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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 603-608, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have analyzed the use of antidepressants among population suffering from depression in China. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and the cost of commonly prescribed antidepressants among patients with depression. METHODS: This study used data that comprised 5% random sample of claims data from China's Urban Basic Medical Insurance between 2013 and 2016. We estimated the prevalence, calculated the proportions of those on antidepressant treatment as well as those on specific drugs. RESULTS: Among 26 826 patients with depression, 62.31% were prescribed with antidepressants in urban China, and the estimated average annual total cost of antidepressants per patient was RMB887.7(USD140.9). The prevalence of antidepressant prescription was higher among patients aged 15-24 years, having URBMI insurance, with recurrent depression and having severe or moderate depression. Approximately 9.3% of patients used more than one type of antidepressants and 19% of patients have only one prescription of antidepressant in a year. CONCLUSION: Our analyses showed that antidepressant prescribing was prevalent among patients with depression, particularly in adolescents and youth groups, and are subject to variation with clinical features and different insurance scheme. Further investigation of antidepressant use patterns, such as duration, combination and switching, as well as treatment trajectories will facilitate our understanding of the pharmacotherapy practices of depressive disorders.

2.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(5): 1141-1156, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850761

RESUMO

The Expert Consensus reviews current literatures and provides clinical practice guidelines for thermal ablation of pulmonary subsolid nodules or ground-glass nodule (GGN). The main contents include the following: (1) clinical evaluation of GGN; (2) procedures, indications, contraindications, outcomes evaluation, and related complications of thermal ablation for GGN; and (3) future development directions.

3.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 8: 1323-1338, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765572

RESUMO

Background: Cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) gene is one of the members of the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) gene family. The aim of this study was to reveal the function of CYP2C8 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its effect on the sorafenib resistance. Methods: Differential expression analysis in multiple HCC datasets all suggested that CYP2C8 expression was significantly decreased in HCC tissues, compared with para-carcinoma liver tissues. The expression level of CYP2C8 was subsequently compared between HCC tissues and para-carcinoma liver tissues of 70 patients form Guangxi, China, with the result consistent with the above. Survival analysis and ROC analysis indicated that CYP2C8 was equipped with satisfactory diagnostic and prognostic value in HCC. To examine the effect of CYP2C8 on the malignant phenotype of HCC cells, stable transcriptional cell lines with CYP2C8 over-expression were established, and then Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, colony formation assay, cell cycle assay, cell invasion assay and wound healing assay were performed. Results: The results of aforementioned assays suggested that CYP2C8 over-expression restricted the proliferation, clonality, migration, invasion and cell cycle of HCC cells but had no significant effect on cell apoptosis. The enrichment analysis in terms of sequencing data of HCC cell lines with stable CYP2C8 over-expression suggested that CYP2C8 might be related to PI3K/Akt/p27Kip1 axis. The inhibition of CYP2C8 over-expression on PI3K/Akt/p27Kip1 axis was subsequently demonstrated with Western blot assay. In the rescue experiment, it was observed that both P27 inhibitor and PI3K agonist counteracted the repressed malignant phenotype caused by CYP2C8 over-expression, which further demonstrated that CYP2C8 played a role in HCC cells via PI3K/Akt/p27Kip1 axis. Discussion: The results demonstrated that CYP2C8 enhances the anticancer activity of sorafenib in vitro assays and in tumor xenograft model, with Ki-67 down-regulation and PI3K/Akt/p27Kip1 axis inhibition. In conclusion, these findings hinted that CYP2C8 restricted malignant phenotype and sorafenib resistance in HCC via PI3K/Akt/p27kip1 axis.

4.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(10): 742-750, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755168

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The introduction of laparoscopic surgery has changed abdominal surgery. We evaluated the evolution and changing trends associated with adoption of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and the experience of a surgeon without prior LLR experience. METHODS: A retrospective review of 310 patients who underwent LLR performed by a single surgeon from 2011 to 2020 was conducted. Exclusion criteria were patients who underwent laparoscopic liver surgeries such as excision biopsy, local ablation, drainage of abscesses and deroofing of liver cysts. There were 300 cases and the cohort was divided into 5 groups of 60 patients. RESULTS: There were 288 patients who underwent a totally minimally invasive approach, including 28 robotic-assisted procedures. Open conversion occurred for 13 (4.3%) patients; the conversion rate decreased significantly from 10% in the initial period to 3.3% subsequently. There were 83 (27.7%) major resections and 131 (43.7%) resections were performed for tumours in the difficult posterosuperior location. There were 152 (50.7%) patients with previous abdominal surgery, including 52 (17.3%) repeat liver resections for recurrent tumours, and 60 patients had other concomitant operations. According to the Iwate criteria, 135 (44.7%) were graded as high/expert difficulty. Major morbidity (>grade 3a) occurred in 12 (4.0%) patients and there was no 30-day mortality. Comparison across the 5 patient groups demonstrated a significant trend towards older patients, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, increasing frequency of LLR with previous abdominal surgery, increasing frequency of portal hypertension and huge tumours, decreasing blood loss and decreasing transfusion rate across the study period. Surgeon experience (≤60 cases) and Institut Mutualiste Montsouris (IMM) high grade resections were independent predictors of open conversion. Open conversion was associated with worse perioperative outcomes such as increased blood loss, transfusion rate, morbidity and length of stay. CONCLUSION: LLR can be safely adopted for resections of all difficulty grades, including major resections and for tumours located in the difficult posterosuperior segments, with a low open conversion rate.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia
5.
Surg Oncol ; 39: 101671, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of HCC differs depending on the extent of disease. Surgery may be offered in selected cases of T4 disease as defined by AJCC 8th. However, outcome data post partial hepatectomy (PH) for T4 disease is scarce. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of patients post resection of T4 HCC and assess preoperative predictive factors of early recurrence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 235 consecutive patients who underwent resection for T4 HCC from 2001 to 2018 at our institution. RESULTS: Median overall survival was 35.9 months (95% CI 25.7-46.0). 109 patients (49.5%) developed recurrence, of which 94 patients (42.7%) experienced early recurrence within 12 months. Median time to recurrence was 38.1 months. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that vascular invasion were significant independent preoperative predictor of early recurrence post resection. Patients who experienced early recurrence had a significantly shorter median overall survival 14.3 months (95% CI 25.7-46.0) compared to those who did not (55.5 months, 95% CI 40.6-70.8, p = .000). CONCLUSION: Selected patients with T4 HCC may benefit from PH. Macrovascular invasion was associated with early recurrence within 12 months.

6.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791459

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development; however, the adaptive mechanisms of Mg deficiency to underlying changes in Mg translocation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms in citrus plants are unknown. In this study, we conducted a sand culture experiment with 0 (Mg-deficiency) or 2 (Mg-sufficiency) mmol L-1 Mg2+ treatments to investigate the responses underlying Mg adaptability, as well as the resulting growth and Mg transport features in citrus seedlings (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. 'Xuegan'). We found that Mg-deficiency significantly depressed biomass by 39% in the whole plant and by 66% in branch organs compared with Mg-sufficient conditions, which further resulted in a subsequent decrease in Mg concentration and accumulation with changes in its distribution in different organs, and a reduction in root growth. Under Mg-sufficiency, > 50% of Mg was sequestered in the soluble fraction and this was reduced by 30% under Mg-deficiency. Furthermore, > 70% of Mg existed as inorganic (42%) and water-soluble (31%) forms with high mobility across treatments and organs. Under Mg-deficiency, the proportion of water-soluble Mg was reduced in leaf and increased in root, while the proportion of inorganic Mg increased in main stem leaves and decreased in branch leaves and root. However, under Mg-deficiency, the proportion of Mg forms with low mobility, including pectates and proteins, phosphates, oxalates, and residues, was increased in leaf and root organs, with the exception of pectate and protein Mg, which was decreased in root. The Mg transfer factor showed that Mg-deficiency improved Mg transport from parent to branch organs, which was related to Mg subcellular distribution and chemical forms. Taken together, our study establishes a defined process to clarify the mechanisms of Mg absorption and translocation and reveals a possible strategy to effectively improve Mg mobility and availability in citrus plants.

8.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) is a very common ablation method that shows a good local tumor control rate in primary and secondary lung tumors. At present, few reports have explored the safety and efficacy of MWA for lung metastases from breast cancer. METHODS: From January 2012 to January 2018, 32 breast cancer patients with 46 pulmonary metastases received CT-guided percutaneous MWA. The study was approved by the local institutional review board. The clinical efficacy and complications of MWA were investigated. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 32 months and the main effective rate was 97.8% (45/46). Five of 46 lesions had local progression (10.9%), with a median progression time of 10 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 96.9%, 53.3%, and 17.8%, respectively. The median OS time was 36 months. Among 46 MWA treatments, 11 (23.9%) had massive pneumothorax, two (4.3%) had massive pleural effusion, and two (4.3%) had a pulmonary infection. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be safe and effective for treating lung metastases from breast cancer.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 704614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744866

RESUMO

Previous studies have found that promoting multiple identities can improve children's creative performance (divergent thinking). The present study employed a priming paradigm to design two experiments and investigate whether promoting a sense of multiple identities in middle school students could enhance their divergent thinking, a key component of creativity. In Experiment 1, 77 junior high school students were divided into multiple identities and physical trait condition groups. They were instructed to think about a child with multiple identities or physical traits. The results showed that there were no differences in divergent thinking (DT) scores between the two groups. In Experiment 2, we modified the priming method by asking participants to think about and write a description of the various identities or physical traits and employed a subjective top-scoring method to make up for shortcomings in the traditional scoring method when applied to originality. The results still showed no significant difference in scores between the identity and physical trait groups. Thus, the results of this study contradict those of previous research, which found that the identity group demonstrated significantly higher scores on a creativity test than did those in the physical trait group. Several potential factors affect this outcome, but it seems that priming to enhance divergent thinking is not particularly effective. Thus, the social priming effect should be pursued with caution regarding both replicability and generalizability.

10.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(13): 10, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751744

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to engineer deep learning (DL) models that can identify myopic maculopathy in patients with high myopia based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Methods: An artificial intelligence (AI) system was developed using 2342 qualified OCT macular images from 1041 patients with pathologic myopia admitted to the Affiliated Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (WMU). We adopted an ResNeSt101 architecture to train five independent models to identify the following five myopic maculopathies: macular choroidal thinning, macular Bruch membrane (BM) defects, subretinal hyper-reflective material (SHRM), myopic traction maculopathy (MTM), and dome-shaped macula (DSM). We tested the models with an independent test dataset that included 450 images obtained from 297 patients with high myopia. Focal loss was used to address class imbalance, and optimal operating thresholds were determined according to the Youden Index. The performance was quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and confusion matrix. Results: For the identification of myopic maculopathy, the AUCs of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.927 to 0.974 for 5 myopic maculopathies. Our AI system achieved sensitivities equal to or even better than those of junior retinal specialists (56.16-99.73%). The diagnosis of it is also interpretable that we provide visual explanations clearly via heatmaps. Conclusions: We developed a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based DL AI system for detection and classification of myopic maculopathy in patients with high myopia using OCT macular images. Our AI system achieved sensitivities equal to or even better than those of junior retinal specialists. Translational Relevance: This AI system can be widely applied in sophisticated situations in large-scale high myopia screening.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151540, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767892

RESUMO

Flower is an essential element in the human lifestyle but its role in disseminating antimicrobial resistance (AMR) between the environment and humans is unclear. In this study, we screened fresh flowers (Lilium spp.) collected from planting bases, market and florists in Guangzhou China aiming to investigate the prevalence of AMR genes, particularly cfr, optrA and poxtA mediating resistance to linezolid, a first-line drug for the treatment of different Gram-positive bacterial infections. We found 223 Enterococcus isolates consisting of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus mundtii, and >50% of these isolates exhibited multiple-drug resistance. Additionally, 31 optrA-positive Enterococcus including 22 E. faecalis and 9 E. mundtii strains were recovered, however cfr and poxtA were not detected. The 22 E. faecalis strains were belonged to 7 Multilocus sequence types in which ST202 and ST376 were predominant and 9 E. mundtii strains from the same plantation bases were divided into three PFGE groups. Genetically, the majority of optrA were located on the chromosome and shared similar insertion sites and transpositions mediated by Tn554 family members. Plasmid-bearing optrA were identified in 6 E. faecalis strains where IS1216 family played key roles in horizontal transfer of optrA. These findings emphasize that the prevalence of drug resistant Enterococcus in fresh flowers is a latent danger and increases the risk of AMR dissemination to humans from the environment.

12.
Chemistry ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811829

RESUMO

Upon fusing the pyrazinyl pyrazole entity in giving pyrazolo[3,4- f ]quinoxaline chelate, the corresponding Os(II) based NIR emitter exhibited "invisible" and efficient electroluminescence with peak max. at 811 nm and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 0.97% and suppressed efficiency roll-off till a current density of 300 mA cm -2 .

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769704

RESUMO

Vibration foam rolling (VR) can improve flexibility and sports performance. However, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and senior fitness test (SFT) responses induced by an acute VR session in older women are currently unknown. Fifteen healthy women (72.90 ± 4.32 years) completed three separated randomly sequenced experimental visits. During each visit, they started with a warm-up protocol (general warm up (GW): walking + static stretching (SS), SS + VR with light pressure (VRL), or SS + VR with moderate pressure (VRM)), and completed BP, HR, SFT measurements. The systolic BP increased significantly after all three warm up protocols (p < 0.05). Both VRL and VRM protocols induced statistically significant improvements (effect size range: 0.3-1.04, p < 0.05) in the senior fitness test (back scratch, 30 s chair stand, 30 s arm curl, and 8 foot up and go), as compared to the GW. In addition, the VRM showed greater improvement for the 2 min step test when comparing with the VRL. Therefore, including VR in a warm-up protocol can result in superior SFT performance enhancement than the GW does in healthy older women.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Exercício de Aquecimento , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Vibração
14.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779641

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to build a prediction model for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung adenocarcinoma. A retrospective analysis was performed on 88 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. All patients underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan and genetic testing of EGFR before the treatment. In the training set, the radiomics features and clinical factors were screened out, and model1 based on CT radiomics features, model2 based on PET radiomics features, model3 based on clinical factors, and model4 based on radiomics features combined with clinical factors were established, respectively. The performance of the prediction model was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The DeLong test was used to compare the performance of the models to screen out the optimal model, and then built the nomogram of the optimal model. The effect and clinical utility of the nomogram was verified in the validation cohort. In our analysis, model4 was superior to the other prediction models in identifying EGFR mutations. The AUC was 0.864 (95% CI: 0.777-0.950), with a sensitivity of 0.714 and a specificity of 0.784. The nomogram of model4 was established. In the validation cohort, the concordance index (C-index) value of the calibration curve of the nomogram model was 0.841 (95% CI: 0.677-1.005), and the nomogram had a good clinical utility. We demonstrated that the model based on 18F-FDG PET/CT radiomics features combined with clinical factors could predict EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma, which was expected to be an important supplement to molecular diagnosis.

15.
RSC Med Chem ; 12(11): 1968-1976, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825192

RESUMO

Bergenin, which is isolated from Bergenia species, exhibits various pharmacological properties. In the search for new types of immunosuppressants, a series of bergenin derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their immunosuppressive effects were evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. The experimental data demonstrated that compounds 7 and 13 showed the strongest inhibition effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation (IC50 = 3.52 and 5.39 µM, respectively). Further studies revealed that the inhibitory effect may come from the suppression of both IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines. Alkylated derivatives of bergenin with n-hexyl and n-heptyl on the two phenolic hydroxyl groups showed better inhibitory activities. The hydrophobicity of bergenin derivatives, the configuration of the 4-OH in bergenin, and the ability to form hydrogen bonds of the substituents on the C-4 position are important to the immunosuppressive activity. This work proved that the modifications of bergenin may represent a new route to the discovery of a new class of immunosuppressive agents.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830378

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is closely related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. To investigate the mechanism of HBV causing HCC, we previously analyzed the transcription of the HBV-transgenic cell line HepG2-4D14 and parental HepG2 cells and identified a subset of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) differentially expressed between them. In this study, we focus on lncRNA LINC01010, as it is significantly downregulated in HepG2-4D14 cells and in liver tissues of HCC patients, and positively correlated with survival. We found that HBV-encoded HBx can reduce the transcription of LINC01010. Functional analysis showed that the overexpression of LINC01010 inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells while the knockdown of LINC01010 promotes these processes. By taking the approach of RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and mass spectrometry, we identified that LINC01010 can interact with vimentin. Further studies demonstrated that LINC01010 negatively affects the vimentin network extension and causes more rapid subunit exchange and lower stability of vimentin filaments. In addition, LINC01010 can reduce the amount of insoluble vimentin within cells, which suggests that LINC01010 interfers with vimentin polymerization. These data indicate that LINC01010 can inhibit the assembly of vimentin filament. Thus, we revealed that HBV HBx-downregulated LINC01010, which suppresses cell proliferation and migration by negatively regulating the formation of vimentin filament. Taken together, LINC01010 is a potential tumor suppressor that may restrain HBV-related HCC development.

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835231

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of bovine mastitis, capable of causing significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. This study focuses on obtaining single-chain fragment variables (scFvs) against the virulence factors of S. aureus and evaluates the protective effect of scFvs on bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells and mice mammary gland tissues infected by S. aureus. After five rounds of bio-panning, four scFvs targeting four virulence factors of S. aureus were obtained. The complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of these scFvs exhibited significant diversities, especially CDR3 of the VH domain. In vitro, each of scFvs was capable of inhibiting S. aureus growth and reducing the damage of MAC-T cells infected by S. aureus. Preincubation of MAC-T cells with scFvs could significantly attenuate the effect of apoptosis and necrosis compared with the negative control group. In vivo, the qPCR and ELISA results demonstrated that scFvs reduced the transcription and expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18. Histopathology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) results showed that scFvs ameliorated the histopathological damages and reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration. The overall results demonstrated the positive anti-inflammatory effect of scFvs, revealing the potential role of scFvs in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus infections.

18.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Orphan drugs' high prices raise questions about whether their costs are worth their benefits. We examined the association between an orphan drug's cost-effectiveness and health plan coverage restrictiveness. METHODS: We analyzed a dataset of US commercial health plan coverage decisions (information current as of 2019) for orphan drugs (n = 3298). We used multi-level random-effect logistic regression to examine the association between orphan drug cost-effectiveness and coverage restrictiveness. We identified cost-effectiveness estimates from the Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, and from the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review's value assessments. We included only cost-effectiveness studies not funded by product manufacturers. We included the following independent variables: cancer indication, availability of alternatives, pediatric population, number of years since US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, disease prevalence, annual cost, additional non-orphan indication, safety, and inclusion in a FDA expedited review program. RESULTS: Plans restricted drug coverage in 29.7% (n = 981) of decisions. Plans were more likely to restrict drugs with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $50,000-$175,000 per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] (odds ratio = 1.855, p < 0.05), $175,000-$500,000 per QALY (odds ratio = 1.859, p < 0.05), and >$500,000 per QALY/dominated (odds ratio = 2.032, p < 0.01), compared to drugs with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios <$50,000 per QALY. Plans more often restricted drugs with non-cancer indications, having available alternatives, with more recent approval, in an FDA expedited review program, and for which the FDA additionally issued approval for a non-orphan disease. Plans more often restricted drugs with higher annual costs, and drugs indicated for higher prevalence diseases. All findings p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Among other factors, an orphan drug's cost-effectiveness was associated with health plan drug coverage restrictiveness.

20.
Opt Express ; 29(17): 27041-27047, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615126

RESUMO

With current trends to progressively miniaturize optical systems, it is now essential to look for alternative methods to control light at extremely small dimensions. Metalenses are composed of subwavelength nanostructures and have an excellent ability to manipulate the polarization, phase, and amplitude of incident light. Although great progress of metalenses has been made, the compact metalens-integrated devices have not been researched adequately. In the study, we present compact imaging devices for near-infrared microscopy, in which a metalens is exploited. The indicators including resolution, magnification, and image quality are investigated via imaging several specimens of intestinal cells to verify the overall performance of the imaging system. The further compact devices, where the metalens is integrated directly on the CMOS imaging sensor, are also researched to detect biomedical issues. This study provides an approach to constructing compact imaging devices based on metalenses for near-infrared microscopy, micro-telecopy, etc., which can promote the miniaturization tending of futural optical systems.

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