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1.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820830

RESUMO

Obesity is dramatically increasing worldwide. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng have been reported against obesity and the associated metabolic disorders. As a subtype of ginsenoside, ginsenoside Ro is a critical constituent of ginseng. However, its specific effects on obesity remains unknown. G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 5 (TGR5, also known as GPBAR1) is a bile acid membrane receptor, widely expressed in human tissues contributing to various metabolic processes to confer the regulations of glucose and lipid homeostasis.TGR5 has displayed potentials as a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we explore the anti-obesity effect of ginsenoside Ro with TGR5 activation screened by a library of natural products. Our results showed that the ginsenoside Ro (90mg/kg) treatment ameliorated body weight and lipid accumulation in multiple metabolic organs of high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice without affecting food intake, and improved oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT), and fasting serum glucose. We also found that triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in serum and liver were significantly decreased after ginsenoside Ro treatment. Then we used Tgr5 knockout mice to explore the role of Tgr5 in the anti-obesity effect of ginsenoside Ro.Our results further demonstrated that ginsenoside Ro promoted glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and energy expenditure in wild type DIO mice. However, the stimulation of ginsenoside Ro on GLP-1 secretion and energy expenditure were restrained in the Tgr5 knockout mice.In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that ginsenoside Ro ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in DIO mice via activating TGR5. Significance Statement Obesityis dramatically increasing worldwide and it contributes to multiple metabolic diseases. TGR5 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Ginsenoside Ro, as aoleanane-type ginsenoside, ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance, promotes GLP-1 secretion, increases energy expenditure via activating TGR5. Ginsenoside Ro could be a potential leading compound for treating obesity and its associated metabolic diseases.

2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 557-566, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812431

RESUMO

AbstractObjective: To establish an acquired aplastic anemia animal model for investigating the function of T lymphocyte and the pathogenesis and treatment of aplastic anemia(AA). METHODS: To establish the acquired aplastic anemia mouse model through the X-ray irradiation in combination with lymphocytes injection. AA Group: the purified Pan T lymphocytes from the spleen of C57BL/6J mice were enriched and injected to the mice through tail vein(5×106), the CB6F1 mice were exposed to 3,4 and 5 Gy X-ray irradiation; TBI Group: the CB6F1 mice were exposed to 3,4 and 5 Gy X-ray irradiation, and were injected with the same volume of PBS buffer; Control group: the CB6F1 mice were only injected with the same volume of PBS buffer. The peripheral blood routine was examined and the number of nucleated cells in bone marrow were calculated;the hematopoiesis changes in bone marrow was examined;flow cytometry was used to examine the distribution of T lymphocytes in bone marrow, and it also used to examine the apoptosis of bone marrow cells and the differentiation of spleen T lymphocytes. RESULTS: Compared with 4, 5 Gy irradiated mice in AA groups, the survival time of 3 Gy irradiated AA groups was significantly prolonged. 3, 4 and 5 Gy X-ray irradiation combined with Pan T lymphocyte injection could successfully induced severe reduction of red blood cells, blood neutrophils, and platelets, severe reduction of bone marrow nucleated cells, severe bone marrow hematopoietic failure, and the significant expansion of T lymphocytes ratio in the bone marrow. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were both increased, but mainly on CD8+ T cells, and could promote the differentiation of T cells from naïve T cells to effector memory T cells. CONCLUSION: 3, 4 and 5 Gy X-ray irradiation combined with 5×106 pan-T cell injection could successfully induce acquired aplastic anemia through T lymphocyte hyperfunction. Compared with 4, 5 Gy irradiated AA group, the 3 Gy irradiated AA group shows significantly longer survival time, and the peripheral blood routine profile closely resembles the clinical manifestations of AA patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Animais , Medula Óssea , Células da Medula Óssea , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(2): 194-201, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829691

RESUMO

Objective: To construct eukaryotic and prokaryotic recombinant vectors containing Pepck- Gp63 and to achieve protein expression by selecting the dominant epitope genes of Pepck and Gp63 of Leishmania infantum. Methods: The secondary structure and HLA epitopes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) were predicted by in silico analysis, and the dominant epitopes were picked out. According to the analysis results of glycoprotein of 63×10 3(GP63) epitopes identified by the same method in our laboratory, the dominant epitope genes of Pepck and Gp63 were used to construct pET32a- Pepck- Gp63 and pVAX1- Pepck- Gp63 by overlapping PCR and enzyme reaction. Then, for protein expression, the prokaryotic vectors were transfected into E.coil while the eukaryotic vectors were transfected into NIH3T3 cells by liposome transfection. Results: There were multiple dominant epitopes in Pepckand there were Pepck-Gp63 sequences in the polyclonal site of expression vector. The expression of Pepck-Gp63 in E.coil appeared in inclusion form and led to 74 kDa band in SDS-PAGE. The immunofluorescence results of NIH3T3 cells transfected by pVAX1- Pepck-Gp63 were positive. Conclusion: The recombinant prokaryotic expression plasmids pET32a- Pepck-Gp63 and eukaryotic expression plasmids pVAX1- P epck -Gp63 were successfully constructed, and it was shown that the recombinant plasmids were able to express the corresponding target proteins in E. coli and NIH3T3 cells, respectively, providing a preliminary experimental basis for the subsequent study of immunization strategies.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum , Animais , Epitopos/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Eucariotos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase , Plasmídeos
4.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844915

RESUMO

A Pd-catalyzed multicomponent reaction was developed by trapping oxomium ylide with nitrosobenzene via Pd-promoted umpolung chemistry. The Pd catalyst plays two important roles: diazo compound decomposed catalyst and Lewis acid for the activation of nitrosobenzene. This strategy provides some insight into a new way for discovery of multicomponent methodology to construct complex molecules. The developed method also provides rapid access to a series of O-(2-oxy) hydroxylamine derivatives, which exhibit good anticancer activity in osteosarcoma cells.

5.
Environ Int ; 153: 106501, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836339

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to public health worldwide. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in human airways and relevant environments has not received significant attention. In this study, abundances of ARGs and microbes from airborne particulate matter, dust, and human airways in a hospital were profiled using high-throughput qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. More diverse ARGs and microbes in indoor dust and higher levels of ARGs in particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were observed. Macrolides and aminoglycoside resistance genes were the most abundant ARGs in the airway and environmental samples, respectively. Moreover, the co-occurrences of priority pathogens, ARGs, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were shown by the Network analysis. Campylobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. positively correlated with fluoroquinolone (vatC-02, mexD) and ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA) resistance genes, respectively. In this regard, based on SourceTracker analysis, inhalable particles contributed to 4.0% to 5.5% of ARGs in human airway samples, suggesting an important exchange between airborne inhalable particles and human commensals. This study may advance knowledge about ARGs in airborne particulate matter and dust associated environments, reveal their potential link between environments and humans, and provide a new sight and fundamental data for ARG risk assessment.

6.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817972

RESUMO

Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim.) is a synonym of J. cathayensis, a diploid, vulnerable, temperate deciduous tree valued for its wood and nut. It is also valued as a rootstock for Juglans regia because of its reported tolerance of lesion nematode. Reference genomes are available for several Juglans species, our goal was to produce a de novo, chromosome-level assembly of the J. mandshurica genome. Here, we reported an improved assembly of J. mandshurica with a contig N50 size of 6.49 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 36.1 Mb. The total genome size was 548 Mb encoding 29,032 protein coding genes which were annotated. The collinearity analysis showed that J. mandshurica and J. regia originated from a common ancestor, with both species undergoing two WGD events. A genomic comparison showed that J. mandshurica was missing 1,657 genes found in J. regia, and J. mandshurica includes 2,827 genes not found in of the J. regia genome. The J. mandshurica contained 1,440 unique paralogs that were highly enriched for flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. Four gene families related to disease resistance notable contraction (rapidly evolving) (LEA, WAK, PPR, and PR) in J. mandshurica compared to eight species. JmaPR10 and JmaPR8 contained 3 orthologous gene pairs with J. regia that were highly expressed in root bark. JmaPR10 is a strong candidate gene for lesion nematodes resistance in J. mandshurica. This J. mandshurica genome should be a useful resource for study of the evolution, breeding, and genetic variation in walnuts (Juglans).

7.
Neurosci Lett ; : 135880, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838256

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is mainly associated with the neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS), in which the failure of remyelination results in persistent neurological dysfunction. Fasudil, a typical Rho kinase inhibitor, has been exhibited beneficial effects on several models of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we showed that Fasudil promoted the uptake of myelin debris by microglia via cell experiments and through a cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelinating model. In vitro, microglia with phagocytic debris exhibited enhanced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and the conditioned medium promoted the maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Meanwhile, Fasudil upregulated TREM2/DAP12 pathway, which positively regulated the phagocytosis of myelin debris by microglia. Similarly, in vivo, Fasudil intervention enhanced the clearance of myelin debris, up-regulated the expression of BDNF and GDNF on microglia, and promoted the formation of Oligo2+/PDGFRα+ OPCs and the maturation of MBP + oligodendrocytes in the brain. Our results showed that Fasudil targeted the phagocytic function of microglia, effectively clearing myelin debris produced during pathological process possibly by upregulating TREM2/DAP12 pathway, accompanied by increased expression of BDNF and GDNF. However, the precise mechanism underlying the effects of Fasudil in promoting phagocytic effects and neurotrophic factors remains to be elucidated.

8.
J Biomech ; 120: 110386, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794414

RESUMO

There has been no systematic review evaluating the efficacy of electromyography (EMG) biofeedback after knee surgery recently. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether EMG-biofeedback is effective for improving the range of motion (ROM), physical function, and pain relief in patients after knee. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of EMG-biofeedback after any knee surgery were retrieved from EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, ProQuest. This review identified 773 unique studies, and six RCTs were in the final meta-analysis. EMG-Biofeedback treatment has a significant difference compared to other rehabilitation therapy in knee ROM improving (SMD = -0.48, 95% CI = -0.82 to -0.14, p = 0.006, I2 = 37%). Moreover, there was no significant difference in pain (SMD = -0.33, 95% CI = -0.67 to0.02, p = 0.07, I2 = 41%) and physical function scores (MD = 1.83, 95% CI = -3.48 to7.14, p = 0.50, I2 = 0%). The results illustrate that EMG-biofeedback can improve knee ROM in patients after knee surgery. However, it is not superior to other rehabilitation methods for pain relief and physical function improvement.

9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826709

RESUMO

AIMS: Given the benefits of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition (SGLT2i) in protecting against heart failure in diabetic patients, we sought to explore the potential impact of SGLT2i on the clinical features of patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) through a post-hoc analysis of CANVAS Program and CREDENCE trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes and history or high risk of cardiovascular disease (CANVAS Program) or type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CREDENCE) were included. The intervention was Canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg (combined in the analysis) or placebo. MI events were adjudicated as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI as well as type 1 MI or type 2 MI. 421 first MI events in the CANVAS Program and 178 first MI events in the CREDENCE trial were recorded (83 fatal, 128 STEMI, 431 non-STEMI, and 40 unknown). No benefit of canagliflozin compared with placebo on time to first MI event was observed (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.75, 1.05). Canagliflozin was associated with lower risk for non-STEMI (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.65, 0.95) but suggested a possible increase in STEMI (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.06, 2.27), with no difference in risk of type 1 or type 2 MI. There was no change in fatal MI (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.78, 1.93). CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin was not associated with a reduction in overall MI in the pooled CANVAS Program and CREDENCE trial population. The possible differential effect on STEMI and Non-STEMI observed in the CANVAS cohort warrants further investigation.

10.
J Med Chem ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829783

RESUMO

The metabolic enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) was recently implicated as a synthetic lethal target in cancers with deletion of the methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene, which is adjacent to the CDKN2A tumor suppressor and codeleted with CDKN2A in approximately 15% of all cancers. Previous attempts to target MAT2A with small-molecule inhibitors identified cellular adaptations that blunted their efficacy. Here, we report the discovery of highly potent, selective, orally bioavailable MAT2A inhibitors that overcome these challenges. Fragment screening followed by iterative structure-guided design enabled >10 000-fold improvement in potency of a family of allosteric MAT2A inhibitors that are substrate noncompetitive and inhibit release of the product, S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), from the enzyme's active site. We demonstrate that potent MAT2A inhibitors substantially reduce SAM levels in cancer cells and selectively block proliferation of MTAP-null cells both in tissue culture and xenograft tumors. These data supported progressing AG-270 into current clinical studies (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03435250).

11.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104821, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812156

RESUMO

A new series of indole containing biaryl derivatives were designed and synthesized, and further biological evaluations of their antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines (MGC-803 and TE-1 cells) were also conducted. Of these synthesized biaryls, compound 4-methyl-2-((5-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)methyl)quinazoline (23) performed as the most potent antiproliferative agent that inhibited cell viability of MGC-803 cells with an IC50 value of 8.28 µM. In addition, investigation of mechanism exhibited that the compound 4-methyl-2-((5-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)methyl)quinazoline (23) could inhibit the expression of c-Myc and glycolysis related proteins, decrease the ATP and lactate production, and further induce apoptosis by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p53 signaling pathways.

12.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(1): 55-65, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834691

RESUMO

Synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss are related to cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence indicates that regulating the phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/AKT/GSK-3ß pathway is a therapeutic strategy for improving synaptic plasticity in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated "olfactory three-needle" effects on synaptic function and the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in ß-amyloid1-42 (Aß1-42)-induced Alzheimer's disease rats. A three-needle olfactory bulb insertion for 28 days alleviated Aß1-42-induced Alzheimer's disease rats' cognitive impairment as assessed by performance in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, the three-needle electrode inhibited neuro-apoptosis and neuro-inflammation. It significantly upregulated the protein expression of postsynaptic density protein 95, synaptophysin, and GAP43, indicating a protective effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Additionally, the activation level of PI3K/AKT signaling and the phosphorylation inactivation of GSK-3ß were significantly enhanced by the "olfactory three-needle". Our findings suggested that the three-needle acupuncture is a potential alternative to improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of Alzheimer's disease brain in rodents.

13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(7): 765-776, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reviving patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOCs) has always been focused and challenging in medical research. Owing to the limited effectiveness of available medicine, recent research has increasingly turned towards neuromodulatory therapies, involving the stimulation of neural circuits. We summarised the progression of research regarding neuromodulatory therapies in the field of DOCs, compared the differences among different studies, in an attempt to explore optimal stimulation patterns and parameters, and analyzed the major limitations of the relevant studies to facilitate future research. METHODS: We performed a search in the PubMed database, using the concepts of DOCs and neuromodulation. Inclusion criteria were: articles in English, published after 2002, and reporting clinical trials of neuromodulatory therapies in human patients with DOCs. RESULTS: Overall, 187 published articles met the search criteria, and 60 articles met the inclusion criteria. There are differences among these studies regarding the clinical efficacies of neurostimulation techniques for patients with DOCs, and large-sample studies are still lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Neuromodulatory techniques were used as trial therapies for DOCs wherein their curative effects were controversial. The difficulties in detecting residual consciousness, the confounding effect between the natural course of the disease and therapeutic effect, and the heterogeneity across patients are the major limitations. Large-sample, well-designed studies, and innovations for both treatment and assessment are anticipated in future research.

14.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808102

RESUMO

A water-soluble deep cavitand bearing amides on the upper rim and trimethyl ammonium groups on the feet was synthesized. The open-ended cavity is stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed between the adjacent amides, and the introduction of trimethylammonium imparts to the cavitand good solubility in water. The cavitand exhibits high binding affinity and selectivity to hydrophilic molecules in water. With certain guests, such as cyclohexyl alcohols, amines and acids, the recognition involves the synergistic action of hydrogen bonding with hydrophobic effects. The binding phenomena are interpreted in terms of a fixed solvent cage presented by the host to the guest.

15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 174077, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798601

RESUMO

This study investigated the hemodynamic effect of Bay 60-7550, a phosphodiesterase type 2 (PDE2) inhibitor, in healthy rat hearts both in vivo and ex vivo and its underlying mechanisms. In vivo rat left ventricular pressure-volume loop, Langendorff isolated rat heart, Ca2+ transient of left ventricular myocyte and western blot experiments were used in this study. The results demonstrated that Bay 60-7550 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the in vivo rat heart contractility by enhancing stroke work, cardiac output, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, heart rate, and ejection fraction. The simultaneous aortic pressure recording indicated that the systolic blood pressure was increased and diastolic blood pressure was decreased by Bay 60-7550. Also, the arterial elastance which is proportional to the peripheral vessel resistance was significantly decreased. Bay 60-7550 (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µmol/l) also enhanced the left ventricular development pressure in non-paced and paced modes with a decrease of heart rate in non-paced model. Bay 60-7550 (1 µmol/l) increased SERCA2a activity and SR Ca2+ content and reduced SR Ca2+ leak rate. Furthermore, Bay 60-7550 (0.1 µmol/l) increased the phosphorylation of phospholamban at 16-serine without significantly changing the phosphorylation levels of phospholamban at 17-threonine and RyR2. Bay 60-7550 increased the rat heart contractility and reduced peripheral arterial resistance may be mediated by increasing the phosphorylation of phospholamban and dilating peripheral vessels. PDE2 inhibitors which result in a positive inotropic effect and a decrease in peripheral resistance might serve as a target for developing agents for the treatment of heart failure in clinical settings.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 50(13): 4727-4734, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734266

RESUMO

Encouraged by the successful syntheses of alloy nanoclusters (or nanoparticles) via intercluster (or interparticle) reactions, herein we apply this methodology to prepare a series of bimetallic hydride clusters. Mixing of two clusters, [Ag7(H){E2P(OiPr)2}6] (E = S, 1; Se, 3) and [Cu7(H){E2P(OiPr)2}6] (E = S, 2; Se, 4), yields two series of hydride-centered bimetallic clusters, [CuxAg7-x(H){E2P(OiPr)2}6] (x = 0-7; E = S, 5; Se, 6). Their compositions are fully characterized by positive-mode ESI-MS spectrometry, multi-NMR spectroscopy, and the structures of [Cu6Ag(H){S2P(OiPr)2}6] (5a) and [CuAg6(H){Se2P(OiPr)2}6] (6a) by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The presence of individual compounds in solution is the result of a (dynamic) chemical equilibrium primarily driven by metal exchanges. In fact, the process of inter-cluster exchange of 1 and 2 leading to hydride-centered bimetallic clusters 5 can be monitored by concentration-dependent 31P NMR spectroscopy of which the higher concentration of 1 in the reaction, the closer to its resonance will be the distribution, in accord with Le Chatelier's principle. The dynamic equilibrium is further confirmed by 2D exchange spectroscopy that reveals a stepwise process involving one metal exchange at a time. DFT calculations on a model series of clusters 6 show that silver prefers occupying the inner tetrahedral positions, while copper favors capping positions, in full agreement with the crystal structure of 5a and 6a.

17.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(10): 2524-2531, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659976

RESUMO

To develop a new class of neutral fluorescent dyes with mitochondrial staining capacity, a series of functional dyes were obtained from Nile Red (2a-e) and coumarin (3a-e) with different amide compounds via Suzuki coupling reactions. The Nile Red derivatives (2a-e) emitted red fluorescence (590-660 nm) and coumarin derivatives (3a-e) showed blue emission (455-490 nm) in organic solvents. In addition, they exhibited high fluorescence quantum yields (0.27-0.98) in organic solvents and excellent photostability (>92%). Moreover, all of them possessed low cytotoxicity. More importantly, Nile Red borate (2) and coumarin borate (3) only accumulated in lipid droplets, while after being modified by different amide compounds, dyes 2a-e and 3a-e could successfully target mitochondria in HeLa cancer cells via confocal fluorescence experiments. This work provides a new strategy for the design of neutral cellular probes for mitochondrial staining.

18.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779134

RESUMO

Separating low/high-valent ions with sub-nanometer sizes is a crucial yet challenging task in various areas (e.g., within environmental, healthcare, chemical, and energy engineering). Satisfying high separation precision requires membranes with exceptionally high selectivity. One way to realize this is constructing well-designed ion-selective nanochannels in pressure-driven membranes where the separation mechanism relies on combined steric, dielectric exclusion, and Donnan effects. To this aim, charged nanochannels in polyamide (PA) membranes are created by incorporating ionic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers via interfacial polymerization. Both sub-10 nm sizes of the ionic PAMAM dendrimer molecules and their gradient distributions in the PA nanofilms contribute to the successful formation of defect-free PA nanofilms, containing both internal (intramolecular voids) and external (interfacial voids between the ionic PAMAM dendrimers and the PA matrix) nanochannels for fast transport of water molecules. The external nanochannels with tunable ionizable groups endow the PA membranes with both high low/high-valent co-ion selectivity and chemical cleaning tolerance, while the ion sieving/transport mechanism was analyzed by employing the Donnan steric pore model with dielectric exclusion.

19.
J Hand Surg Am ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current reconstruction strategies for chronic posttraumatic boutonniere deformities have variable outcomes and are prone to complications. This study aimed to describe the clinical outcomes of a Y-shaped tendon graft technique. METHODS: In this retrospective case study, we reviewed the files of 18 patients treated with the Y-shaped tendon graft between January 2010 and January 2017. The technique involves release of the central slip, lateral bands, and transverse retinacular ligaments at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, total excision of scar tissue in the central slip and at the insertion site, and construction of 3 1.5-mm unicortical holes at the base of the middle phalanx, through which a Y-shaped graft of the palmaris longus is inserted to reconstruct the central slip and stabilize the lateral bands in a dorsal position. Clinical evaluations included measuring the active range of motion in the PIP joint and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint, grip strength, Souter score, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 36.1 years, and 12 of the 18 patients were men. The average follow-up period was 23 months (range, 13-38 months). The preoperative PIP joint extension deficit was 48.0° ± 5.0° compared with 10.9° ± 9.3° after surgery. The preoperative DIP joint active flexion was 34.4° ± 8.0° compared with 71.4° ± 8.6° after surgery The outcomes based on the Souter score were 11 excellent, 5 good, and 2 poor. The QuickDASH score was 17.7 ± 6.4 before surgery and 11.2 ± 7.2 after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The Y-shaped tendon graft can be a useful procedure for the correction of chronic boutonniere deformity; in our patient series, this provided good or excellent results in 16 of 18 patients. Type of study/level of evidence Therapeutic IV.

20.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 2962-2971, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690750

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the effect of raw (WB) or mixed fungi-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal health in weaned piglets. After the preparation of FWB, twenty-one cross-bred weaned piglets (7.20 ± 0.5 kg) were separated into three groups for a 40-day trial. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet. For the other two groups, 8% of expanded corn in the basal diet was replaced by equivalent WB or FWB. Results showed that the content of main nutrients and the composition of dietary fiber in FWB improved compared to that for WB. The digestibility of fiber in pigs fed FWB improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control and/or WB without affecting their growth performance. Both WB and FWB decreased the conditional pathogen (Streptococcus) or/and E. coli virulence factor (STb) in the colon compared to control (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in jejunum increased (P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells, the expression of MUC-1 and pBD1 in jejunal mucosa, and the proportion of blood CD4+ T lymphocyte subset improved (P < 0.05) by FWB rather than WB. Furthermore, although only WB elevated (P < 0.05) the concentration of butyrate in the colon, both WB and FWB increased the number of butyrate-producing bacteria (P < 0.05) compared to the control. Thus, the main advantage of FWB over WB in weaned pigs is its improvement in fiber digestibility.

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