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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(2)2024 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342686

RESUMO

Communication, especially conversation, is essential for human social life. Many previous studies have examined the neuroscientific underpinnings of conversation, i.e. language comprehension and speech production. However, conversation inherently involves two or more people, and unless two people actually interact with one another, the nature of the conversation cannot be truly revealed. Therefore, in this study, we used two magnetoencephalographs that were connected together, and simultaneously recorded brain activity while two people took turns speaking in a word association/alphabet completion task. We compared the amplitude modulation of the alpha- and beta-band rhythms within each of the 62 brain regions under semantic (word association; less predictable) and non-semantic (alphabet completion; more predictable) conditions. We found that the amplitudes of the rhythms were significantly different between conditions in a wide range of brain regions. Additionally, significant differences were observed in nearly the same group of brain regions after versus before each utterance, indicating that a wide range of brain areas is involved in predicting a conversation partner's next utterance. This result supports the idea that mentalizing, e.g. predicting another person's speech, plays an important role in conversation, and suggests that the neural network implicated in mentalizing extends over a wide range of brain regions.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Humanos , Semântica , Comunicação , Encéfalo , Magnetoencefalografia
2.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 17: 1218437, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37680265

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported that, in working memory, the processing of visuospatial information and phonological information have different neural bases. However, in these studies, memory items were presented via different modalities. Therefore, the modality in which the memory items were presented and the strategy for memorizing them were not rigorously distinguished. In the present study, we explored the neural basis of two working memory strategies. Nineteen right-handed young adults memorized seven sequential directions presented visually in a task in which the memory strategy was either visuospatial or phonological (visuospatial/phonological condition). Source amplitudes of theta-band (5-7 Hz) rhythm were estimated from magnetoencephalography during the maintenance period and further analyzed using cluster-based permutation tests. Behavioral results revealed that the accuracy rates showed no significant differences between conditions, while the reaction time in the phonological condition was significantly longer than that in the visuospatial condition. Theta activity in the phonological condition was significantly greater than that in the visuospatial condition, and the cluster in spatio-temporal matrix with p < 5% difference extended to right prefrontal regions in the early maintenance period and right occipito-parietal regions in the late maintenance period. The theta activity results did not indicate strategy-specific neural bases but did reveal the dynamics of executive function required for phonological processing. The functions seemed to move from attention control and inhibition control in the prefrontal region to inhibition of irrelevant information in the occipito-parietal region.

3.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 790057, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983225

RESUMO

Auditory communication is an essential form of human social interaction. However, the intra-brain cortical-oscillatory drivers of auditory communication exchange remain relatively unexplored. We used improvisational music performance to simulate and capture the creativity and turn-taking dynamics of natural auditory communication. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) hyperscanning in musicians, we targeted brain activity during periods of music communication imagery, and separately analyzed theta (5-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (15-29 Hz) source-level activity using a within-subjects, two-factor approach which considered the assigned social role of the subject (leader or follower) and whether communication responses were improvisational (yes or no). Theta activity related to improvisational communication and social role significantly interacted in the left isthmus cingulate cortex. Social role was furthermore differentiated by pronounced occipital alpha and beta amplitude increases suggestive of working memory retention engagement in Followers but not Leaders. The results offer compelling evidence for both musical and social neuroscience that the cognitive strategies, and correspondingly the memory and attention-associated oscillatory brain activities of interlocutors during communication differs according to their social role/hierarchy, thereby indicating that social role/hierarchy needs to be controlled for in social neuroscience research.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737703

RESUMO

Communication is one of the most important abilities in human society, which makes clarification of brain functions that underlie communication of great importance to cognitive neuroscience. To investigate the rapidly changing cortical-level brain activity underlying communication, a hyperscanning system with both high temporal and spatial resolution is extremely desirable. The modality of magnetoencephalography (MEG) would be ideal, but MEG hyperscanning systems suitable for communication studies remain rare. Here, we report the establishment of an MEG hyperscanning system that is optimized for natural, real-time, face-to-face communication between two adults in sitting positions. Two MEG systems, which are installed 500m away from each other, were directly connected with fiber optic cables. The number of intermediate devices was minimized, enabling transmission of trigger and auditory signals with almost no delay (1.95-3.90 µs and 3 ms, respectively). Additionally, video signals were transmitted at the lowest latency ever reported (60-100 ms). We furthermore verified the function of an auditory delay line to synchronize the audio with the video signals. This system is thus optimized for natural face-to-face communication, and additionally, music-based communication which requires higher temporal accuracy is also possible via audio-only transmission. Owing to the high temporal and spatial resolution of MEG, our system offers a unique advantage over existing hyperscanning modalities of EEG, fNIRS, or fMRI. It provides novel neuroscientific methodology to investigate communication and other forms of social interaction, and could potentially aid in the development of novel medications or interventions for communication disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Comunicação , Magnetoencefalografia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265719, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320312

RESUMO

Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that theta-band activity is useful for investigating neural mechanisms of memory. However, mechanisms specifically driving memory performance remain poorly understood. In sequential memory, performance can be artificially attenuated by shortening the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between memory item presentations. Therefore, we sought to clarify the mechanisms of sequential memory performance by analyzing theta-band (4-8 Hz) activity recorded via magnetoencephalogram in 33 participants during performance of a sequential memory task where memory items were presented at either slow or fast rates in accordance with longer or shorter ISIs, respectively. Particularly in the slow task, theta activity clearly modulated in accordance with the presentation of memory items. Common cortical target regions in the occipital and frontal cortex were identified in both tasks and related to visual encoding and memory maintenance, respectively. Compared to the slow task, occipital-theta activity was significantly lower in the fast task from the midterm until the ending of encoding, in correspondence with significantly lower recall for memory items in this same period. Meanwhile, despite a loss of clarity in responsiveness to individual memory items in the fast task, frontal-theta activity was not different between tasks and exhibited particularly strong responses in both tasks during the holding period prior to recall. Our results indicate that shorter processing time erodes sequential memory performance beginning at the level of visual encoding.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Ritmo Teta , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2893-2896, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018611

RESUMO

Face to face communication is interactive, and involves continuous feedforward and feedback of information, thoughts, and feelings to the opposite party. To accurately assess the neural processing underlying these interactions, synchronous and simultaneous recording of the brain activity from both parties is needed, a method known as hyperscanning. Here, we investigated the neural processing underlying nonverbal face-to-face communication using a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) hyperscanning system, comprising two fiber optically connected MEGs. Eight pairs of subjects participated. Each individual in each pair viewed a combined 80 randomized 20 s trials of 40 real-time and 40 recorded (hereafter, real and simulated, respectively) videos of the opposite party's face. Non-verbal communication through actions such as gaze, eye blinks, and facial expression was intrinsically only possible during real videos. After each trial, subjects individually subjectively discriminated whether the viewed video was real or simulated. Overall subjective discrimination accuracies were slightly but significantly above chance level. Statistical analysis of brain activity revealed a significant three way interaction between theta-band rhythm amplitude, video type, and subjective discrimination response in the right frontal cortex. Additionally, when subjects responded that videos were simulated, theta activity was significantly lower for real videos compared with simulated videos (p = 0.01). This result not only demonstrates the importance of right frontal theta activity during non-verbal communication, but also indicates the existence of unconscious, semi-automated neural processing during non-verbal communication that underlies one's ability to subjectively discriminate whether or not the opposite party is real.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Magnetoencefalografia , Comunicação , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986743

RESUMO

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a border or precursor state of dementia. To optimize implemented interventions for MCI, it is essential to clarify the underlying neural mechanisms. However, knowledge regarding the brain regions responsible for MCI is still limited. Here, we implemented the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test, a screening tool for MCI, in 20 healthy elderly participants (mean age, 67.5 years), and then recorded magnetoencephalograms (MEG) while they performed a visual sequential memory task. In the task, each participant memorized the four possible directions of seven sequentially presented arrow images. Recall accuracy for beginning items of the memory sequence was significantly positively related with MoCA score. Meanwhile, MEG revealed stronger alpha-band (8-13 Hz) rhythm desynchronization bilaterally in the precuneus (PCu) for higher MoCA (normal) participants. Most importantly, this PCu desynchronization response weakened in correspondence with lower MoCA score during the beginning of sequential memory encoding, a time period that should rely on working memory and be affected by declined cognitive function. Our results suggest that deactivation of the PCu is associated with early MCI, and corroborate pathophysiological findings based on post-mortem tissue which have implicated hypoperfusion of the PCu in early stages of Alzheimer disease. Our results indicate the possibility that cognitive decline can be detected early and non-invasively by monitoring PCu activity with electrophysiological methods.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Magnetoencefalografia , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicometria/métodos
8.
Neurosci Res ; 150: 44-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768949

RESUMO

Spontaneous 8- to 10-Hz "tau-rhythm" in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings has been reported to originate in the auditory cortex and be suppressed by sound. For unknown reasons however, tau-rhythm is often difficult to detect. In this study, we sought to characterize its emergence and auditory reactivity. Using a 306-channel MEG on 26 right-handed participants, we delivered six-second-long, natural, monaural sounds with pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral emotional valence. In eight participants, a clear, sound-related bilateral suppression of 8-10 Hz tau-rhythm occurred in the temporal areas, close to the source of the 100-ms auditory response. Moreover, these eight "tau subjects" exhibited significantly larger temporal-lobe theta-band (4-8 Hz) power over the entire experimental period compared to the remaining 18 "non-tau subjects". As it is known that larger theta power is one of signs of drowsiness, this result is consistent with a previously proposed idea that tau-rhythm emerges during drowsiness. Tau-rhythm was furthermore significantly affected by emotional valence in the right hemisphere, where it was respectively suppressed by unpleasant and neutral sounds 8% and 6% more than by pleasant sounds, significantly. Altogether, our results reveal characteristics of tau-rhythm appearance and modulation which have hitherto been difficult to detect non-invasively.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Ritmo alfa , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Ondas Encefálicas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ritmo Teta
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2019: 1713-1716, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31946227

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated that brain rhythms are modulated according to memory performance or memory processing. In sequential memory tasks, memory performance can be reduced by shortening the intervals between memory item presentations. To clarify the neurophysiological mechanism underlying this, we recorded magnetoencephalograms in 33 healthy volunteers performing two sequential memory tasks with either short or long intervals between memory items (hereafter, fast and slow conditions, respectively). Memory accuracy, and theta- and alpha-band activities originating from occipital and frontal brain areas were analyzed. Memory performance was significantly lower for the fast condition than the slow condition. Meanwhile, occipital and frontal theta activities were significantly lower for the fast condition than the slow condition. Increased occipital-alpha, a sign of active inhibition of task-irrelevant visual input, occurred regardless of condition. However, memory processing related to occipital- and frontal-theta activities had some temporal limitations. Namely, the shorter intervals of the fast condition attenuated theta activity, likely disrupting working memory processing, thereby leading to the observed decline in memory performance.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Ritmo beta , Encéfalo , Memória , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Ritmo Teta
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440327

RESUMO

It is known that alpha-band rhythm during memory maintenance is enhanced by increasing memory load. This enhancement is generally thought to be caused by active inhibition of task-irrelevant visual inputs. During sequential memory processing, we previously found that alpha-band activity increases from beginning to midterm during memory encoding, and conversely decreases from midterm to ending. In the present study, we conducted two experiments to determine the spatial and functional role of alpha-band rhythm during sequential memory processing. The first experiment showed that alpha-band rhythm increased in the occipital brain region, suggesting that active inhibition of task-irrelevant visual inputs continues from midterm to ending of memory encoding. The second experiment, in which subjects could not anticipate the ending of the sequential presentation of memory items, demonstrated that alpha-band rhythm is suppressed in correspondence with preparation for memory recall. These results indicate that alpha-band rhythm is simultaneously modulated by multiple brain processes in sequential memory encoding.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Memória , Lobo Occipital , Adulto , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Neurosci Methods ; 307: 14-22, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Locomotion, which is one of the most basic motor functions, is critical for performing various daily-life activities. Despite its essential function, assessment of brain activity during lower-limb movement is still limited because of the constraints of existing brain imaging methods. NEW METHOD: Here, we describe an MR-compatible, cylindrical treadmill device that allows participants to perform stepping movements on an MRI scanner table. The device was constructed from wood and all of the parts were handmade by the authors. RESULTS: We confirmed the MR-compatibility of the device by evaluating the temporal signal-to-noise ratio of 64 voxels of a phantom during scanning. Brain activity was measured while twenty participants turned the treadmill with feet in sync with metronome sounds. The rotary speed of the cylinder was encoded by optical fibers. The post/pre-central gyrus and cerebellum showed significant activity during the movements, which was comparable to the activity patterns reported in previous studies. Head movement on the y- and z-axes was influenced more by lower-limb movement than was head movement on the x-axis. Among the 60 runs (3 runs × 20 participants), head movement during two of the runs (3.3%) was excessive due to the lower-limb movement. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Compared to MR-compatible devices proposed in the previous studies, the advantage of this device may be simple structure and replicability to realize stepping movement with a supine position. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest that the treadmill device is useful for evaluating lower-limb-related neural activity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço/instrumentação , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Movimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 156, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740300

RESUMO

Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5-7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15-29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

13.
Neuroscience ; 374: 144-154, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378280

RESUMO

Affective states, such as anticipatory anxiety, critically influence speech communication behavior in adults who stutter. However, there is currently little evidence regarding the involvement of the limbic system in speech disfluency during interpersonal communication. We designed this neuroimaging study and experimental procedure to sample neural activity during interpersonal communication between human participants, and to investigate the relationship between the amygdala activity and speech disfluency. Participants were required to engage in live communication with a stranger of the opposite sex in the MRI scanner environment. In the gaze condition, the stranger gazed at the participant without speaking, while in the live conversation condition, the stranger asked questions that the participant was required to answer. The stranger continued to gaze silently at the participant while the participant answered. Adults who stutter reported significantly higher discomfort than fluent controls during the experiment. Activity in the right amygdala, a key anatomical region in the limbic system involved in emotion, was significantly correlated with stuttering occurrences in adults who stutter. Right amygdala activity from pooled data of all participants also showed a significant correlation with discomfort level during the experiment. Activity in the prefrontal cortex, which forms emotion regulation neural circuitry with the amygdala, was decreased in adults who stutter than in fluent controls. This is the first study to demonstrate that amygdala activity during interpersonal communication is involved in disfluent speech in adults who stutter.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Relações Interpessoais , Fala/fisiologia , Gagueira/diagnóstico por imagem , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Social , Gagueira/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2016: 4539-4542, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28269286

RESUMO

Alpha-band rhythm is thought to be involved in memory processes, similarly to other spontaneous brain rhythms. Ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in our proposed sequential short-term memory task that provides a serial position effect in accuracy rate. We recorded alpha-band rhythms by magnetoencephalography during performance of the task and observed that the amplitude of the rhythm was suppressed dramatically in the memory recall period. The suppressed region was estimated to be in the occipital lobe, suggesting that alpha-band rhythm is suppressed by activation of the occipital attentional network. Additionally, the alpha-band suppression reflected accuracy rate, that is, the amplitude was suppressed more when recalling items with higher accuracy rate. The sensors with a significant correlation between alpha-band amplitude and accuracy rate were located widely from the frontal to occipital regions mainly in the right hemisphere. The results suggests that alpha-band rhythm is involved in memory recall and can be index of memory performance.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26737817

RESUMO

Impulsivity dictates individual decision-making behavior. Therefore, it can reflect consumption behavior and risk of addiction and thus underlies social activities as well. Neuroscience has been applied to explain social activities; however, the brain function controlling impulsivity has remained unclear. It is known that impulsivity is related to individual time perception, i.e., a person who perceives a certain physical time as being longer is impulsive. Here we show that activity of the left auditory cortex is related to individual impulsivity. Individual impulsivity was evaluated by a self-answered questionnaire in twelve healthy right-handed adults, and activities of the auditory cortices of bilateral hemispheres when listening to continuous tones were recorded by magnetoencephalography. Sustained activity of the left auditory cortex was significantly correlated to impulsivity, that is, larger sustained activity indicated stronger impulsivity. The results suggest that the left auditory cortex represent time perception, probably because the area is involved in speech perception, and that it represents impulsivity indirectly.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26737818

RESUMO

Rhythm is an element of music and is important for determining the impression of the music. To investigate the mechanism by which musical rhythmic changes are perceived, magnetoencephalographic responses to rhythm deviants were recorded from 11 healthy volunteers. Auditory stimuli consisting of physically controlled tones were adapted from a song. The auditory stimuli had a steady rhythm, but "early" and "late" deviants were inserted. Only the "early" deviant, which was a tone with a short duration, caused N100m-like prominent transient responses at around the offset of the deviant tone. The latency of the prominent response depended on the descending sound pressure of the deviant tone and was 65 ms after 50% descent. The results suggest that unexpected shortening of tone in a continuous rhythm evokes a transient response and that the response is caused by descending sound pressure of the shortened tone itself, not by the following tones.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Música , Humanos , Pressão
17.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 40(6): 1481-6, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24259448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the static magnetic field of magnetic resonance (MR) scanners on keepers (ie, ferromagnetic stainless steel plate adhered to the abutment tooth of dental magnetic attachments). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetically induced displacement force and torque on keepers were measured using 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3.0 T MR scanners and a method outlined by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Changes in magnetic flux density before and after exposure to scanner static magnetic field were examined. RESULTS: The maximum magnetically induced displacement forces were calculated to be 10.3 × 10(-2) N at 1.5 T and 13.9 × 10(-2) N at 3.0 T on the cover surface. The maximum torques exerted on the keeper (4 mm in diameter) were 0.83 N × 4 mm at 1.5 T and 0.85 N × 4 mm at 3.0 T. These forces were considerably higher than the gravitational force (7.7 × 10(-4) N) of the keeper but considerably lower than the keeper-root cap proper adhesive force. The keepers' magnetic flux density remained less than that of the Earth. CONCLUSION: Magnetically induced displacement force and torque on the keeper in the MR scanner do not influence the keeper-root cap proper adhesive force.


Assuntos
Ligas Dentárias/efeitos da radiação , Retenção em Prótese Dentária/instrumentação , Análise do Estresse Dentário/métodos , Campos Magnéticos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Imãs , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Movimento (Física) , Estresse Mecânico , Torque
18.
Neuropsychologia ; 54: 1-10, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24365653

RESUMO

Bilingual studies have shown that brain activities for first (L1) and second (L2) languages are influenced by L2 proficiency. Does proficiency with a second musical system (M2) influence bimusical brains in a manner similar to that of bilingual brains? Our magnetoencephalography study assessed the influence of M2 proficiency on the spatial, strength, and temporal properties of brain activity in a musical syntactic-processing task (i.e., tonal processing) involving first (M1) and second (M2) music systems. Two bimusical groups, differing in M2 proficiency (high, low), listened to melodies from both their M1 and M2 musical cultures. All melodies ended with a tonally consistent or inconsistent tone. In both groups, tonal deviations in both M1 and M2 elicited magnetic early right anterior negativities (mERANs) that were generated from brain areas around the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). We also analyzed the dipole locations, dipole strengths, and peak latencies of mERAN. Results revealed: (a) the distances between dipole locations for M1 and M2 were shorter in the M2 high-proficiency group than in the M2 low-proficiency group; (b) the dipole strengths were greater in the high than the low group; (c) the peak latencies of M2 were shorter in the high than low group. The dipole location results were consistent with those from bilingual studies in that the distances between the (left) IFG peak activations for L1 and L2 syntactic processing shortened as L2 proficiency increased. The parallel results for bimusicals and bilinguals suggest that the functional changes induced by proficiency in a second (linguistic or musical) system are defined by domain-general neural constraints.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Música , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e80284, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24278270

RESUMO

To study how auditory cortical processing is affected by anticipating and hearing of long emotional sounds, we recorded auditory evoked magnetic fields with a whole-scalp MEG device from 15 healthy adults who were listening to emotional or neutral sounds. Pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral sounds, each lasting for 6 s, were played in a random order, preceded by 100-ms cue tones (0.5, 1, or 2 kHz) 2 s before the onset of the sound. The cue tones, indicating the valence of the upcoming emotional sounds, evoked typical transient N100m responses in the auditory cortex. During the rest of the anticipation period (until the beginning of the emotional sound), auditory cortices of both hemispheres generated slow shifts of the same polarity as N100m. During anticipation, the relative strengths of the auditory-cortex signals depended on the upcoming sound: towards the end of the anticipation period the activity became stronger when the subject was anticipating emotional rather than neutral sounds. During the actual emotional and neutral sounds, sustained fields were predominant in the left hemisphere for all sounds. The measured DC MEG signals during both anticipation and hearing of emotional sounds implied that following the cue that indicates the valence of the upcoming sound, the auditory-cortex activity is modulated by the upcoming sound category during the anticipation period.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Emoções , Magnetoencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24111153

RESUMO

Detection of a collision risk and avoiding the collision are important for survival. We have been investigating neural responses when humans anticipate a collision or intend to take evasive action by applying collision-simulating images in a predictable manner. Collision-simulating images and control images were presented in random order to 9 healthy male volunteers. A cue signal was also given visually two seconds before each stimulus to enable each participant to anticipate the upcoming stimulus. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG) were recorded with a 76-ch helmet system. The amplitude of alpha band (8-13 Hz) rhythm when anticipating the upcoming collision-simulating image was significantly smaller than that when anticipating control images even just after the cue signal. This result demonstrates that anticipating a negative (dangerous) event induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) of alpha band activity, probably caused by attention. The results suggest the feasibility of detecting endogenous brain activities by monitoring alpha band rhythm and its possible applications to engineering systems, such as an automatic collision evasion system for automobiles.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Magnetoencefalografia , Adulto , Ritmo alfa , Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo , Automóveis , Sincronização Cortical , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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