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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(4): 58, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236741

RESUMO

The commercial production of Morchella mushrooms calls for urgent breeding of excellent varieties or strains with appropriate tools, such as protoplast fusion. However, the protoplast fusion in morels has not been studied. In this paper, interspecific hybridization between cultivated morels of M. importuna and M. sextelata by PEG-induced protoplast fusion was conducted. Apart from functional complementation of double inactivated protoplasts, the fusants were characterized by cultural and cultivated characters and molecular markers of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results suggested that the hybrids and their parents showed significant difference in their inoculum recovery time, mycelial growth rate, yield of cultivation and total amino acid content of ascocarps. Moreover, positive barrage reactions were observed between parental strains as well as between each parent and a hybrid line. A dendrogram created on the basis of RAPD fingerprints exhibited three major clusters, in which morel hybrids showed intra-cluster variations, M. sextelata #6 formed an out group, while M. importuna #4 was phylogenetically closer to morel hybrids. All the results demonstrated that real fusants were obtained in our study. Protoplast fusion may provide an ideal alternative for new strain selection, and thus will promote the healthy development of morel industry.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121348

RESUMO

Skipping breakfast has been suggested to increase the risk of depressive symptoms, but there is no information regarding young adults. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students. We investigated a cross-sectional (n = 1060) and one-year prospective (n = 757) relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms. The frequency of breakfast consumption was categorized into "≤1 time/week", "2-5 times/week", or "≥6 times/week". Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) with an SDS score of ≥50 to indicate moderate to severe depressive symptoms. In the cross-sectional analysis, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depressive symptoms related with the breakfast consumption categories were 1.00 (reference) for ≥6 times/week, 1.761 (95% CI: 1.131, 2.742) for 2-5 times/week, and 3.780 (95% CI: 1.719, 8.311) for ≤1 time/week (p for trend: <0.001) after adjusting for these potential confounders. Similarly, in the one-year prospective analysis, we found that 10.2% of participants was classified as having moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regressions analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between the frequency of breakfast consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms. The ORs (95% CI) for depressive symptoms with decreasing breakfast consumption frequency were 1.00 (reference) for ≥6 times/week, 2.045 (1.198, 3.491) for 2-5 times/week, and 2.722 (0.941, 7.872) for ≤1 time/week (p for trend: 0.005). This one-year prospective cohort study showed that skipping breakfast is related to increased risk of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students. Future research using interventional or experimental studies is required to explore the causal relationship between the effects of breakfast consumption and depressive symptoms.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1379, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170166

RESUMO

Bioelectricity generation, by Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis) MR-1, has become particularly alluring, thanks to its extraordinary prospects for energy production, pollution treatment, and biosynthesis. Attempts to improve its technological output by modification of S. oneidensis MR-1 remains complicated, expensive and inefficient. Herein, we report on the augmentation of S. oneidensis MR-1 with carbon dots (CDs). The CDs-fed cells show accelerated extracellular electron transfer and metabolic rate, with increased intracellular charge, higher adenosine triphosphate level, quicker substrate consumption and more abundant extracellular secretion. Meanwhile, the CDs promote cellular adhesion, electronegativity, and biofilm formation. In bioelectrical systems the CDs-fed cells increase the maximum current value, 7.34 fold, and power output, 6.46 fold. The enhancement efficacy is found to be strongly dependent on the surface charge of the CDs. This work demonstrates a simple, cost-effective and efficient route to improve bioelectricity generation of S. oneidensis MR-1, holding promise in all relevant technologies.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118697

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study of patients who were treated from January 2011 to December 2018 and met our criteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study to investigate the relationship between radiographic spinopelvic parameters and the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pretreatment de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DNDLS) patients with concomitant lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: DNDLS has garnered attention because of the increasing aged population. Unlike other types of spine deformities, DNDLS may occur with concomitant LSS. Radiographic spinopelvic parameters are important for evaluating spine alignment in these patients; however, the association between these parameters and the HRQOL is unknown. METHODS: Data from 204 patients diagnosed with DNDLS and concomitant LSS were reviewed. HRQOL was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) scores (for the back and leg), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire (SRS-22). Radiographic spinopelvic parameters were obtained from anteroposterior and lateral x-rays. The relationship between spinopelvic parameters and HRQOL was analyzed by correlation analysis in the overall population. RESULTS: Lumbar lordosis (LL) showed clinical relevance to JOA (r = 0.290), ODI (r = -0.269), SRS-22 pain domain (r = 0.134), SRS-22 function domain (r = 0.257), and VAS for back pain (r = -0.196). There was clinical relevance between T1 pelvic angle (T1PA) and JOA (r = -0.212) and ODI (r = 0.251), sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and JOA (r = -0.211) and SRS-22 function domain (r = -0.229) and ODI (r = 0.215), and L1 pelvic angle (L1PA) and ODI (r = 0.200). HRQOL differences were validated in the SVA and PI-LL groups by SRS-Schwab classification. A significant difference was validated by setting a sagittal balance threshold for SVA, T1PA, T1 sagittal tilt, and L1PA. CONCLUSION: The sagittal radiographic parameters showed a weak correlation with preoperative HRQOL in patients with concomitant DNDLS and LSS. T1PA, T1ST, and L1PA can effectively assess pretreatment HRQOL. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191809

RESUMO

Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) are rich in proteins and chitin, and represent an innovative feed ingredient for animals. However, little is known about the intestinal bacteria and immune homeostasis response of HILM as a fishmeal replacement on weanling piglets. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the changes in specific ileal and cecal bacterial populations and their metabolic profiles, and ileal immune indexes in weanling piglets fed with a diet containing HILM. A total of 128 weanling piglets were fed either a basal diet or 1 of 3 diets with 1%, 2%, and 4% HILM (HI0, HI1, HI2, and HI4, respectively). Each group consisted of 8 pens (replicates), with 4 pigs per pen. After 28 d of feeding, 8 barrows per treatment were euthanized, the ileal and cecal digesta, and ileal mucosa were collected for analyzing bacterial population and metabolic profiles, and immune indexes, respectively. Results showed that HILM increased (P < 0.05, maximum in HI2) the number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the ileum and cecum, but quadratically decreased (P < 0.05, minimum in HI2) the number of Escherichia coli. In the cecum, the number of Firmicutes, Ruminococcus, Clostridium cluster IV, and Prevotella showed a quadratic response to increasing (P < 0.05, maximum in HI2) HILM levels. Lactate and butyrate concentrations in the ileum and cecum were quadratically increased (P < 0.05, maximum in HI2) with increasing HILM levels. In the cecum, the amines, phenol, and indole compounds concentrations were quadratically decreased (P < 0.05, minimum in HI2) with increasing HILM levels, while total short-chain fatty acids and acetate concentrations were quadratically increased (P < 0.05, maximum in HI2). In the ileum, the TLR4, NF-κB, MyD88, and TNF-α mRNA expressions were quadratically decreased (P < 0.05, minimum in HI2) with increasing HILM levels, while the mRNA expression of IL-10, barrier function (MUC1, ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-2), and development-related genes (IGF-1, GLP-2, and EGF) was quadratically increased (P < 0.05, maximum in HI2). Furthermore, the changes in the mucosal gene expression were associated with changes in the bacterial populations and their metabolites. Collectively, these results showed that a diet supplemented with 2% HILM affected specific bacterial populations and metabolic profiles, and maintained ileal immune status. These findings provide new insights into the use of insect meal as a suitable alternative protein source for swine feeding.

6.
Tree Physiol ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175583

RESUMO

Salix matsudana is a low cadmium (Cd)-accumulating willow (LCW), whereas its cultivated variety, Salix matsudana var. matsudana f. umbraculifera Rehd., is a high Cd-accumulating and tolerant willow (HCW). The physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying differential Cd accumulation and tolerance in the two Salix species are poorly understood. Here, we confirmed that the differential Cd translocation capacity from roots to the shoots leads to the differential Cd accumulation in their aboveground parts between these two willow genotypes. Cd accumulation happens preferentially in transport path and Cd is mainly located in the vacuolar, cell wall and intercellular space in HCW bark by cadmium location analysis at tissue and subcellular levels. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that higher expressions of several metal transporter genes (ABC transporters, K+ transporters/channels, yellow stripe-like proteins, Zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter-like proteins, etc.) are involved in root uptake and translocation capacity in HCW; meanwhile, ascorbate-glutathione metabolic pathways play essential roles in Cd detoxification and higher tolerance of the Cd-accumulator HCW. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in woody plants, and provide new insights for molecular assisted screening woody plant varieties for phytoremediation.

7.
Metallomics ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163055

RESUMO

Lanthanum (La) is a kind of rare earth element (REE) widely found in nature. La has neurotoxicity and can impair learning and memory, but the underlying mechanism is still not completely clear. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex can cause the uptake of cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]c) into mitochondria and thereby resist [Ca2+]c overload. However, the abnormal increase of calcium in the mitochondrial matrix ([Ca2+]m) can also disturb the mitochondrial fission-fusion balance, and then induce excessive mitophagy, and disrupt mitochondrial quality control (MQC). It is unclear whether La can interfere with the function of nerve cells through the above-mentioned mechanism and thus impair learning and memory. In this study, four groups of Wistar rats were treated with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0% (w/v) lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) from the embryonic phase to 1 month after weaning. The results showed that La could impair the spatial learning and memory of rats, promote the uptake of [Ca2+]c by MCU, induce the abnormal increase of [Ca2+]m, up-regulate p-Drp1 Ser616 expression and inhibit Mfn1/2 expression, enhance mitochondrial fission and lead to mitochondrial fission-fusion disturbance in hippocampal nerve cells. Meanwhile, La could also activate the PINK1-Parkin signaling pathway, up-regulate LC3B-II expression and decrease p62 expression, and thereby induce excessive mitophagy. These results suggested that learning and memory impairment caused by La may be related to MQC disturbance. The present data provide some novel clues for elucidating the neurotoxic effect mechanism of La.

8.
Stem Cell Res ; 44: 101753, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213461

RESUMO

Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) is a rare autosomal dominant metabolic disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes for the lamin A/C. Although multiple mutations have been reported in FPLD2 patients, the mechanism remains unclear due to the lack of cellular models for the disease. We previously have generated an iPSC line (PUMCHi001-A) from a FPLD2 patient with a heterozygous R349W mutation in the LMNA gene. Here we genetically corrected the R349W mutation in the LMNA gene using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate an isogenic control, which was an ideal control to exclude differences in genetic background between individuals while investigating the pathogenesis of the mutation in the disease.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(7): 2708-2716, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191477

RESUMO

As a thermodynamically stable semiconductor material, black phosphorus (BP) has potential application in the field of energy storage and conversion. The preparation of black phosphorus is still limited to the laboratory, which is far from adequate to meet the requirements of future industrial applications. Here, the gram-scale black phosphorus is synthesized in the ethylenediamine medium using a 120-200 °C low-temperature recyclable liquid phase method directly from red phosphorus. A crystallization mechanism from red to black phosphorus based on FTIR, XPS, and DFT calculations is proposed. Black phosphorus as the anode material for lithium ion batteries is superior in discharge specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability in comparison with red phosphorus. The facile low-temperature synthesis of BP by the ethylenediamine-assisted liquid phase process will facilitate the extended application of BP in the field of energy storage and conversion.

10.
Microorganisms ; 8(3)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197354

RESUMO

Investigations of gut microbial diversity among fish to provide baseline data for wild marine fish, especially the carnivorous coral reef fishes of the South China Sea, are lacking. The present study investigated the gut microbiota of four carnivorous coral reef fishes, including Oxycheilinus unifasciatus, Cephalopholis urodeta, Lutjanus kasmira, and Gnathodentex aurolineatus, from the South China Sea for the first time using high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes constituted 98% of the gut microbiota of the four fishes, and 20 of the gut microbial genera recovered in this study represent new reports from marine fishes. Comparative analysis indicated that the four fishes shared a similar microbial community, suggesting that diet type (carnivorous) might play a more important role in shaping the gut microbiota of coral reef fishes than the species of fish. Furthermore, the genera Psychrobacter, Escherichia-Shigella, and Vibrio constituted the core microbial community of the four fishes, accounting for 61-91% of the total sequences in each fish. The lack of the genus Epulopiscium in the four fishes was in sharp contrast to what has been found in coral reef fishes from the Red Sea, in which Epulopiscium was shown to be the most dominant gut microbial genus in seven herbivorous coral reef fishes. In addition, while unique gut microbial genera accounted for a small proportion (8-13%) of the total sequences, many such genera were distributed in each coral reef fish species, including several genera (Endozoicomonas, Clostridium, and Staphylococcus) that are frequently found in marine fishes and 11 new reports of gut microbes in marine fishes. The present study expands our knowledge of the diversity and specificity of gut microbes associated with coral reef fishes.

11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187049

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Cervical posterior decompression surgery is used to relieve ventral compression indirectly by incorporating a backward shift of the spinal cord, and this indirect decompression is bound to be limited. This study aimed to determine the decompression limit of posterior surgery and the effect of the decompression range. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 129 patients who underwent cervical open-door laminoplasty through 2008 to 2012 and were grouped as follows: C4-C7 (n = 11), C3-C6 (n = 61), C3-C7 (n = 32), and C2-C7 (n = 25). According to the relative location of spinal levels within a decompression range, the type of decompression at a given level was categorized as external decompression (ED; achieved at the levels located immediately external to the decompression range margin), internal decompression (ID; achieved at the levels located immediately internal to the decompression range margin), and central decompression (CD; achieved at the levels located in the center, far from the decompression range margin). The vertebral-cord distance (VCD) was used to evaluate the decompression limit. The C2-C7 angle and VCD on post-operative magnetic resonance images were analyzed and compared between groups. The relationship between VCD and decompression type was analyzed. Moreover, the relationship between the magnitude of the ventral compressive factor and the probability of post-operative residual compression at each level for different decompression ranges was studied. RESULTS: There was no significant kyphosis in cervical curvature (> -5°), and there was no significant difference among the groups (F = 2.091, P = 0.105). The VCD of a specific level depended on the decompression type of the level and followed this pattern: ED < ID < CD (P < 0.05). The decompression type of a level was sometimes affected by the decompression range. For a given magnitude of the ventral compressive factor, the probability of residual compression was lower for the group with the larger VCD at this level. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the decompression range affected the decompression limit by changing the decompression type of a particular level. For a given cervical spinal level, the decompression limit significantly varied with decompression type as follows: ED < ID < CD. CD provided maximal decompression limit for a given level. A reasonable range of decompression could be determined based on the relationship between the magnitude of the ventral compressive factor and the decompression limits achieved by different decompression ranges.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182426

RESUMO

Ti3C2Tx MXenes, a very new family of nanostructured material, were applied in combination with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (MXene-UF) for removal of the selected dyes including methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) as the first attempt. The normalized flux of the MXene-UF (0.90 for MB and 0.92 for MO) indicated better performance than a single UF (0.86 for MB and 0.90 for MO) and a powdered activated carbon (PAC)-UF (0.72 for MB and 0.75 for MO) for both dyes. The addition of an adsorbent decreased the irreversible fouling of the hybrid system compared to single UF, due to adsorption of dyes. The observed dominant fouling mechanism was cake layer fouling, evaluated using a resistance-in-series model, permeate flux modeling, and four conceptual blocking law models. PAC in particular acted as a foulant, leading to a severe flux decline. The average retention rate was found to be on the order of PAC-UF (57.7 and 47.9%) > MXene-UF (51.7 and 34.9%) > single UF (45.0 and 34.7%) for MB and MO, respectively. The results showed that although PAC exhibits relatively strong adsorption performance, MXene-UF also exhibited high selectivity due to electrostatic interaction between the MXene and dyes. In addition, humic acid (HA) adsorption on the membrane led to a reduction in the effective membrane area, resulting in a higher retention and lower flux for MXene-UF in the presence of HA. Furthermore, higher retention was observed for MXene-UF at pH 10.5 compared to pH 3.5 and 7, because MXene has more negative terminations at higher pH, leading to greater MB adsorption. Additionally, because of the bridging effect between the membrane and the MXene and competition between MB and cation ions for adsorption on the MXene, lower retention and flux were observed in MXene-UF with background ions.

13.
Clin Transplant ; 34(3): e13810, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011059

RESUMO

This retrospective multicenter cohort study aimed to compare the outcome of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HID-HSCT) with matched sibling donor (MSD) and unrelated donor (URD) transplantation in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients 40 years of age and older. With a median follow-up time of 17.6 months, 85 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study, and the median patient age was 45 years (40, 58). The cumulative engraftment rates of neutrophil and platelet were 98.8 ± 0.0% and 92.9 ± 0.1%. The cumulative incidences of Grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) at 3 years were 14.1 ± 0.1% and 17.3 ± 0.2%. The 3-year estimated overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival (FFS) were 91.2 ± 3.2% and 89.7 ± 3.5%. In multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with inferior survival was an ECOG score ≥2. HID-HSCT was associated with a higher incidence of GvHD, but the difference of 3-year estimated OS between HID group and the other two cohorts was not significant (86.7 ± 6.4% for HID vs 92.1% ± 4.4% for MSD and 100% for URD, P = .481). HID-HSCT might be a feasible alternative option for selected SAA patients aged 40 years and older without a matched donor.

14.
Cardiology ; : 1-12, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical condition of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and concomitant systemic hypertension is growing more and more prevalent, and it brings about a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. However, whether systemic hypertension has an impact on HOCM, and whether sex-related differences exist in this impact, remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 453 HOCM patients (age 48.7 ± 12.8 years, 252 [55.6%] males) were recruited in this study. There were 150 patients (33.1%, 81 males and 69 females) with a history of controlled systemic hypertension. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed in all patients. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling index (LVRI) was determined by CMR. LVRI >1.3 g/mL was defined as pathological LV remodeling. RESULTS: Men had significantly greater LVRI (1.40 ± 0.54 vs. 1.15 ± 0.38 g/mL, p < 0.001) and LVRI >1.3 g/mL (p = 0.002), compared with women. The incidence of syncope and 5-year sudden cardiac death risk score were significantly lower in HOCM with hypertension than those without hypertension. LVRI (p = 0.003) and LVRI >1.3 g/mL (p = 0.007) were significantly smaller in males with hypertension, but not in females with hypertension. However, log cardiac troponin I and log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were positively correlated with LVRI in men and women. On multivariable logistic analysis, hypertension (OR 0.172, 95% CI 0.056-0.528, p = 0.002) remained an independent determinant of pathological LV remodeling in males, whereas not in females. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant sex differences in the impact of systemic hypertension on LV remodeling in patients with HOCM. Controlled systemic hypertension may contribute to improving LV remodeling in male patients with HOCM, but not in females.

15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 82, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of whole grain diet on cardiovascular risks in obese and overweight adults is not well established. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of whole grain diet on cardiovascular risks in obese/overweight adults. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane were systematically scanned for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and studies were selected based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was the effectiveness of whole grain food consumption in reducing body weight. The secondary outcomes were the effect of whole grain food consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin resistance index, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), and waist circumference in obese/overweight adults. RESULTS: Our results showed that whole grain consumption was associated with lower body weight (mean difference (MD) = - 0.5, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [- 0.74, 0.25], I2 = 35%, P < 0.0001) and lower CRP (MD = -0.36, 95% CI [- 0.54, - 0.18], I2 = 69%, P < 0.0001), compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in LDL-C (MD = -0.08, 95% CI [- 0.16, 0.00], I2 = 27%, P = 0.05), waist circumference (MD = -0.12, 95% CI [- 0.92, 0.68], I2 = 44%, P = 0.76), systolic blood pressure (MD = -0.11, 95% CI [- 1.55, 1.33], I2 = 3%, P = 0.88), diastolic blood pressure (MD = -0.44, 95% CI [- 1.44, 0.57], I2 = 15%, P = 0.39), and fasting glucose (MD = -0.05, 95% CI [- 0.12, 0.01], I2 = 31%, P = 0.11) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that whole grain food consumption can slightly reduce body weight and CRP in obese/overweight population.

16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(2): 439-445, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007274

RESUMO

Calorie restriction (CR) ameliorates various diseases including cardiovascular disease. However, its protection and underlying mechanisms against atherosclerosis remain un-fully elucidated. In this study, we fed apoE deficient (apoE-/-) mice in Control group a high-fat diet (HFD, 21% fat plus 0.5% cholesterol) or in CR group a CR diet (CRD, 2% fat plus 0.5% cholesterol, ∼40% calorie restriction and same levels of cholesterol, vitamins, minerals and amino acids as in HFD). After 16 weeks feeding, compared with HFD, CRD substantially reduced atherosclerosis in mice. CRD increased SMC and collagen content but reduced macrophage content, necrotic core and vascular calcification in lesion areas. Mechanistically, CRD attenuated bodyweight gain, improved lipid profiles but had little effect on macrophage lipid metabolism. CRD also inhibited expression of inflammatory molecules in lesions. Taken together, our study demonstrates CRD effectively reduces atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice, suggesting it as a potent and reproducible therapy for atherosclerosis management.

17.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041334

RESUMO

Biodegradation of contaminants is extremely complicated due to unpredictable microbial behaviors. Monitoring of microbial biodegradation drives us to determine (1) the amounts of specific degrading microbes, (2) the abundance, and (3) expression level of relevant functional genes. To this endeavor, the cultivation independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based monitoring technique develops from endpoint PCR, real-time quantitative PCR, and then into novel digital PCR. In this review, we introduce these three categories of PCR techniques and summarize the timely applications of digital PCR and its superiorities than qPCR for biodegradation monitoring. Digital PCR technique, emerging as the most accurately absolute quantification method, can serve as the most promising and robust tool for monitoring of microbial biodegradation.

18.
Biomed Mater ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045893

RESUMO

Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) culture medium used for simulating in-vitro microenvironment for leukemia cells usually leads to 95% drug test results different from the following clinical results. Different from this 2D culture, 3D scaffolds are more similar to bone marrow microenvironment and thus it can better simulate the drug effect on leukemia cells, which can benefit the preliminary screening of drugs for clinic. For this purpose, the freeze drying method was proposed to fabricate 3D scaffolds of graphene oxide/silk fibroin/carboxymethyl chitosan (GO/SF/CMCS). Experimental results show that these 3D scaffolds exhibit better swelling ratio because of the embedding of GO. The improved hydrophilicity of scaffolds brings about promoted adhesion and proliferation of leukemia cells. Different from traditional 2D culture, leukemia cells in this 3D culture show stronger drug resistance, which is consistent with the previously reported clinical results. It implies that these 3D GO/SF/CMCS scaffolds can well simulate the in-vivo bone marrow microenvironment, which is a promising platform for the preliminary drug screening for clinic.

19.
Microsc Res Tech ; 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064716

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different irrigation solutions used in photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) or conventional needle irrigation (CNI) for eradication of Enterococcus faecalis from artificial root canals. Altogether, 240 artificial root canal samples were included. The models were split and incubated for 2 days to allow formation of E. faecalis biofilm. The models were randomly divided into two groups (n = 120): CNI and laser-activated irrigation (LAI). Each group was divided into six subgroups according to different irrigation solutions: distilled water, 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, MTAD, and chlorhexidine, respectively. After irrigation, half of the samples (n = 10) were assessed immediately, and the other half of the samples (n = 10) were incubated for 6 hr. Bacterial suspensions were obtained from all samples before and after irrigation, and after incubation, and were quantified adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) assay kit. The biofilms were examined using fluorescent microscopy and analyzed by Image Pro Plus software. Significant reduction of ATP, average fluorescence density after irrigation, and growth after incubation was obtained in LAI group than in CNI group (p < .05). LAI can improve bacteriostasis effect of 2% NaOCl (p < .05). PIPS improved the antibacterial effect of the 2% NaOCl used in root canal therapy.

20.
Science ; 367(6478): 667-671, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029624

RESUMO

Robust, gas-impeding water-conduction nanochannels that can sieve water from small gas molecules such as hydrogen (H2), particularly at high temperature and pressure, are desirable for boosting many important reactions severely restricted by water (the major by-product) both thermodynamically and kinetically. Identifying and constructing such nanochannels into large-area separation membranes without introducing extra defects is challenging. We found that sodium ion (Na+)-gated water-conduction nanochannels could be created by assembling NaA zeolite crystals into a continuous, defect-free separation membrane through a rationally designed method. Highly efficient in situ water removal through water-conduction nanochannels led to a substantial increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) conversion and methanol yield in CO2 hydrogenation for methanol production.

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