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1.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 44(4): 236-243, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Closed or open reduction and spica casting are common treatments for children aged 6 to 18 months, as well as infants aged 0 to 6 months whose harness treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) was unsuccessful. The study aimed to quantify the distance between the femoral head and the acetabulum after closed or open reduction and evaluate the dynamic docking progression of the femoral head using serial hip medical ultrasound. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and hip medial ultrasound images of a consecutive series of patients with DDH who underwent spica casting after reduction and compared images obtained immediately after reduction and at follow-up. The first cast (stage I) was maintained for 2 to 3 months and scheduled for outpatient repeat ultrasound in 4 to 8 weeks. Then the second cast was placed (stage II), lasting for another 2 to 3 months. The triradiate cartilage-femoral head distance (TFD) was measured in the acetabulum coronal mid-sectional plane. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the TFD values. RESULTS: This study included 49 patients. All patients underwent hip medial ultrasound 0 to 3 days after stage I (time 1) and 4 to 8 weeks (time 2) postoperatively, with 24 patients reviewed again 0 to 7 days after stage II. The TFD values in time 1 and time 2 were 6.0 (5.0, 9.0) mm and 5.0 (3.6, 7.0) mm, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between times 1 and 2 regarding TFD values in 49 close-reduction hips (6.0 vs 5.0 mm, P < 0.001). Similar findings were also observed in 13 open-reduction hips (6.0 vs 5.0 mm, P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Hip medial ultrasonography during the period of cast immobilization after reduction in children with DDH can objectively and quantitatively show the dynamic change of the distance between the femoral head and the acetabulum, and can be used to assess reduction of the hip and progression of femoral head docking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II-prognostic study.


Assuntos
Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril , Luxação Congênita de Quadril , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/terapia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril/terapia , Ultrassonografia
2.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 481(3): 592-605, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is the most common hip abnormality in children. Closed or open reduction and cast immobilization are the most commonly used treatments for patients aged 6 to 18 months with dislocation; they are also used in children younger than 6 months when brace treatment is not effective. During cast immobilization, surgeons need reliable and timely imaging methods to assess the status of hip reduction to ensure successful treatment and avoid complications. Several methods are used, but they have disadvantages. We developed and, in this study, evaluated a hip medial ultrasound method to evaluate the status of hip reduction in children treated with a spica cast. QUESTION/PURPOSE: Is hip medial ultrasound more accurate than radiography for determining the status of hip reduction in children treated with a spica cast? METHODS: Between November 2017 and December 2020, we treated 136 patients with closed or open reduction and spica casting for DDH in our department. These children were 3 to 18 months old at the time of surgical reduction and had a specific medical history, physical examination findings, or AP radiographic evidence of unilateral or bilateral DDH. None had a concomitant femoral/acetabular osteotomy procedure in these hips. All patients underwent hip medial ultrasound, AP radiography, and MRI under sedation within 2 to 7 days after open or closed reduction. The examination time was from the second day after reduction to enable the patient to recover from anesthesia. MRI was performed within 7 days after reduction because of a few long appointment times, and ultrasound and AP radiography were always performed 1 or 2 days before MRI. Based on that, 65% (88 of 136 [88 hips]) of patients were excluded due to the absence of MRI, ultrasound, or AP radiography; 3% (4 of 136 [4 hips]) of patients were excluded because of concurrent congenital spina bifida, Larson syndrome, or Prader-Willi syndrome; and 1% (1 of 136 [1 hip]) of patients were excluded because the patient underwent MRI before ultrasound. A total of 32% (43 of 136 [43 hips]) of patients were eligible for analysis in this cross-sectional diagnostic study, and these 43 patients underwent AP radiography, ultrasound, and MRI. In this retrospective study, the mean age at the time of surgery was 10 ± 4 months (male:female ratio 5:38; unilateral DDH: 34; bilateral DDH: 9). To ensure the independence of the results, the study was limited to one hip per patient (in patients with bilateral DDH, the right hip was evaluated). The reduction of 43 hips (left:right ratio 26:17; closed:open reduction ratio 30:13) was evaluated by MRI, hip medial ultrasound, and radiography. Children with spica casts were placed in the supine position, which is necessary to expose the perineum for ultrasound. We used a broad-spectrum, microconvex, and intracavitary probe. The acetabular medial wall was identified by the triradiate cartilage of the ischial tuberosity and the pubis superior, and the femoral head was identified by the femoral neck. Then, the acetabulum coronal midsectional plane was used to determine the positions of the femoral head and acetabulum and to measure the triradiate cartilage-femoral distance. MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI system with an eight-channel body coil. Each reviewer evaluated each reduction independently. Additionally, to further assess the hip medial ultrasound method's reliability and reproducibility, we investigated the interobserver and intraobserver agreement in evaluating the reduction using hip medial ultrasound. Using ultrasound or radiography, the reviewers classified hips as reduced, uncertain status, or dislocated. MRI was considered the gold standard for assessing hip reduction, and the reviewers classified hips as reduced or dislocated by MRI. Patients with hips with an uncertain reduction status according to ultrasound or radiography were retained in the analysis. Thus, the test results of radiography and ultrasound were classified into three classifications (positive, negative, or uncertain) in the present study. The test was considered positive or negative when patients were assessed with dislocation or without dislocation, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasound and radiography were calculated and compared. We combined uncertain and positive into the positive classification to be conservative in the statistical choices. The specificity, sensitivity, PPV, and NPV were analyzed based on this premise. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis was conducted by sex. MRI evaluation revealed that 41 hips were reduced and two hips were dislocated. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of ultrasound were 100% (95% CI 16% to 100%), 95% (95% CI 84% to 99%), 50% (95% CI 7% to 93%), and 100% (95% CI 91% to 100%), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of radiography were 50% (95% CI 1% to 99%), 68% (95% CI 52% to 82%), 7% (95% CI 0% to 34%), and 97% (95% CI 82% to 100%), respectively. Ultrasound showed a higher specificity (95% versus 68%; p < 0.001) and PPV (50% versus 7%; p = 0.02) than radiography. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of ultrasound were 100% (95% CI 16% to 100%), 94% (95% CI 81% to 99%), 50% (95% CI 7% to 93%), and 100% (95% CI 90% to 100%), respectively, for female patients (with only five male patients, we could not perform these analyses in this group). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of radiography were 50% (95% CI 1% to 99%), 64% (95% CI 46% to 79%), 7% (95% CI 0% to 34%), and 96% (95% CI 79% to 100%), respectively, for female patients. The κ values for intra- and interobserver reliability both were 1.0. CONCLUSION: Hip medial ultrasound can directly visualize the femoral head and acetabulum. Hip medial ultrasound is more reliable than radiography as a preliminary evaluation method and does not involve irradiation. We recommend using hip medial ultrasound during outpatient follow-up visits for patients younger than 2 years treated with hip reduction and cast immobilization. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.


Assuntos
Luxação Congênita de Quadril , Luxações Articulares , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/terapia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Resultado do Tratamento , Radiografia
3.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 50(5): 639-645, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An automatic evaluation technology based on artificial intelligence and three-dimensional ultrasonography (3D US) is proposed for hip US inspection plane selection. This study aimed to evaluate the consistency of the α angle as measured using 3D US to select the section plane and two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D US) to manually select the Graf image, as well as to explore the feasibility of diagnosing developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) using 3D US and reconstruction technology. METHODS: A total of 216 infant hips were included and assessed by doctors using 3D US layer-by-layer. The researchers used a computer to identify the coronal images that met the Graf standard and then compared the αX values obtained with the αG values measured artificially by 2D US. RESULTS: Compared with 2D US, 3D US more clearly showed the relative positions of the ilium, ischia, and pubis. The measured α value of the optimal section obtained by 3D US showed good agreement with the measured α value of the standard Graf section. CONCLUSION: The artificial intelligence and 3D US-based automatic evaluation technology for section selection and inspection for DDH showed good agreement with the Graf method based on standard sections.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Lactente , Ultrassonografia/métodos
4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(25): 5642-5648, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105570

RESUMO

A visible light-induced and metal-free strategy for the intermolecular three-compoment alkylpyridylation of styrenes is reported. Hantzsch ester was found to be key to initiate the overall reductive radical coupling reaction. This radical process realized difunctionalization of styrenes, selectively yielding alkylated pyridines in good to excellent yields with a wide tolerance of functional groups, mild reaction conditions and simple operation. This new reaction complements existing visible light-induced variants of styrenes with NHP esters and expands the capabilities of radical-based cross-coupling reactions of pyridines.

5.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(1): 58-67, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039172

RESUMO

Children younger than 18 mo with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) were treated with reduction and spica cast. X-Ray, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate reduction effectiveness. This study explored the hip medial ultrasonography method and anatomic structure sonograms. Twenty-eight children with DDH were enrolled. A total of 51 hips (24 left hips /27 right hips) were measured, including 30 affected hips and 21 normal hips. Various indices, including femoral head diameter (DIA), triradiate cartilage-femoral distance (TFD), acetabular-femoral distance (AFD) and ilium-femoral distance (IFD), were measured in the acetabular median coronal plane of ultrasound and the median coronal plane of MRI. The intra-group correlation coefficients for DIA, TFD, AFD and IFD were 0.968 (95% confidence interval: 0.917-0.985), 0.959 (0.929-0 976), 0.923 (0.869-0.955) and 0.950 (0914-0.971), respectively. Hip medial ultrasound and MRI exhibited good consistency. It is feasible to use hip medial ultrasound to evaluate the reduction of DDH in infants and children after spica cast.


Assuntos
Moldes Cirúrgicos , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia do Desenvolvimento do Quadril/terapia , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
6.
Org Biomol Chem ; 16(3): 490-498, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271464

RESUMO

A cascade radical cyclization/sulfenylation or selenylation of ß,γ-unsaturated hydrazones and oximes was realized under mild conditions with phenyliodine(iii) diacetate (PIDA) as the sole oxidant, leading to the construction of diversely functionalized heteroatom-containing pyrazoline and isoxazoline derivatives. This metal-free radical process is suggested to encompass a sequential C-N/O and C-S/Se bond fomation.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(38): 5342-5345, 2017 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28451665

RESUMO

A mild and efficient method for the photocatalytic radical cyclization of α-halo hydrazones with ß-ketocarbonyls has been described. This strategy provides a potential protocol for the construction of functionalized 4,5-dihydropyrazoles in moderate to high yields.

8.
Mol Divers ; 21(3): 761-768, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439765

RESUMO

An efficient and mild procedure for the synthesis of spiro[1,4,2-dioxazinan]oxindoles has been achieved in high yields by [Formula: see text]-catalyzed annulation of 3-oxirane-indolin-2-ones and nitrones. This catalytic protocol demonstrates that the reaction could tolerate a variety of functional groups and provides convenient access to new structural motifs in good to excellent yields. Moreover, this method featured relatively short reaction time and easy operation.


Assuntos
Cloretos/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Indóis/síntese química , Compostos de Espiro/síntese química , Catálise , Ciclização , Indóis/química , Estrutura Molecular , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Compostos de Espiro/química , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 421716, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26064909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. METHODS: From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. RESULTS: In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. CONCLUSION: The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/isolamento & purificação , Asma/etiologia , Pyroglyphidae/genética , Alérgenos/genética , Animais , Asma/genética , Asma/fisiopatologia , China , Humanos , Pyroglyphidae/classificação , Pyroglyphidae/patogenicidade , Floresta Úmida , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Clin Imaging ; 39(3): 401-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25667066

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the feasibility of the application of the Automated Breast Volume Scanner (ABVS) ACUSON S2000 in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. METHODS: The data of handheld ultrasound (HHUS) scans and ABVS volume three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction were collected from 66 patients with soft tissue tumors. The diagnosis rates for the two methods were compared. Additionally, the sonographic features of the lesions on ABVS imaging were evaluated. The data of the sonographic "hyperechoic rim sign" and "heterogeneous texture sign" were analyzed for the differential diagnosis. RESULTS: Automatic 3D reconstruction and high-resolution images from the coronal and sagittal planes were obtained using the ABVS. Although the ABVS is similar to HHUS in terms of sensitivity (81.8% vs. 77.3%, respectively), specificity (93.2% vs. 88.6%, respectively), and accuracy (89.4% vs. 84.8%, respectively), the success rates for full view of the lesion and detection rates of multiple lesions are significantly improved by the ABVS. Furthermore, the "hyperechoic rim sign" can be regarded as a specific diagnostic factor for benign tumors, with a diagnostic specificity and a positive predictive value of 86.4% and 91.4%, respectively. Additionally, the "heterogeneous texture" appeared commonly in malignant tumors, with a diagnostic sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 81.8% and 87.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional two-dimensional imaging, automatic 3D reconstruction and high-resolution images from three vertical planes can be displayed by the ABVS, and the global anatomy and surrounding tissue of the lesions can be clearly presented. Thus, ABVS imaging may help to differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
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