovation in the research enterprise and increases the persistence and success of groups that are underrepresented in STEM. While the diversity of students in graduate programs has steadily increased, faculty diversity, particularly in the biomedical sciences, continues to remain relatively flat. Several issues contribute to this mismatch between the pipeline and the professoriate including biases in search and hiring practices, lack of equity and equal opportunities for individuals from underrepresented backgrounds, and unwelcoming campus climates that lead to marginalization and isolation in academic life. A comprehensive approach that addresses these challenges is necessary for institutions of higher education to achieve their faculty diversity goals and create a climate where individuals from all groups feel welcomed and succeed. This article focuses on the first step in this approach-diversifying faculty recruitment through adopting search practices that generate an applicant pool that matches national availability, ensures equity in evaluation and hiring practices, and promotes inclusion and belonging in the hiring experience. These strategies have been recently used at the University of California, Irvine's School of Biological Sciences and while the long-term impact remains unknown, short-term outcomes in recruitment and hiring have demonstrated significant improvement over previous years.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Minoritários , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Docentes , Estudantes , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37790541

RESUMO

Episodic memory arises as a function of dynamic interactions between the hippocampus and the neocortex, yet the mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, using human intracranial recordings during a mnemonic discrimination task, we report that 4-5 Hz (theta) power is differentially recruited during discrimination vs. overgeneralization, and its phase supports hippocampal-neocortical when memories are being formed and correctly retrieved. Interactions were largely bidirectional, with small but significant net directional biases; a hippocampus-to-neocortex bias during acquisition of new information that was subsequently correctly discriminated, and a neocortex-to-hippocampus bias during accurate discrimination of new stimuli from similar previously learned stimuli. The 4-5 Hz rhythm may facilitate the initial stages of information acquisition by neocortex during learning and the recall of stored information from cortex during retrieval. Future work should further probe these dynamics across different types of tasks and stimuli and computational models may need to be expanded accordingly to accommodate these findings.

18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 13953, 2023 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37626094

RESUMO

Older adults may harbor large amounts of amyloid-ß (Aß) pathology, yet still perform at age-normal levels on memory assessments. We tested whether functional brain networks confer resilience or compensatory mechanisms to support memory in the face of Aß pathology. Sixty-five cognitively normal older adults received high-resolution resting state fMRI to assess functional networks, 18F-florbetapir-PET to measure Aß, and a memory assessment. We characterized functional networks with graph metrics of local efficiency (information transfer), modularity (specialization of functional modules), and small worldness (balance of integration and segregation). There was no difference in functional network measures between older adults with high Aß (Aß+) compared to those with no/low Aß (Aß-). However, in Aß+ older adults, increased local efficiency, modularity, and small worldness were associated with better memory performance, while this relationship did not occur Aß- older adults. Further, the association between increased local efficiency and better memory performance in Aß+ older adults was localized to local efficiency of the default mode network and hippocampus, regions vulnerable to Aß and involved in memory processing. Our results suggest functional networks with modular and efficient structures are associated with resilience to Aß pathology, providing a functional target for intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória , Memória , Humanos , Idoso , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Benchmarking , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Front Neurosci ; 17: 1200448, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37554295

RESUMO

Objective: Cognitive loss in older adults is a growing issue in our society, and there is a need to develop inexpensive, simple, effective in-home treatments. This study was conducted to explore the use of olfactory enrichment at night to improve cognitive ability in healthy older adults. Methods: Male and female older adults (N = 43), age 60-85, were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to an Olfactory Enriched or Control group. Individuals in the enriched group were exposed to 7 different odorants a week, one per night, for 2 h, using an odorant diffuser. Individuals in the control group had the same experience with de minimis amounts of odorant. Neuropsychological assessments and fMRI scans were administered at the beginning of the study and after 6 months. Results: A statistically significant 226% improvement was observed in the enriched group compared to the control group on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and improved functioning was observed in the left uncinate fasciculus, as assessed by mean diffusivity. Conclusion: Minimal olfactory enrichment administered at night produces improvements in both cognitive and neural functioning. Thus, olfactory enrichment may provide an effective and low-effort pathway to improved brain health.

20.
Cereb Cortex Commun ; 4(2): tgad010, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37323937

RESUMO

Acute mild exercise has been observed to facilitate executive function and memory. A possible underlying mechanism of this is the upregulation of the ascending arousal system, including the catecholaminergic system originating from the locus coeruleus (LC). Prior work indicates that pupil diameter, as an indirect marker of the ascending arousal system, including the LC, increases even with very light-intensity exercise. However, it remains unclear whether the LC directly contributes to exercise-induced pupil-linked arousal. Here, we examined the involvement of the LC in the change in pupil dilation induced by very light-intensity exercise using pupillometry and neuromelanin imaging to assess the LC integrity. A sample of 21 young males performed 10 min of very light-intensity exercise, and we measured changes in the pupil diameters and psychological arousal levels induced by the exercise. Neuromelanin-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were also obtained. We observed that pupil diameter and psychological arousal levels increased during very light-intensity exercise, which is consistent with previous findings. Notably, the LC contrast, a marker of LC integrity, predicted the magnitude of pupil dilation and psychological arousal enhancement with exercise. These relationships suggest that the LC-catecholaminergic system is a potential a mechanism for pupil-linked arousal induced by very light-intensity exercise.

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