Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298193, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359081

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of tobacco and cigarette products remains widespread globally, with varying patterns across countries. Understanding the factors influencing cigarette dependence among young adults is crucial for effective smoking prevention and control programs. Personality traits are one of the factors that influence smoking behaviour, yet the evidence on their role in high cigarette dependence among young adults remains inconclusive. This study aims to provide insights and initial evidence on the potential association between personality dimensions, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits, and high cigarette dependence among Lebanese university students. METHODS: A convenient sample of 212 student smokers from one private and one public university in Lebanon participated in an online survey. The survey included measures of personality traits using the Big-Five framework, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits, and the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD). Logistic regression models and mediation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results revealed significant associations between personality dimensions and high cigarette dependence among Lebanese university students. Smokers with higher levels of Openness to Experience were more likely to have high cigarette dependence (ß = 0.408, p < = 0.015). Conversely, smokers with higher levels of Conscientiousness (ß = -0.500, p < 0.001) and Agreeableness (ß = -0.491, p < 0.01) were less likely to have high cigarette dependence. Additionally, attending a public university (ß = 1.198, p = 0.018), having more close friends who smoke (ß = 0.525, p < 0.01), and switching to a cheaper cigarette brand (ß = 0.928, p < 0.05) were associated with a higher cigarette dependence. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of considering personality dimensions, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle habits in understanding high cigarette dependence among Lebanese university students. The results can inform the development of targeted interventions to address high cigarette dependence in this population.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Universidades , Líbano/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Personalidade
2.
medRxiv ; 2023 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38014286

RESUMO

Background: Studies evaluating breastfeeding promotion and support interventions suggest some economic benefits. This study assessed the direct and indirect costs of a multicomponent breastfeeding promotion and support intervention during the first two years of the infant's life. Methods: This is a cost-benefit analysis of data generated from a randomized controlled trial that aimed at investigating whether provision of a multicomponent breastfeeding promotion and support intervention to Lebanese mothers in the first six months postpartum would improve breastfeeding rates compared to standard obstetric and pediatric care. Data on 339 participants included information on maternal socio-demographics and health, infant nutrition and health, and direct and indirect costs of the intervention. The primary outcome was the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of the intervention at one, six, 12, and 24 months. Secondary outcomes included the overall costs of infant nutrition and infant-mother dyad health costs during the first two years. Multiple linear regression models investigated the effect of the multicomponent intervention (independent variable) on the overall infant nutrition cost and the overall mother-infant health costs (as dependent variables), adjusting for monthly income and number of children (confounders) at different time points in the first two years. Similar regression models investigated the association between infant nutrition type (exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding, artificial milk) and infant nutrition costs and infant-mother health costs. Intention to treat analyses were conducted using SPSS (version 24). Statistical significance was set at a p-value below 0.05. Results: The prevalence of Exclusive/Predominant breastfeeding among participants declined from 51.6% in the first month to 6.6% at the end of second year. The multicomponent breastfeeding intervention incurred 485 USD more in costs than the control group during the first six months but was cost-efficient by the end of the first year (incremental net benefits of 374 USD; BCR=2.44), and by the end of the second year (incremental net benefits of 472 USD; BCR=2.82). In adjusted analyses, the intervention was significantly associated with fewer infant illness visits in the first year (p=0.045). Stratified analyses by the type of infant nutrition revealed that infants who were on Exclusive/Predominant, or Any Breastfeeding had significantly more favorable health outcomes at different time points during the first two years (p<0.05) compared to infants receiving Artificial Milk only, with health benefits being highest in the Exclusive/Predominant breastfeeding group. Moreover, Exclusive/Predominant and Any Breastfeeding had significantly lower costs of infant illness visits, hospitalizations, and infant medications during the two years (p<0.05), but had additional cost for maternal non-routine doctor visits due to breastfeeding (all p values <0.05). Whereas the overall cost (direct and indirect) during the first six months was significantly lower for the Exclusive/Predominant breastfeeding infants (p=0.001), they were similar in infants on Mixed Feeding or Artificial Milk. Conclusions: Breastfeeding is associated with significant economic and infant health benefits in the first two years. In the context of the current economic crisis in Lebanon, this study provides further evidence to policymakers on the need to invest in national breastfeeding promotion and support interventions.

3.
Appetite ; 155: 104803, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791080

RESUMO

Food waste is a global issue with major environmental and socio-economic implications. The problem is even worse in Arab countries where tremendous amounts of food are wasted everyday. In this study, we engaged in an ethnographic journey documenting meal management practices in rural Lebanese households as they relate to food waste. We interviewed 60 women from the Chahhar region (closest communities to the nation's largest landfill) who are in charge of their households' food management. We kept detailed reflexive notes of observations and photo-journaled the provision, preparation, preservation, consumption, and disposal of food. We found that despite the enormity of the food waste crisis in Lebanon, the environmental impact was strikingly absent from the participants' construction of food-related practices. Yet, the women exhibited a strong food waste averse behavior rooted in cultural norms and religious beliefs built on active avoidance of food waste. Our findings shed the light on the intricate connections of family and community routines anchored in frugality and hospitality practices.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Refeições
4.
Waste Manag ; 107: 159-171, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283490

RESUMO

This paper presents a case study of a transdisciplinary research based on an ex-post assessment of the environmental and socio-behavioral contexts of solid waste management in Lebanese peri-urban communities. Lessons learned are compiled into the Transdisciplinary Interventions for Environmental Sustainability conceptual framework. The approach starts with building a team of researchers and non-academic partners, continues with co-creating solution-oriented knowledge, and ends by integrating and applying the produced knowledge. The co-created knowledge includes the environmental and socio-behavioral ex-post assessment's results. The former reveals low air pollution levels, evidence of waste-related water contamination, and higher self-reported frequencies of ill-health symptoms and diseases closer to the landfill. The latter indicates that the community's perception about waste production differs from the real accounting of generated waste. Nine lessons are identified: (1) inherent common interest between the researchers and the community, (2) flexible interdisciplinary research team, (3) representative citizen committee, (4) contextually-informed outreach coordinator, (5) iterative research process accounting for the shifting socio-political context, (6) common expectations of the research process, (7) boundary objects leading to spin-off activities in the same setting, (8) effective communication strategy, and (9) ex-post assessment of subsequent societal and scientific impacts. The non-phased framework links all nine pointers in a logical order to ease scalability. The study answers a global need for a unified, clear, broadly adopted framework for transdisciplinarity and a deeper understanding of factors ensuring full-circle knowledge co-creation in waste-related contexts in the global South. The study offers managerial and research implications and suggests avenues for further research.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective evidence-based breastfeeding support interventions can bolster breastfeeding practices. This study investigated the effect of a multi-component breastfeeding support intervention delivered in hospital and home settings on six-month exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) relative to standard care. METHODS: This is a parallel group, randomized clinical trial, in which 362 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancy were randomly allocated to a multi-component intervention that included antenatal breastfeeding education, professional, and peer support, delivered in hospital and home settings for six months (experimental, n = 174), or to standard care (control, n = 188). The primary outcome was six-month EBF rate. Secondary outcomes were exclusive and any breastfeeding rates at one and three months, maternal breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, and behavior at six months, and satisfaction with the intervention. RESULTS: The crude six-month EBF rate was similar in both groups (35.2% vs. 28.1% in the experimental and control groups, respectively, p = 0·16). In adjusted analysis, six-month exclusivity was twice as likely in the experimental group relative to standard care (OR = 2.02; 95%CI: 1.20 to 3.39); whereas the odds for any breastfeeding were similar. Participants compliant with all three components were six times more likely to practice EBF for six months relative to standard care (OR = 6.63; 95% CI: 3.03 to 14.51). Breastfeeding knowledge of the experimental group, at six months, was significantly improved compared to the control. No changes were observed in breastfeeding attitude or behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Combining education with peer and professional breastfeeding support improved six-month breastfeeding exclusivity and knowledge.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Apoio Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Hum Lact ; 33(2): 383-389, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Infant Feeding Intentions (IFI) scale was shown to reliably measure maternal intentions to initiate breastfeeding and continue exclusive breastfeeding until 1, 3, or 6 months in English and Spanish but not in Arab contexts. Research aim: This study aimed to validate an Arabic version of the IFI scale (IFI-A) and examine its ability to predict exclusive breastfeeding at 1, 3, or 6 months in pregnant Lebanese women. METHODS: The internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the IFI-A scale were tested on 50 pregnant women (Group 1), whereas its predictive ability was tested on 196 pregnant women (Group 2), who were surveyed monthly about their infants' nutrition method until 6 months. RESULTS: The IFI-A scale's Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability is .82. Its corrected item-total correlations ranged from .26 for Item 2 ("at least give breastfeeding a try") to .86 for Item 4 ("will be exclusively breastfeeding at 3 months"). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that it is unidimensional. IFI-A scores correlated significantly with exclusive breastfeeding duration in Group 1 ( r = .624; p = .001) and with participants' breastfeeding attitude ( r = .390; p < .001) and previous breastfeeding duration ( r = .237; p = .011) in Group 2, thus confirming its external construct validity. In adjusted analysis, the IFI-A scale predicted exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months, albeit weakly (odds ratio = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [0.99, 1.36]), but not at 1 or 6 months. CONCLUSION: The IFI-A scale is a reliable and valid tool to assess maternal feeding intentions and predict exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months in the Arab context. Further studies are needed in other Arab contexts to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Intenção , Psicometria/normas , Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Líbano , Gravidez , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Health Commun ; 30(12): 1223-33, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412104

RESUMO

With the global financial meltdown, the crisis of poverty has deepened in communities across the United States. This essay reports results from a culture-centered project on fostering spaces for listening to the voices of the poor in CrossRoads County, Indiana. It highlights the intersections of health and poverty as they emerge from the narratives of mothers utilizing the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Depression, humiliation, and inaccessibility to health care and healthy living outline the struggles of women as they negotiate their access to health. The articulations of agency are situated around competing cultural narratives that, on the one hand, draw on the threads of individual responsibility which resonate through mainstream discourses of poverty in the United States and, on the other hand, interrogate the structural erasure of the basic capacities of health.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Competência Cultural , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Pais Solteiros/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 36, 2014 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24428951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeeding ecosystem and its barriers in Lebanon, we hypothesize that a complex breastfeeding support intervention, which is centered on the three components mentioned above, would significantly increase breastfeeding rates. METHODS/DESIGN: A multi-center randomized controlled trial. STUDY POPULATION: 443 healthy pregnant women in their first trimester will be randomized to control or intervention group. INTERVENTION: A "prenatal/postnatal" professional and peer breastfeeding support package continuing till 6 months postpartum, guided by the Social Network and Social Support Theory. Control group will receive standard prenatal and postnatal care. Mothers will be followed up from early pregnancy till five years after delivery. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total and exclusive breastfeeding rates, quality of life at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes at 6 months postpartum, maternal exclusive breastfeeding rates of future infants up to five years from baseline, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of the intervention. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive and regression analysis will be conducted under the intention to treat basis using the most recent version of SPSS. DISCUSSION: Exclusive breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that has a significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality. In a country with limited healthcare resources like Lebanon, developing an effective breastfeeding promotion and support intervention that is easily replicated across various settings becomes a priority. If positive, the results of this study would provide a generalizable model to bolster breastfeeding promotion efforts and contribute to improved child health in Lebanon and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17875591.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Países em Desenvolvimento , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Apoio Social , África do Norte , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Líbano , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Qual Health Res ; 20(6): 845-58, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20181823

RESUMO

Against the backdrop of contesting the mainstream biomedical models of health communication, the culture-centered approach suggests dialogic research methodologies to coconstruct meanings of health through direct engagement with cultural communities. In this project, we engaged in in-depth interviews and informal conversations with elderly Druze women and their caregiver daughters to develop an understanding of the intersections of religion and health meanings in the context of aging women in this Lebanese community. Attending to the cultural constructions of health, particularly in religious contexts, opens up the discursive spaces of health communication to alternative cosmologies of health, illness, healing, and curing. Four themes emerged as a result of our grounded theory analysis: health as faith; mistrust, privacy, and modern medicine; polymorphic health experiences; and health as structure. These themes serve as the backdrop for playing out the competing tensions between the local and the global in the realm of interpretations of health meanings.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Religião , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Idoso , Árabes , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Cuidadores , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Líbano , Medicina Tradicional , Relações Mãe-Filho , Confiança
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...