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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10464, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714792

RESUMO

In order to investigate the failure modes and instability mechanism of fractured rock. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted on sandstone specimens with different dip angles. Based on rock energy dissipation theory and fractal theory, the energy evolution characteristics and fragmentation fractal characteristics in the process of deformation and failure of specimens were analyzed. The results show that the peak strength and elastic modulus of fractured rock mass are lower than those of intact samples, and both show an exponential increase with the increase of fracture dip angle. The energy evolution laws of different fracture specimens are roughly similar and can be classified into four stages based on the stress-strain curve: pressure-tight, elastic, plastic, and post-destructive. The total strain energy, elastic strain energy, and dissipated strain energy of the specimen at the peak stress point increased exponentially with crack inclination, and the dissipated strain energy and compressive strength conformed to a power function growth relationship. The distribution of the fragments after the failure of the fracture sample has fractal characteristics, and the fractal dimension increases with the increase of the fracture dip angle. In addition, the higher the compressive strength of the specimen, the greater the energy dissipation, the more serious the degree of fragmentation, and the greater the fractal dimension. The data fitting further shows that there is a power function relationship between the dissipated strain energy and the fractal dimension. The research results can provide a theoretical basis for the stability of rock mass engineering and structural deformation control.

2.
AME Case Rep ; 8: 53, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711896

RESUMO

Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a common malignant tumor of the biliary system. It is characterised by insidious onset, rapid progression and poor prognosis. Symptoms often indicate advanced or late-stage disease, with a 5-year survival rate of only 5-15%. Case Description: We present a case study of a patient with GBC who had a tumor mutation burden (TMB) of 32.5/MB (≥10 muts/MB). The patient received mFOLFIRINOX as first-line chemotherapy, which demonstrated significant efficacy. After stabilizing the disease, a sequential chemotherapy regimen was chosen. This regimen combined the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) toripalimab (JS001), a humanised IgG4 monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), with S-1 therapy, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative. However, this treatment did not provide any significant clinical benefit for the patient. Therefore, we hypothesise that combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy may be more effective as a first line treatment for high-TMB advanced GBC. This hypothesis needs to be validated in large-scale clinical studies. Conclusions: In summary, mFOLFIRINOX is a safe and effective first-line chemotherapy regimen for advanced GBC. The timing of combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy requires careful consideration. Further clinical trials involving immunotherapy in advanced GBC are necessary to identify biomarkers that can guide clinical decisions.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 175: 116694, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713943

RESUMO

The incidence of metabolic diseases has progressively increased, which has a negative impact on human health and life safety globally. Due to the good efficacy and limited side effects, there is growing interest in developing effective drugs to treat metabolic diseases from natural compounds. Kaempferol (KMP), an important flavonoid, exists in many vegetables, fruits, and traditional medicinal plants. Recently, KMP has received widespread attention worldwide due to its good potential in the treatment of metabolic diseases. To promote the basic research and clinical application of KMP, this review provides a timely and comprehensive summary of the pharmacological advances of KMP in the treatment of four metabolic diseases and its potential molecular mechanisms of action, including diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and atherosclerosis. According to the research, KMP shows remarkable therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases by regulating multiple signaling transduction pathways such as NF-κB, Nrf2, AMPK, PI3K/AKT, TLR4, and ER stress. In addition, the most recent literature on KMP's natural source, pharmacokinetics studies, as well as toxicity and safety are also discussed in this review, thus providing a foundation and evidence for further studies to develop novel and effective drugs from natural compounds. Collectively, our manuscript strongly suggested that KMP could be a promising candidate for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 175: 116705, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713949

RESUMO

Currently, the drugs used in clinical to treat psoriasis mainly broadly suppress cellular immunity. However, these drugs can only provide temporary and partial symptom relief, they do not cure the condition and may lead to recurrence or even serious toxic side effects. In this study, we describe the discovery of a novel potent CDK8 inhibitor as a treatment for psoriasis. Through structure-based design, compound 46 was identified as the most promising candidate, exhibiting a strong inhibitory effect on CDK8 (IC50 value of 57 nM) along with favourable inhibition against NF-κB. Additionally, it demonstrated a positive effect in an in vitro psoriasis model induced by TNF-α. Furthermore, this compound enhanced the thermal stability of CDK8 and exerted evident effects on the biological function of CDK8, and it had favourable selectivity across the CDK family and tyrosine kinase. This compound showed no obvious inhibitory effect on CYP450 enzyme. Further studies confirmed that compound 46 exhibited therapeutic effect on IMQ-induced psoriasis, alleviated the inflammatory response in mice, and enhanced the expression of Foxp3 and IL-10 in the dorsal skin in vivo. This discovery provides a new strategy for developing selective CDK8 inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of psoriasis.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2309346, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704685

RESUMO

Is childhood adversity associated with biological aging, and if so, does sex modify the association, and do lifestyle and mental health mediate the association? A lifespan analysis is conducted using data on 142 872 participants from the UK Biobank to address these questions. Childhood adversity is assessed through the online mental health questionnaire (2016), including physical neglect, physical abuse, emotional neglect, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and a cumulative score. Biological aging is indicated by telomere length (TL) measured from leukocyte DNA using qPCR, and the shorter TL indicates accelerated biological aging; a lifestyle score is constructed using body mass index, physical activity, drinking, smoking, and diet; mental disorder is assessed using depression, anxiety, and insomnia at the baseline survey. The results reveal a sex-specific association such that childhood adversity is associated with shorter TL in women after adjusting for covariates including polygenic risk score for TL, but not in men. Unhealthy lifestyle and mental disorder partially mediate the association in women. The proportions of indirect effects are largest for sexual and physical abuse. These findings highlight the importance of behavioral and psychological interventions in promoting healthy aging among women who experienced childhood adversity, particularly sexual and physical abuse.

6.
J Nat Med ; 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704807

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with extremely high mortality. The tumor microenvironment is the "soil" of its occurrence and development, and the inflammatory microenvironment is an important part of the "soil". Bile acid is closely related to the occurrence of HCC. Bile acid metabolism disorder is not only directly involved in the occurrence and development of HCC but also affects the inflammatory microenvironment of HCC. Yinchenhao decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, can regulate bile acid metabolism and may affect the inflammatory microenvironment of HCC. To determine the effect of Yinchenhao decoction on bile acid metabolism in mice with HCC and to explore the possible mechanism by which Yinchenhao decoction improves the inflammatory microenvironment of HCC by regulating bile acid metabolism, we established mice model of orthotopic transplantation of hepatocellular carcinoma. These mice were treated with three doses of Yinchenhao decoction, then liver samples were collected and tested. Yinchenhao decoction can regulate the disorder of bile acid metabolism in liver cancer mice. Besides, it can improve inflammatory reactions, reduce hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, and even reduce liver weight and the liver index. Taurochenodeoxycholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, and taurohyodeoxycholic acid are important molecules in the regulation of the liver inflammatory microenvironment, laying a foundation for the regulation of the liver tumor inflammatory microenvironment based on bile acids. Yinchenhao decoction may improve the inflammatory microenvironment of mice with HCC by ameliorating hepatic bile acid metabolism.

7.
J Neurosci Methods ; : 110157, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism classification work on fNIRS data using dynamic graph networks. Explore the impact of the dynamic connection relationship between brain channels on ASD, and compare the brain channel connection diagrams of ASD and TD to explore potential factors that influence the development of autism. METHOD: Using dynamic graph construction to mine the dynamic relationships of fNIRS data, obtain spatio-temporal correlations through dynamic feature extraction, and improve the information extraction capabilities of the network through spatio-temporal graph pooling to achieve classification of ASD. RESULT: A classification effect with an accuracy of 97.2% was achieved using a short sequence of 1.75s. The results showed that the dynamic connections of channel 5 and 19, channel 12 and 25, and channel 7 and 34 have a greater impact on the classification of autism. Comparison with previously used method(s): Compared with previous deep learning models, our model achieves efficient classification using short-term fNIRS data of 1.75s, and analyzes the impact of dynamic connections on classification through dynamic graphs. CONCLUSION: Using Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Graph Pooled Neural Networks (DSTGPN), dynamic connectivity between brain channels was found to have an impact on the classification of autism. By modelling the brain channel relationship maps of ASD and TD, hyperlink clusters were found to exist on the brain channel connections of ASD.

8.
Virulence ; : 2355971, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745468

RESUMO

The vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) is the most complex system of the body. The CNS, especially the brain, is generally regarded as immune-privileged. However, the specialized immune strategies in the brain and how immune cells, specifically macrophages in the brain, respond to virus invasion remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the potential immune response of macrophages in the brain of orange-spotted groupers (Epinephelus coioides) following red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection. We observed that RGNNV induced macrophages to produce an inflammatory response in the brain of orange-spotted grouper, and the macrophages exhibited M1-type polarization after RGNNV infection. In addition, we found RGNNV-induced macrophage M1 polarization via the CXCR3.2- CXCL11 pathway. Furthermore, we observed that RGNNV triggered M1 polarization in macrophages, resulting in substantial proinflammatory cytokine production and subsequent damage to brain tissue. These findings reveal a unique mechanism for brain macrophage polarization, emphasizing their role in contributing to nervous tissue damage following viral infection in the CNS.

9.
FASEB J ; 38(9): e23624, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747001

RESUMO

The Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1-like (RPGRIP1L) gene encodes an important protein that performs various physiological functions. Variants of RPGRIP1L are related to a number of diseases. However, it is currently unknown whether RPGRIP1L is correlated with breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). In BRCA tissue specimens, the expression of RPGRIP1L was found to be elevated in comparison to its levels in normal breast tissue. A notable decline in survival rates was associated with patients exhibiting heightened RPGRIP1L gene expression. Consistent with these findings, our data also show the above results. Furthermore, elevated expression of RPGRIP1L corresponded with a spectrum of unfavorable clinicopathological features, including the presence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, estrogen receptor (ER) positive, over 60 years old, T2, N0, and N3. At the same time, our research indicated that 50 genes and 15 proteins were positively related to RPGRIP1L, and that these proteins and genes were mostly involved in T cell proliferation, immune response, cytokine activity, and metabolic regulation. In addition, in the present study, there was a significant correlation between RPGRIP1L expression and immune cell infiltration. Finally, we found that four Chemicals could downregulate the expression of RPGRIP1L. Altogether, our results strongly indicated that RPGRIP1L might serve as a new prognostic biomarker for BRCA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Prognóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Idoso , Adulto
10.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a combined model based on radiomics features of Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during the Kupffer phase and to evaluate its value in differentiating well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (w-HCC) from atypical benign focal liver lesions (FLLs). METHODS: A total of 116 patients with preoperatively Sonazoid-CEUS confirmed w-HCC or benign FLL were selected from a prospective multiple study on the clinical application of Sonazoid in FLLs conducted from August 2020 to March 2021. According to the randomization principle, the patients were divided into a training cohort and a test cohort in a 7:3 ratio. Seventy-nine patients were used for establishing and training the radiomics model and combined model. In comparison, 37 patients were used for validating and comparing the performance of the models. The diagnostic efficacy of the models for w-HCC and atypical benign FLLs was evaluated using ROCs curves and decision curves. A combined model nomogram was created to assess its value in reducing unnecessary biopsies. RESULTS: Among the patients, there were 55 cases of w-HCC and 61 cases of atypical benign FLLs, including 28 cases of early liver abscess, 16 cases of atypical hepatic hemangioma, 8 cases of hepatocellular dysplastic nodules (DN), and 9 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). The radiomics model and combined model we established had AUCs of 0.905 and 0.951, respectively, in the training cohort, and the AUCs of the two models in the test cohort were 0.826 and 0.912, respectively. The combined model outperformed the radiomics feature model significantly. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the combined model achieved a higher net benefit within a specific threshold probability range (0.25 to 1.00). A nomogram of the combined model was developed. CONCLUSION: The combined model based on the radiomics features of Sonazoid-CEUS in the Kupffer phase showed satisfactory performance in diagnosing w-HCC and atypical benign FLLs. It can assist clinicians in timely detecting malignant FLLs and reducing unnecessary biopsies for benign diseases.

11.
Se Pu ; 42(5): 465-473, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736390

RESUMO

A method based on gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) coupled with one-step QuEChERS technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 N-nitrosamines in air-dried yak meat. The hydration volume, extraction solvent, extracting salt, and cleaning material were optimized according to the characteristics of the N-nitrosamines and sample matrix. The optimized conditions were as follows: 10 mL of purified water for sample hydration, acetonitrile as the extraction solvent for the sample after hydration, 4.0 g of anhydrous MgSO4 and 1.0 g of NaCl as extracting salts, 500 mg of MgSO4+25 mg of C18+50 mg of PSA as cleaning materials. Favorable recoveries of the 15 N-nitrosamines were obtained when the extraction solution was incompletely dried. Thus, the final extract was dried to below 0.5 mL under a mild nitrogen stream and then redissolved to 0.5 mL with acetonitrile. After filtration, 200 µL of the sample was transferred to an autosampler vial for GC-MS/MS analysis. The 15 N-nitrosamines were determined using GC-MS/MS on a DB-HeavyWAX column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 µm) with an electron impact ion source in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and quantified using an external standard method. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the results showed that the calibration curves exhibited good linearities for the 15 N-nitrosamines, with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.9990. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 0.20 µg/kg and from 0.10 to 0.50 µg/kg, respectively. At spiked levels of 1LOQ, 2LOQ, and 10LOQ, the average recoveries were 79.4%-102.1%, 80.6%-109.5%, and 83.0%-110.6%, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were in the range of 0.8%-16.0%. The low matrix effects of the 15 N-nitrosamines indicated the high sensitivity of the proposed method. The method was applied to detect representative commercial air-dried yak meat samples obtained using different processing techniques. Seven N-nitrosamines, including N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiisobutylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-methyl-N-phenylnitrous amide, N-ethyl-N-nitrosoaniline, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, and N-nitrosodiphenylamine were detected in all samples. The average contents of the seven N-nitrosamines was 0.08-20.18 µg/kg. The detection rates and average contents of the N-nitrosamines in cooked air-dried yak meat samples were higher than those in traditional raw air-dried yak meat samples. Compared with the manual QuEChERS method, the one-step QuEChERS method developed integrated the extraction and clean-up procedures into one single run, and the detection efficiency was considerably improved. The developed method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and insusceptible to human errors. Thus, it is useful for the determination of N-nitrosamines in air-dried yak meat and can be extended to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of N-nitrosamines in other meat products. It also provides method support and a data reference for the general determination of N-nitrosamines, which is of great significance for food safety.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Carne , Nitrosaminas , Animais , Nitrosaminas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise
12.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 302, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720010

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound using Sonazoid (SNZ-CEUS) by comparing with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) for differentiating benign and malignant renal masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 306 consecutive patients (from 7 centers) with renal masses (40 benign tumors, 266 malignant tumors) diagnosed by both SNZ-CEUS, CE-CT or CE-MRI were enrolled between September 2020 and February 2021. The examinations were performed within 7 days, but the sequence was not fixed. Histologic results were available for 301 of 306 (98.37%) lesions and 5 lesions were considered benign after at least 2 year follow-up without change in size and image characteristics. The diagnostic performances were evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and compared by McNemar's test. RESULTS: In the head-to-head comparison, SNZ-CEUS and CE-MRI had comparable sensitivity (95.60 vs. 94.51%, P = 0.997), specificity (65.22 vs. 73.91%, P = 0.752), positive predictive value (91.58 vs. 93.48%) and negative predictive value (78.95 vs. 77.27%); SNZ-CEUS and CE-CT showed similar sensitivity (97.31 vs. 96.24%, P = 0.724); however, SNZ-CEUS had relatively lower than specificity than CE-CT (59.09 vs. 68.18%, P = 0.683). For nodules > 4 cm, CE-MRI demonstrated higher specificity than SNZ-CEUS (90.91 vs. 72.73%, P = 0.617) without compromise the sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: SNZ-CEUS, CE-CT, and CE-MRI demonstrate desirable and comparable sensitivity for the differentiation of renal mass. However, the specificity of all three imaging modalities is not satisfactory. SNZ-CEUS may be a suitable alternative modality for patients with renal dysfunction and those allergic to gadolinium or iodine-based agents.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Neoplasias Renais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Óxidos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
13.
J Inflamm Res ; 17: 2681-2696, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707956

RESUMO

Purpose: Management of severe diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) remains challenging. Tibial cortex transverse transport (TTT) facilitates healing and limb salvage in patients with recalcitrant DFUs. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown, necessitating the establishment of an animal model and mechanism exploration. Methods: Severe DFUs were induced in rats, then assigned to TTT, sham, or control groups (n=16/group). The TTT group underwent a tibial corticotomy, with 6 days each of medial and lateral transport; the sham group had a corticotomy without transport. Ulcer healing was assessed through Laser Doppler, CT angiography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Serum HIF-1α, PDGF-BB, SDF-1, and VEGF levels were measured by ELISA. Results: The TTT group showed lower percentages of wound area, higher dermis thickness (all p < 0.001 expect for p = 0.001 for TTT vs Sham at day 6) and percentage of collagen content (all p < 0.001) than the other two groups. The TTT group had higher perfusion and vessel volume in the hindlimb (all p < 0.001). The number of CD31+ cells (all p < 0.001) and VEGFR2+ cells (at day 6, TTT vs Control, p = 0.001, TTT vs Sham, p = 0.006; at day 12, TTT vs Control, p = 0.003, TTT vs Sham, p = 0.01) were higher in the TTT group. The activity of HIF-1α, PDGF-BB, and SDF-1 was increased in the TTT group (all p < 0.001 except for SDF-1 at day 12, TTT vs Sham, p = 0.005). The TTT group had higher levels of HIF-1α, PDGF-BB, SDF-1, and VEGF in serum than the other groups (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: TTT enhanced neovascularization and perfusion at the hindlimb and accelerated healing of the severe DFUs. The underlying mechanism is related to HIF-1α-induced angiogenesis.

14.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 98, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the roles and functions of CEACAM1 in AS remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the roles and molecular functions of CEACAM1 in AS. METHODS: We constructed a diabetes mellitus (DM) + high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model based on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apolipoprotein E-knockdown (ApopE-/-) mouse to investigate the roles and regulatory mechanism of miR-449a/CEACAM1 axis. The mRNA expression and protein levels in this study were examined using quantity PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence (IF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. And the lipid deposition and collagen content were detected using Oil Red O and Sirius Red staining. Cell apoptosis, migration, invasion, and tuber formation were detected by Annexin-V FITC/PI, wound healing, transwell, and tuber formation assays, respectively. The relationship between miR-449a and CEACAM1 was determined by a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. RESULTS: miR-449a and MMP-9 were upregulated, and CEACAM1 was downregulated in the DM + HFD MOUSE model. Upregulation of CEACAM1 promoted atherosclerotic plaque stability and inhibited inflammation in the DM + HFD mouse model. And miR-449a directly targeted CEACAM1. Besides, miR-449a interacted with CEACAM1 to regulate atherosclerotic plaque stability and inflammation in DM-associated AS mice. In vitro, the rescue experiments showed miR-449a interacted with CEACAM1 to affect apoptosis, migration, invasion, and tuber formation ability in high glucose (HG)-induced HUVECs. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that miR-449a promoted plaque instability and inflammation in DM and HFD-induced mice by targeting CEACAM1.

15.
J Med Chem ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722184

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is a promising therapeutic target in inflammation-related diseases. However, the inhibition of IRAK4 kinase activity may lead to moderate anti-inflammatory efficacy owing to the dual role of IRAK4 as an active kinase and a scaffolding protein. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of an efficient and selective IRAK4 proteolysis-targeting chimeric molecule that eliminates IRAK4 scaffolding functions. The most potent compound, LC-MI-3, effectively degraded cellular IRAK4, with a half-maximal degradation concentration of 47.3 nM. LC-MI-3 effectively inhibited the activation of downstream nuclear factor-κB signaling and exerted more potent pharmacological effects than traditional kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, LC-MI-3 exerted significant therapeutic effects in lipopolysaccharide- and Escherichia coli-induced acute and chronic inflammatory skin models compared with kinase inhibitors in vivo. Therefore, LC-MI-3 is a candidate IRAK4 degrader in alternative targeting strategies and advanced drug development.

16.
ACS Chem Biol ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723147

RESUMO

As an important functional monosaccharide, glucosamine (GlcN) is widely used in fields such as medicine, food nutrition, and health care. Here, we report a distinct GlcN biosynthesis method that utilizes engineered Bacillus subtilis glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (BsGlmS) to convert D-fructose to directly generate GlcN. The best variant obtained by using a combinatorial active-site saturation test/iterative saturation mutagenesis (CAST/ISM) strategy was a quadruple mutant S596D/V597G/S347H/G299Q (BsGlmS-BK19), which has a catalytic activity 1736-fold that of the wild type toward D-fructose. Upon using mutant BK19 as a whole-cell catalyst, D-fructose was converted into GlcN with 65.32% conversion in 6 h, whereas the wild type only attained a conversion rate of 0.31% under the same conditions. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were implemented to provide insights into the mechanism underlying the enhanced activity of BK19. Importantly, the BsGlmS-BK19 variant specifically catalyzes D-fructose without the need for phosphorylated substrates, representing a significant advancement in GlcN biosynthesis.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723431

RESUMO

The longhorned beetles are key players for the maintenance of biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystem. As xylophagous cerambycid insects in Coleoptera, the beetles have evolved specialized olfactory and gustatory systems to recognize chemical cues in the surrounding habitats. Despite over 36,000 described species in the Cerambycidae family including a wood-boring pest Pharsalia antennata, only a limited number of them (<1 %) have been characterized regarding their chemical ecology at the molecular level. Here, we surveyed four membrane protein gene families in P. antennata related to chemoreception through transcriptomics, phylogenetics and expression profiling analyses. In total, 144 genes encoding 72 odorant receptors (ORs), 33 gustatory receptors (GRs), 23 ionotropic receptors (IRs), four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and 12 ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) were harvested from the transcriptome of multiple tissues including antennae and legs of both sexes. The lineage-specific expansion of PantORs possibly implied a diverse range of host plants in this beetle, supporting this correlation between the host range and olfactory receptor repertoire sizes across cerambycid species. Further phylogenetic analysis revealed that Group 2 was contributed mainly to the large OR gene repertoire in P. antennata, representing 18 genes in Group 2A and eight in Group 2B. On the other hand, some key chemosensory genes were identified by applying a phylogenetics approach, such as PantOR21 close to the 2-phenylethanol receptor in Megacyllene caryae, three carbon dioxide GRs and seven Antennal IRs (A-IRs) clades. We also determined sex- and tissue-specific expression profiles of 69 chemosensory genes, revealing the high expression of most PantORs in antennae. Noticeably, 10 sex-biased genes (six PantORs, three PantIRs and PantSNMP1a) were presented in antennae, five sex-biased PantGRs in legs and 39 sex-biased genes (15 PantORs, 13 PantGRs, eight PantIRs and three PantSNMPs) in abdomens. These findings have greatly enhanced our knowledge about the chemical ecology of P. antennata and identify candidate molecular targets for mediating smell and taste of this beetle.

18.
Ann Hematol ; 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709259

RESUMO

Cardiotoxicity in children is a potentially fatal complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT); therefore, early identification of risk factors can improve patient prognosis. However, there are few data on the clinical characteristics of early-stage cardiotoxicity in children after allo-HSCT. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) between January 2016 and December 2022 at the Children's Hospital Affiliated with Chongqing Medical University to evaluate the clinical characteristics of early cardiac events (ECEs) after allo-HSCT and their impact on survival outcomes. We enrolled 444 patients who underwent allo-HSCT-304 males (68%) and 140 females (32%)-with a median age of 3.3 years (1.8-6.5 years) at transplantation. We found that 73 patients (16.4%) had ECEs after allo-HSCT. The ECEs included valvular disease (n = 46), pericardial effusion (n = 38), arrhythmia (n = 9), heart failure (n = 16), and dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1). Female sex, age ≥ 6 years, body mass index (BMI) < 16 kg/m2 and HLA-type mismatches were risk factors for ECEs. We designed a stratified cardiac risk score that included these risk factors, and the higher the score was, the greater the cumulative incidence of ECEs. The occurrence of an ECE was closely associated with a lower overall survival (OS) rate and greater nonrelapse mortality (NRM). In addition, stratified analysis based on the number of combined ECEs showed that the greater the number of combined ECEs was, the more significant the negative impact on OS rates.

19.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202400557, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701359

RESUMO

In the present investigation, a series of dimethoxy or methylenedioxy substituted-cinnamamide derivatives containing tertiary amine moiety (N. N-Dimethyl, N, N-diethyl, Pyrrolidine, Piperidine, Morpholine) were synthesized and evaluated for cholinesterase inhibition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Although their chemical structures are similar, their biological activities exhibit diversity. The results showed that all compounds except for those containing morpholine group exhibited moderate to potent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Preliminary screening of BBB permeability shows that methylenedioxy substituted compounds have better brain permeability than the others. Compound 10c, containing methylenedioxy and pyrrolidine side chain, showed a better acetylcholinesterase inhibition (IC50: 1.52±0.19 µmol/L) and good blood-brain barrier permeability. Further pharmacokinetic investigation of compound 10c using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in mice showed that compound 10c in brain tissue reached its peak concentration (857.72 ± 93.56 ng/g) after dosing 30 min. Its half-life in the serum is 331 min (5.52 h), and the CBrain/CSerum at various sampling points is ranged from 1.65 to 4.71(Mean: 2.76) within 24 hours. This investigation provides valuable information on the chemistry and pharmacological diversity of cinnamic acid derivatives and may be beneficial for the discovery of central nervous system drugs.

20.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703236

RESUMO

The reconstruction of bone defects has been associated with severe challenges worldwide. Nowadays, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-based cell sheets have rendered this approach a promising way to facilitate osteogenic regeneration in vivo. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential role in intercellular communication and execution of various biological functions and are often employed as an ideal natural endogenous nanomedicine for restoring the structure and functions of damaged tissues. The perception of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils, PMNs) as indiscriminate killer cells is gradually changing, with new evidence suggesting a role for these cells in tissue repair and regeneration, particularly in the context of bone healing. However, the role of EVs derived from PMNs (PMN-EVs) in bone regeneration remains largely unknown, with limited research being conducted on this aspect. In the current study, we investigated the effects of PMN-EVs on BMSCs and the underlying molecular mechanisms as well as the potential application of PMN-EVs in bone regeneration. Toward this end, BMSC-based cell sheets with integrated PMN-EVs (BS@PMN-EVs) were developed for bone defect regeneration. PMN-EVs were found to significantly enhance the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. Furthermore, BS@PMN-EVs were found to significantly accelerate bone regeneration in vivo by enhancing the maturation of the newly formed bone in rat calvarial defects; this is likely attributable to the effect of PMN-EVs in promoting the expression of key osteogenic proteins such as SOD2 and GJA1 in BMSCs. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the crucial role of PMN-EVs in promoting the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs during bone regeneration. Furthermore, this study proposes a novel strategy for enhancing bone repair and regeneration via the integration of PMN-EVs with BMSC-based cell sheets.

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