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1.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of hypertension should be based on the mean of two or more properly measured BP readings on each of two visits for clinical practice, but one-visit strategy was applied in most epidemiological surveys. The impact of hypertension definition based on two visits on estimates of hypertension burden is unknown. This study aims to assess the impact of hypertension diagnosis based on a two-visit strategy for estimating hypertension burden in China. METHODS: The one-visit and two-visit strategies were applied to investigate the incidence of hypertension in a cohort study based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 1989-2011. Additionally the prevalence of hypertension was investigated in a cross-sectional study based on the CHNS 2006-2009/2011 and the hypertension burden in China was estimated with data from the 2012-2015 China hypertension survey. RESULTS: Overall, the age-adjusted incidence of hypertension based on the two-visit strategy (1.82%; 95% confidence interval [Cl] = 1.74%, 1.90%) was 62.1% lower than estimation based on the one-visit strategy (4.80%; 95% Cl = 4.68%, 4.93%). Similar results were found in the prevalence of hypertension (the one-visit: 18.13% [17.34, 18.92]; the two-visit: 9.47% [8.87, 10.07]). When the two-visit strategy was applied to the 2012-2015 China hypertension survey, the hypertension burden was predicted to be overestimated by 25.5%-47.8% (based on JNC 7) and 23.5%-48.2% (based on the 2017 ACC/AHA). CONCLUSION: The hypertension burden would decrease from 244.5 million persons to 127.5-182.3 million persons in China if the two-visit strategy was applied.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 83: 106436, 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234671

RESUMO

Phenolic acids are found in natural plants, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. They have long been used as pharmacological actives, owing to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Cryptochlorogenic acid (CCGA) is a special isomer of chlorogenic acid; the pharmacological effects and related molecular mechanisms of CCGA have been poorly reported. In the present study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CCGA in RAW 264.7 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. The results revealed that CCGA dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 and blocked iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 expressions. CCGA also significantly increased the GSH/GSSG ratio and SOD activity and reduced the MDA level. Moreover, CCGA suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB by hindering the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) and degrading IκB. It also downregulated the phosphorylation of MAPKs. Our results indicated that CCGA significantly inhibited NF-κB activation by controlling the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and promoting the nuclear transfer of Nrf2. In conclusion, CCGA could attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory symptoms by modulating NF-κB/MAPK signaling cascades and inhibit LPS-induced oxidative stress via Nrf2 nuclear translocation.

3.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234332

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) are the most malignant brain tumors in humans and have a very poor prognosis. Temozolomide (TMZ), the only chemotherapeutic drug for GBM treatment, induced apoptosis but frequently developed resistance. Non-apoptotic cell death offers an alternative strategy to fight cancers. Our previous studies showed that 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM), a natural product, induced necroptosis in lung and colon cancer cells. The current study is designed to investigate its therapeutic potentials for GBM with in vitro and in vivo models. The protein expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in human GBM specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry. Effect of MAM on NQO1 was measured by recombinant protein and cellular thermal shift assay. The roles of NQO1 activation, superoxide (O2-2-) generation, calcium (Ca2+) accumulation, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) activation in MAM-induced cell death in U87 and U251 glioma cells were investigated. The effect of MAM on tumor growth was tested with a U251 tumor xenograft zebrafish model. Results showed that the NQO1 expression is positively correlated with the degree of malignancy in GBM tissues. MAM could directly bind and activate NQO1. Furthermore, MAM treatment induced rapid O2-2- generation, cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation, and sustained JNK1/2 activation. In addition, MAM significantly suppressed tumor growth in the zebrafish model. In conclusion, MAM induced GBM cell death by triggering an O2-2-/Ca2+/JNK1/2 dependent programmed necrosis. NQO1 might be the potential target for MAM and mediated its anticancer effect. This non-apoptotic necrosis might have therapeutic potentials for GBM treatment.

4.
Mol Med Rep ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236637

RESUMO

CD44 antigen (CD44) is a transmembrane protein found in cell adhesion molecules and is involved in the regulation of various physiological processes in cells. It was hypothesized that CD44 directly affected the chondrogenic differentiation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In the present study, the expression of chondrocyte­associated factors was detected in the absence and presence of the antibody blocker anti­CD44 antibody during the chondrogenic differentiation of hAMSCs. Following inhibition of CD44 expression, the transcriptional levels of chondrocyte­associated genes SRY­box transcription factor 9, aggrecan and collagen type II α 1 chain, as well as the production of chondrocyte markers type II collagen and aggrecan were significantly decreased in hAMSCs. Further investigation indicated that there was no significant change in total ERK1/2 expression following inhibition of CD44 expression; however, phosphorylated (p)­ERK1/2 expression was decreased. The expression of p­Smad2/3 was also upregulated following CD44 inhibition. These data indicated that CD44 may affect the differentiation of hAMSCs into chondrocytes by regulating the Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 341-346, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237316

RESUMO

Pinellia ternata belongs to the Araceae family and is a medicinal herb. The tuber is the medicinal organ with antitussive, antiemetic and anti-tumor activities. It is easy to encounter high temperature environment during the growth periods, leading to decrease of tuber production. At present, the mechanism of response to high temperature stress in P. ternata is still unknown. DNA methylation plays a vital role in plant protection against adversity stress as a way of epigenetic regulation. In this study, P. ternata was used as material for treatment of high temperature stress at 0 h, 6 h and 80 h, and methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism(MSAP) analysis was conducted on the changes of DNA methylation in its genome. The results showed that 20 pairs of MSAP primers were selected from 100 MSAP primers with multiple clear and uniform bands, and 353, 355 and 342 loci were amplified from materials of P. ternata treated in the high temperature stress 0 h, 6 h and 80 h, respectively. Cytosine methylation levels of CCGG context in the above materials were characterized as 60.91%, 44.79% and 44.74%, respectively. And the full methylation ratios were 16.71%, 22.25% and 29.24, respectively. It demonstrated that high temperature stress significantly induced the down-regulation of DNA methylation level and up-regulation of the full methylation rate in P. ternata genome. This study provides a preliminary theoretical reference for analyzing the mechanism of P. ternata responding to high temperature stress from the epigenetic perspective.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 374-382, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237321

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to obtain low toxicity and high efficiency anti-tumor Chinese medicine through screening the combination ratios of Momordicae Semen and Epimedii Folium, and to explore the anti-tumor mechanism of the combination of two drugs by observing their effect on apoptosis-related proteins in cancer cells. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay was used to observe the effect of drug combination on the proliferation of tumor cells from different tissue sources. The effects of the combination of the two drugs on tumor cells were analyzed by Compusyn software. Plate cloning assay was used to observe the effect of combination of these two drugs on the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro. The expression of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and apoptotic proteins p53, Bcl-2 and Bax were compared by using ROS kit and Western blot. Lewis lung cancer model was used to observe the anti-tumor effect of drugs in vivo. The results showed that the anti-tumor effect of their ethanol extract was more significant than that of water extract, and the anti-proliferation effect was strongest when the ratio was 1∶1(P<0.05). Compusyn analysis showed that the combination of the two drugs had synergistic effect. Further studies showed that after combined use, the number of clonogen formation in A549 cells was significantly reduced(P<0.01); ROS production was increased; the expression of apoptosis-related protein p53 was up-regulated, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased. In vivo animal study showed that the tumor inhibition rate was 53.06%(P<0.05) in the high dose group. As compared with the single use of the two drugs, the combination of the two drugs had more significant anti-proliferative effect on tumors, and the optimum ratio was 1∶1. The combination of the two drugs at a ratio of 1∶1 inhibited the proliferation of various tumor cells, and had no significant effect on normal liver cells LO2 when compared with other ratios. Therefore, it can be preliminarily inferred that the combination of the two drugs may have the effect of synergism and detoxification. Further studies showed that the combination of the two drugs can significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of endogenous apoptotic pathway. In vivo experiments also showed that the tumor inhibition rate increased with the increase of drug concentration.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1159-1166, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237460

RESUMO

To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Shentong Zhuyu Decoction in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, in order to provide evidence for its clinical application. PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, CNKI, WanFang, VIP, CBM and Clinical Trials.gov databases were sysmatically retrieved. Two researchers independently searched, screened and extracted data. Randomized controlled trials in line with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The article quality was assessed with the bias risk tool in the Cochrane Handbook. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. A total of 604 articles were obtained from the retrieval, and 824 patients in 9 studies were finally selected through screening. The course of treatment was about 1 month, and all of the studies were completed in China. Meta-analysis showed that the efficacy of Shentong Zhuyu Decoction in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation was better than that of the control group(RR=1.19, 95%CI[1.12, 1.26], P<0.000 01), including the comparison with Yaotongning Capsules(RR=1.10, 95%CI[1.02, 1.19], P=0.01) and diclofenac sodium tablets(RR=1.26, 95%CI[1.11, 1.44], P=0.000 4). In VAS pain score, Shentong Zhuyu Decoction had also obvious advantages(MD=-3.70, 95%CI[-6.31,-1.09], P=0.005). In addition, the number of adverse events in the Shentong Zhuyu Decoction group was lower than that in the control group. Shentong Zhuyu Decoction can effectively alleviate discomfort symptoms of patients with LDH. It has an obvious clinical efficacy and less adverse reactions. However, restricted by the quality of the included literatures, prospective, multi-center, large-sample-size randomized controlled trials are still needed to further improve the clinical evidence of the effect of Shentong Zhuyu Decoction in the treatment of LDH.

8.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197466

RESUMO

Neochlorogenic acid (nCGA) is a phenolic compound isolated from mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.), which possesses multiple pharmacological activities containing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role of nCGA in the treatment of acute pneumonia and the underlying molecular mechanism are still unclear. Hence, the aim of study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of nCGA on LPS-stimulated inflammation in A549 cells. In the present study, results reported that nCGA without cytotoxicity significantly reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and NO, and further suppressed the proteins of iNOS, COX2, TNF-α, IL-6 expression. Furthermore, nCGA also inhibited NF-κB activation and blocked MAPKs signaling pathway phosphorylation. In addition, we found nCGA significantly increased the expression of HO-1 via activating the AMPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway to attenuate the inflammatory response, whereas this protective effect of nCGA was reversed by pre-treatment with compound C (C.C, an AMPK inhibitor). Therefore, all these results indicated that nCGA might act as a natural anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of acute pneumonia.

9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of fresh tea leaves after harvest determines, to some extent, the quality and price of commercial tea. A fast and accurate method to evaluate the quality of fresh tea leaves is required. RESULTS: In this study, the potential of hyperspectral imaging in the range of 328-1115 nm for the rapid prediction of moisture, total nitrogen, crude fiber contents, and quality index value was investigated. A total of 90 samples of eight tea leaf varieties and two picking standards were tested. Quantitative partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were established using full spectrum, whereas multiple linear regression (MLR) models were developed using characteristic wavelengths selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). The results showed that optimal SPA-MLR models for moisture, total nitrogen, crude fiber contents, and quality index value yielded optimal performance with coefficients of determination for prediction (R2 p) of 0.9357, 0.8543, 0.8188, 0.9168; root mean square error (RMSEP) of 0.3437, 0.1097, 0.3795, 1.0358; and residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 4.00, 2.56, 2.31, and 3.51, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with chemometrics was a promising tool for rapid and nondestructive measurement of tea leaf quality and had the potential to develop multispectral imaging systems for future online detection of tea leaf quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215835

RESUMO

Inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Besides MS disease-modifying therapy, targeting myelin sheath protection/regeneration is currently a hot spot in the treatment of MS. Here, we attempt to explore the therapeutic potential of Bilobalide (BB) for the myelin protection/regeneration in EAE model. The results showed that BB treatment effectively prevented worsening and demyelination of EAE, accompanied by the inhibition of neuroinflammation that should be closely related to T cell tolerance and M2 macrophages/microglia polarization. BB treatment substantially inhibited the infiltration of T cells and macrophages, thereby alleviating the enlargement of neuroinflammation and the apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in CNS. The accurate mechanism of BB action and the feasibility of clinical application in the prevention and treatment of demyelination remain to be further explored.

11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-32, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216845

RESUMO

Here, we explored the influences of dietary inulin (INU) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal health in a porcine model. Thirty-two male weaned pigs (with an average body weight of 7.10±0.20 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments and fed with a basal diet (BD) or BD containing 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g/kg INU, respectively. After 21d trial, pigs were sacrificed for collection of serum and intestinal tissues. We show that INU supplementation had no significant influence on the growth performance in weaned pigs. INU significantly elevated the serum insulin-like growth factors-1 (IGF-1) concentration, but decreased the diamine oxidase (DAO) concentration (P<0.05). Interestingly, 2.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg INU supplementation significantly elevated the villus height in jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). Moreover, 2.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg INU supplementation also elevated the villus height to crypt depth (V/C) in the duodenum and ileum, and improved the distribution and abundance of tight-junction protein ZO-1 in duodenum and ileum epithelium. INU supplementation at 10.0 g/kg significantly elevated the sucrase activity in the ileum mucosa (P<0.05). INU supplementation decreased the expression level of TNF-α, but elevated the expression level of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in the intestinal mucosa (P<0.05). Moreover, INU increased acetic and butyric acid concentrations in cecum (P<0.05). Importantly, INU elevated the Lactobacillus population but decreased the Escherichia coli population in the cecum (P<0.05). These results not only indicate a beneficial effect of INU on growth performance and intestinal barrier functions, but also offer potential mechanisms behind the dietary fiber-regulated intestinal health.

12.
Gene ; : 144600, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217139

RESUMO

Exploring molecular markers related to economic traits of livestock is of great significance to breeding. Long-chain fatty acid COA synthetase (ACSL) plays a crucial role in lipid synthesis and metabolism, which may affect animal growth. This study was to investigate the polymorphism of ACSL gene and its association with the growth trait of the donkey. Three insertions and two deletions were detected on the introns of ACSL3 gene in 450 Dezhou donkeys using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After that, linkage disequilibrium analysis found that there was a strong linkage among ACSL3 gene loci in Dezhou donkey. Association analysis of growth traits showed that ACSL3-1, ACSL3-2, ACSL3-3, and ACSL3-4 loci were significantly associated with body weight and other growth traits (P < 0.05). Furthermore, five high frequency haplotypes were identified in Dezhou donkey, and haplotype combination analysis showed that among the first three high-frequency combinations, the low-frequency Hap3Hap3 (II-DD-II-DD-DD) homozygous haplotype combination was lower than the other two groups (Hap1Hap1, Hap5Hap5) in the chest width and chest depth (P < 0.05) of the female. Conclusively, the results of this study indicated that the polymorphisms in ACSL3 gene can be used as molecular markers to participate in donkey breeding.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1593068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185192

RESUMO

Background: High-altitude headache (HAH) is the most common complication after high-altitude exposure. Hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) related genes have been confirmed to contribute to high-altitude acclimatization. We aim to investigate a possible association between HIF-related genes and HAH in the Chinese Han population. Methods: In total, 580 healthy Chinese Han volunteers were recruited in Chengdu (500 m) and carried to Lhasa (3700 m) by plane in 2 hours. HAH scores and basic physiological parameters were collected within 18-24 hours after the arrival. Thirty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HIF-related genes were genotyped, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) was evaluated by Haploview software. The functions of SNPs/haplotypes for HAH were developed by using logistic regression analysis. Results: In comparison with wild types, the rs4953354 "G" allele (P=0.013), rs6756667 "A" allele (P=0.013), rs6756667 "A" allele (EPAS1, and rs6520015 "C" allele in PPARA (P=0.013), rs6756667 "A" allele (PPARA (P=0.013), rs6756667 "A" allele (EPAS1, and rs6520015 "C" allele in PPARA (P=0.013), rs6756667 "A" allele (. Conclusions: EPAS1 and PPARA polymorphisms were associated with HAH in the Chinese Han population. Our findings pointed out potentially predictive gene markers, provided new insights into understanding pathogenesis, and may further provide prophylaxis and treatment strategies for HAH.EPAS1, and rs6520015 "C" allele in PPARA (.

14.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver metastasis is an indicator of unfavorable responses to immunotherapy in colorectal cancer patients. However, the difference of immune microenvironment between primary tumors and liver metastases has not been well understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four colon cancer with liver metastasis patients who received resection of both primary and metastasis lesions have been analyzed. The immune score is based on the density of infiltrating immune cells (CD3+ cell, CD8+ cell, CD11b+ cell, CD11c+ cell, and CD33+ cell) in the center and margin of the tumor. The expression of immune markers between the primary tumor and hepatic metastases was analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. RESULTS: All the five markers had higher expression in tumor margins than center tumor in both primary tumor and hepatic metastases lesions. The expression of CD11c and CD11b had no difference between metastatic lesions and primary tumor. In tumor margins, except CD11b, all the other 4 markers expressed significantly higher in hepatic metastases than in primary tumor. Intra-tumor, CD3 had higher expression in primary tumor than in hepatic metastases, while CD33 had higher expression in hepatic metastases than in primary tumor. CD8+ CD3+ cells of the total CD8+ cell population in primary tumor was significantly higher than in hepatic metastases (36.42% vs. 24.88%, p = 0.0069). CONCLUSIONS: The immune microenvironment between primary tumor and hepatic metastasis is different. More immunosuppressing cells in liver may partially explain why immunotherapy in colon cancer is less effective with liver metastatic disease.

15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(5): 517-522, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) technique is widely used in labor analgesia, but the parameter settings of PIEB have not yet been standardized. We designed a study to identify the optimal interval duration for PIEB using 10 mL of ropivacaine 0.08% and sufentanyl 0.3 µg/mL, a regimen commonly used to control labor pain in China, to provide effective analgesia in 90% of women during the first stage of labor without breakthrough pain. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind sequential allocation trial to obtain the effective interval 90% (EI90%) during the first stage of labor between April 2019 and May 2019. This study included the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II-III nulliparous parturients at term, who requested epidural analgesia. The bolus volume was fixed at 10 mL of ropivacaine 0.08% with sufentanyl 0.3 µg/mL. Participants were divided into four groups (groups 60, 50, 40, and 30) according to the PIEB intervals (60, 50, 40, and 30 min, respectively). The interval duration of the first parturient was set at 60 min and that of subsequent parturients varied according to a biased-coin design. The truncated Dixon and Mood method and the isotonic regression analysis method were used to estimate the EI90% and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Forty-four women were enrolled in this study. The estimated optimal interval was 44.1 min (95% CI 41.7-46.5 min) and 39.5 min (95% CI 32.5-50.0 min), using the truncated Dixon and Mood method and isotonic regression analysis, respectively. The maximum sensory block level above T6 was in nearly 20% of parturients in group 30; however, 5.3%, 0%, and 0% of the parturients presented with sensory block level above T6 in groups 40, 50, and 60, respectively. There were no cases of hypotension and only one parturient complained of motor block. CONCLUSION: With a fixed 10 mL dose of ropivacaine 0.08% with sufentanyl 0.3 µg/mL, the optimal PIEB interval is about 42 min. Further studies are warranted to define the efficacy of this regimen throughout all stages of labor. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900022199; http://www.chictr.org.cn/com/25/historyversionpuben.aspx?regno=ChiCTR1900022199.

16.
J Econ Entomol ; 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112092

RESUMO

The biocontrol values of natural enemies are strongly correlated to their ability to regulate the density of their host/prey. For parasitoids, apart from parasitism and host feeding, unsuccessful host stinging (i.e., stings that were aborted, abandoned, or discontinued without oviposition or host feeding) can also negatively affect their hosts and host populations. Although several studies have reported unsuccessful host stinging and its impacts on hosts, the effects of this type of attack on host life table parameters are still unclear. In the present study, we used the parasitoid Aphelinus asychis Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and its host Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to investigate the influence of unsuccessful host stinging on host populations under laboratory conditions at. Biological parameters of A. pisum were analyzed using an age stage, two-sex life table. The results of this study showed that unsuccessful host stinging was prevalent under laboratory conditions, and the frequency of this type of attack on third- and fourth-instar hosts was higher than the frequencies of parasitism and host feeding. Unsuccessful host stinging adversely impacted aphid populations, by decreasing aphid survival and reproduction, and impacts were greatest in hosts attacked at the first and fourth instars. These results indicate that unsuccessful host stinging enhances the biological control impact of A. asychis attacking A. pisum, and its effect on host populations should also be considered when selecting and mass rearing of parasitoids for biological control.

17.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112352

RESUMO

AIMS: Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of unmet supportive care needs and anxiety on the initiation of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study from a single tertiary referral hospital. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer who met the inclusion criteria were included. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and modified 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34) were applied to assess patient's anxiety level and unmet needs. The time intervals between initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy and operation were recorded. Factors associated with delayed initiation of chemotherapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients with colorectal cancer were included. In total, 16.3% (22/135) and 5.2% (7/135) reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. In multivariate analysis, low to moderate income status, postoperative complications, anxiety, and high level of unmet needs are independent risk factors for late initiation of chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that psychological problems such as anxiety and high unmet supportive needs are correlated with delayed initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients.

18.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126244, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113099

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of gestational and lactational nonylphenol (NP) exposure on airway inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic pups. Dams were gavaged with NP at dose levels of 25 mg/kg/day (low dose), 50 mg/kg/day (middle dose), 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) and groundnut oil alone (vehicle control) respectively from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 21. The results showed that the NP content in the lung tissues of pups in the 100 mg/kg NP group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.004). In the 100 mg/kg NP group, the infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils with thicken smooth muscle layer and inflammatory cells in the lumen were observed in the lung tissues of pups. Osmiophilic lamellar bodies were found in the cytoplasm of type II epithelial cells; mitochondria were clearly swollen. Compared with the control group, the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in BALF (P = 0.042) and ovalbumin-specific serum immunoglobulin E (OVA-sIgE) (P = 0.005) in the OVA group were significantly higher. 25 mg/kg NP-OVA co-exposure synergistically decreased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) mRNA expression in the lung tissues of pups; Exposure to 50 mg/kg NP combined with OVA antagonized the increased expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mRNA in the lung tissue. The combined exposure to 50 mg/kg NP and OVA synergistically increased HMGB1 protein expression in the lung tissues. 25 mg/kg NP-OVA co-exposure antagonized the increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein expression in the lung tissues. There was a positive correlation between NP content and HMGB1 protein expression in the lung tissue of asthmatic pups (r = 0.602, P < 0.001). In conclusion, gestational and lactational exposure to 100 mg/kg NP in maternal rats exacerbated airway inflammation in OVA-induced asthmatic pups, and there is an interactive effect between NP and OVA. When the perinatal rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg NP, the levels of HMGB1 and NF-κB in the lung tissues of OVA-induced asthmatic pups were increased.

19.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197043

RESUMO

Silver nanostructures with hierarchical porosities of multiple length scales have been synthesized through electrochemical reduction of silver benzenethiolate nanoboxes. The porous Ag nanostructures exhibit superior catalytic performance toward electrochemical reduction of CO2. The Faradaic efficiency of reducing CO2 to CO can be close to 100% at high cathodic potentials, benefiting from the readsorbed benzenethiolate ions on the Ag surface that can suppress the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Density functional theory calculations using the SCAN functional reveal that the disfavored H binding on the benzenethiolate-modified Ag surface is responsible for inhibiting the HER. The mass-specific activity of CO2 reduction can be over 500 A/g because the multiple-scale porosities maximize the diffusion of reactive species to and away from the Ag surface. The unique multiscale porosities and surface modification of the as-synthesized Ag nanostructures make them a class of promising catalysts for electrochemical reduction of CO2 in protic electrolytes to achieve maximum activity and selectivity.

20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 124, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panax notoginseng is a medicinally important Chinese herb with a long history of cultivation and clinical application. The planting area is mainly distributed in Wenshan Prefecture, where the quality and safety of P. notoginseng have been threatened by high concentration of arsenic (As) from the soil. The roles of phosphate (Pi) transporters involved in Pi acquisition and arsenate (AsV) tolerance were still unclear in this species. RESULTS: In this study, two open reading frames (ORFs) of PnPht1;1 and PnPht1;2 separated from P. notoginseng were cloned based on RNA-seq, which encoded 527 and 541 amino acids, respectively. The results of relative expression levels showed that both genes responded to the Pi deficiency or As exposure, and were highly upregulated. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae MB192 revealed that PnPht1;1 and PnPht1;2 performed optimally in complementing the yeast Pi-transport defect, particularly in PnPht1;2. Cells expressing PnPht1;2 had a stronger AsV tolerance than PnPht1;1-expressing cells, and accumulated less As in cells under a high-Pi concentration. Combining with the result of plasma membrane localization, these data confirmed that transporters PnPht1;1 and PnPht1;2 were putative high-affinity H+/H2PO4- symporters, mediating the uptake of Pi and AsV. CONCLUSION: PnPht1;1 and PnPht1;2 encoded functional plasma membrane-localized transporter proteins that mediated a putative high-affinity Pi/H+ symport activity. Expression of PnPht1;1 or PnPht1;2 in mutant strains could enhance the uptake of Pi and AsV, that is probably responsible for the As accumulation in the roots of P. notoginseng.

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