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Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-984240


Background Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous and toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in human body. Previous studies have shown that Cd exposure can induce neurotoxicity, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Objective To investigate the metabolic impacts of multiple doses of Cd on mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), and to explore the potential mechanism and biomarkers of its neurotoxicity. Methods The NSCs were obtained from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of 1-day-old neonatal C57BL/6 mice. The passage 3 (P3) NSCs were exposed to CdCl2 at designed doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 μmol·L−1). The cells were treated with seven replicates, of which one plate was for cell counting. After 24 h of exposure, the intracellular and extracellular metabolites were extracted respectively and then detected by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to visualize the alterations of metabolomic profiles and to identify the differential metabolites (DMs) based on their variable importance for the projection (VIP) value >1 and P<0.05. The metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed to recognize the significantly altered metabolite sets and pathways. The dose-response relationships were established and the potential biomarkers of Cd exposure were identified by 10% up-regulated or 10% down-regulated effective concentration (EC) of target metabolites. Results A total of 1201 metabolites were identified in the intracellular metabolomic samples and 1207 for the extracellular metabolomic samples. The intracellular and extracellular metabolome of Cd-treated NSCs were distinct from that of the control group, and the difference grew more distant as the Cd dosage increased. At 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 μmol·L−1 dosage of Cd, 87, 83, and 185 intracellular DMs and 161, 176, and 166 extracellular DMs were identified, respectively. Within the significantly changed metabolites among the four groups, 176 intracellular DMs and 167 extracellular DMs were identified. Both intracellular and extracellular DMs were enriched in multiple lipid metabolite sets. Intracellular DMs were mainly enriched in taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism pathways. Extracellular DMs changed by Cd were mainly enriched in glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and cysteine and methionine metabolism pathways. Among intracellular DMs, 125 metabolites were fitted with dose-response relationships, of which 108 metabolites showed linear changes with the increase of Cd dosage. And 134 metabolites were fitted with dose-response relationships among extracellular DMs, of which 86 metabolites showed linear changes. The intracellular DMs with low EC values were hypotaurine, ethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and galactose, while the extracellular DMs with low EC values were acetylcholine and 1,5-anhydrosorbitol. Conclusion Cd treatment can significantly alter the intracellular and extracellular metabolome of mouse NSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The neurotoxicity of Cd may be related to glycerophospholipid metabolism. Acetylcholine, ethanolamine, and phosphatidylethanolamine involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway might be potential biomarkers of Cd-induced neurotoxicity.