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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 468: 133712, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377917

RESUMO

To reduce the number of sensors in the SCR catalyst, state feedback and fault diagnosis information are provided. Firstly, a model based on the coupling of flow, heat transfer, and gas-solid phase catalytic reaction in the SCR system is investigated in this paper. The parabolic partial differential equations are simplified by the variable substitution method and the method of lines approach (MOL). The simplified system of equations is solved by backward differentiation formulas (BDF) with adaptive adjustment time step strategy. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction parameters are accurately calibrated per second using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Secondly, the ATS-UKF is designed in this paper, and to ensure the synchronisation between the ATS-UKF and the SCR model calculations, the time step of solving the BDF by the SCR model is taken as the time step of propagating the sigma points. Two observation scenarios are assumed: (1) no downstream NH3 concentration sensor, ammonia coverage and downstream NH3 concentration are observed by ATS-UKF; (2) no downstream NOx sensor, ammonia coverage and downstream NOx concentration are observed by ATS-UKF. Finally, the paper carries out bench tests. In the first case, the ammonia coverage obtained by the ATS-UKF reached 0.99 with respect to the model-calculated value R². The mean absolute error (MAE) between the observed and experimental values of the ATS-UKF for the downstream NH3 concentration was 2.76 ppm. In the second case, the ammonia coverage obtained by the ATS-UKF reached 0.99 with respect to the model-calculated value R², and the MAE between the observed and experimental values of the ATS-UKF for the downstream NOx concentration was 1.53 ppm. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATION: The Adaptive Time-Step Unscented Kalman Filtering (ATS-UKF) enhances urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in diesel engines, improving environmental outcomes. This method minimizes sensor dependence, enabling more precise SCR system management and effective emission reduction. By advancing emission control technologies, ATS-UKF contributes to global air pollution mitigation efforts, supporting cleaner air and environmental sustainability. Its innovative approach in monitoring and predicting SCR performance marks a significant step towards eco-friendly diesel engine operation.

2.
Sci Prog ; 105(4): 368504221129280, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184961

RESUMO

This article carried out a numerical investigation of knock, using the Taguchi method and the grey relational analysis method to determine the importance and the contribution rate of multiple parameters on the peak pressure in the cylinder and the knock tendency under heavy load conditions. Four parameters, namely, compression ratio, spark timing, EGR rate, and inlet temperature, were set at four levels. The simulation was designed using a design of experiment method based on Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array. The simulation results of knock tendency and peak in-cylinder pressure were analyzed by the Taguchi-Grey method. According to the analysis results of the Taguchi-Grey method, the optimal level, the importance rank, and the contribution rate of factors on the knock tendency, peak in-cylinder pressure, and equivalent response were determined. The results demonstrate that the contribution rate of compression ratio, spark timing, EGR rate, and inlet temperature to the knock tendency is 45.9%, 22.98%, 19.46%, and 11.66%, respectively. The compression ratio, spark timing, EGR rate, and inlet temperature contribution to the peak in-cylinder pressure is 40.56%, 31.03%, 24.94 and 3.47%, respectively. The optimal conditions for the minimum knock tendency and the maximum peak in-cylinder pressure are obtained at CR1EGR4IT1ST1 and CR4EGR1IT1ST4, respectively.

3.
ACS Omega ; 7(36): 31638-31650, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120070

RESUMO

Since the advent of the internal combustion engine, knock has been a vital issue limiting the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines under heavy load conditions. The occurrence of knock is also directly influenced by several operating parameters simultaneously. In order to investigate the effects of multiple variables on economic performance and power performance under knock limits, this study adopts single-objective optimization and multi-objective optimization methods to optimize the engine operating parameters, including exhaust gas recirculation rate, exhaust valve timing, spark timing, and intake valve timing. The optimization aims to obtain maximum volumetric efficiency, brake mean effective pressure, and minimum brake specific fuel consumption on the knock limit. First, based on the bench test data at the operation point 2800 rpm and 11.42 bar, a one-dimensional simulation engine model is established in GT-power software and verified. Second, four engine operating parameters are input into the GT-power model as controlled parameters. The epsilon-constrained differential evolution algorithm and the multi-objective differential evolution algorithm are employed to optimize the above four parameters to minimize the knock index and the damage to engine performance due to knock suppression, respectively. Finally, the results show that the two optimization algorithms optimize four parameters. The results of the epsilon-constrained differential evolution algorithm indicate that the decreasing extent of the knock index is 73.3%. In addition, the decreasing extent of brake mean effective pressure is 10.2%. What is more, the increased brake specific fuel consumption is only 0.07%. The multi-objective differential evolution algorithm gives a set of nondominated Pareto optimal solution sets. The optimal solution has a 64.4% decrease in the knock index, a 5.78% decrease in brake mean effective pressure, and a 1.45% decrease in brake specific fuel consumption.

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