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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1379101, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725661

RESUMO

Objective: The role of esketamine in pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy is still unclear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of esketamine for pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: Clinical trials of esketamine for pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy were searched in eight common databases, up to October 2023. These clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). The risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used as the effect sizes for dichotomous variables and continuity variables, respectively. When the heterogeneity test showed I2 < 50%, the fixed effects model was used for the meta-analysis and TSA; Otherwise, the random effects model was used for them. Results: In terms of efficacy endpoints, the meta-analysis showed that compared with placebo or blank, esketamine significantly decreased recovery time by 2.34 min (WMD -2.34; 95% Confidence interval [CI] -3.65, -1.02; p = 0.0005) and propofol consumption by 0.70 mg/kg (WMD -0.70; 95% CI -0.98, -0.43; p < 0.00001), and increased mean heart rate by 4.77 beats/min (WMD 4.77; 95% CI 2.67, 6.87; p < 0.00001) and mean arterial pressure by 3.10 mmHg (WMD 3.10; 95% CI 1.52, 4.67; p = 0.0001), while induction time and mean blood oxygen remained comparable. TSA indicated conclusive evidence for these benefits. In terms of safety endpoints, the meta-analysis revealed that esketamine significantly reduced involuntary movements by 59% (RR 0.41; 95% CI 0.22, 0.76; p = 0.005) and choking by 51% (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.26, 0.92; p = 0.03), while significantly increasing dizziness by 98% (RR 1.98; 95% CI 1.11, 3.56; p = 0.02) and there were no significant differences in total adverse events, respiratory depression, and vomiting. TSA demonstrated conclusive evidence for involuntary movements and dizziness. Low-dose analysis showed that esketamine at ≤0.3 mg/kg significantly reduced recovery time, propofol consumption and involuntary movements, and significantly increasing mean heart rate, with no increase in dizziness. The Begg's test (p = 0.327) and the Egger's test (p = 0.413) indicated no significant publication bias, yet the funnel plot suggested potential publication bias. Conclusion: Esketamine is an effective adjuvant anesthesia for children undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. However, the general dose of esketamine may increase the risk of dizziness, which can be avoided by administering a low dose (≤0.3 mg/kg).

2.
J Dig Dis ; 25(3): 176-190, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Functional constipation (FC), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, is usually overlapping with upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGS). We aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of patients with FC overlapping UGS along with the related risk factors. METHODS: The differences in the severity of constipation symptoms, psychological state, quality of life (QoL), anorectal motility and perception function, autonomic function, and the effect of biofeedback therapy (BFT) among patients with FC in different groups were analyzed, along with the risk factors of overlapping UGS. RESULTS: Compared with patients with FC alone, those with FC overlapping UGS had higher scores in the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and lower scores in the Short Form-36 health survey (P < 0.05). Patients with FC overlapping UGS also had lower rectal propulsion, more negative autonomic nervous function, and worse BFT efficacy (P < 0.05). Overlapping UGS, especially overlapping functional dyspepsia, considerably affected the severity of FC. Logistic regression model showed that age, body mass index (BMI), anxiety, exercise, and sleep quality were independent factors influencing overlapping UGS in patients with FC. CONCLUSIONS: Overlapping UGS reduces the physical and mental health and the QoL of patients with FC. It also increases the difficulty in the treatment of FC. Patient's age, BMI, anxiety, physical exercise, and sleep quality might be predictors for FC overlapping UGS.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Constipação Intestinal/psicologia , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Idoso , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1726: 464968, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723492

RESUMO

The steric mass-action (SMA) model has been widely reported to describe the adsorption of proteins in different types of chromatographic adsorbents. Here in the present work, a pore-blocking steric mass-action model (PB-SMA) was developed for the adsorption of large-size bioparticles, which usually exhibit the unique pore-blocking characteristic on the adsorbent and thus lead to a fraction of ligands in the deep channels physically inaccessible to bioparticles adsorption, instead of being shielded due to steric hindrance by adsorbed bioparticles. This unique phenomenon was taken into account by introducing an additional parameter, Lin, which is defined as the inaccessible ligand densities in the physically blocked pore area, into the PB-SMA model. This fraction of ligand densities (Lin) will be deducted from the total ligand (Lt) for model development, thus the steric factor (σ) in the proposed PB-SMA will reflect the steric shielding effect on binding sites by adsorbed bioparticles more accurately than the conventional SMA model, which assumes that all ligands on the adsorbent have the same accessibility to the bioparticles. Based on a series of model assumptions, a PB-SMA model was firstly developed for inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (iFMDV) adsorption on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) adsorbents. Model parameters for static adsorption including equilibrium constant (K), characteristic number of binding sites (n), and steric factor (σ) were determined. Compared with those derived from the conventional SMA model, the σ values derived from the PB-SMA model were dozens of times smaller and much closer to the theoretical maximum number of ligands shielded by a single adsorbed iFMDV, indicating the modified model was more accurate for bioparticles adsorption. The applicability of the PB-SMA model was further validated by the adsorption of hepatitis B surface antigen virus-like particles (HBsAg VLPs) on an ion exchange adsorbent with reasonably improved accuracy. Thus, it is considered that the PB-SMA model would be more accurate in describing the adsorption of bioparticles on different types of chromatographic adsorbents.

4.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714612

RESUMO

The timing and duration of autumn leaf phenology marks important transitions in temperate deciduous forests, such as, start of senescence, declining productivity and changing nutrient cycling. Phenological research on temperate deciduous forests typically focuses on upper canopy trees, overlooking the contribution of other plant functional groups like shrubs. Yet shrubs tend to remain green longer than trees, while non-native shrubs, in particular, tend to exhibit an extended growing season that confers a competitive advantage over native shrubs. We monitored leaf senescence and leaf fall (2017-2020) of trees and shrubs (native and non-native) in an urban woodland fragment in Wisconsin, USA. Our findings revealed that, the start of leaf senescence did not differ significantly between vegetation groups, but leaf fall started (DOY 273) two weeks later in shrubs. Non-native shrubs exhibited a considerably delayed start (DOY 262) and end of leaf senescence (DOY 300), with leaf-fall ending (DOY 315) nearly four weeks later than native shrubs and trees. Overall, the duration of the autumn phenological season was longer for non-native shrubs than either native shrubs or trees. Comparison of the timing of spring phenophases with the start and end of leaf senescence revealed that when spring phenology in trees starts later in the season senescence also starts later and ends earlier. The opposite pattern was observed in native shrubs. In conclusion, understanding the contributions of plant functional groups to overall forest phenology requires future investigation to ensure accurate predictions of future ecosystem productivity and help address discrepancies with remote sensing phenometrics.

5.
J Med Biochem ; 43(2): 281-289, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699698

RESUMO

Background: Carrier screening is the most effective method to block the occurrence of thalassemia. However, due to differences in race and genotype, MCV, MCH, HbA2 and other indicators are far from each other. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the common screening indicators of a, b and ab-compound thalassemia carriers in Hunan Province, and try to use the relevant formulas in the existing literature to predict and distinguish different types of thalassemia carriers. Methods: Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) combined with Youden index was utilized to analyze results of blood routine examination, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and literature-related formulas for 1111 a-thalassemia carriers, 464 b-thalassemia carriers and 24 ab-thalassemia carriers.

6.
Cancer Cell Int ; 24(1): 157, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704599

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their ability of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation, and multi-directional differentiation, contribute to tumorigenesis, metastasis, recurrence, and resistance to conventional therapy and immunotherapy. Eliminating CSCs has long been thought to prevent tumorigenesis. Although known to negatively impact tumor prognosis, research revealed the unexpected role of iron metabolism as a key regulator of CSCs. This review explores recent advances in iron metabolism in CSCs, conventional cancer therapies targeting iron biochemistry, therapeutic resistance in these cells, and potential treatment options that could overcome them. These findings provide important insights into therapeutic modalities against intractable cancers.

7.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700464

RESUMO

Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH), a type of overgrowth syndrome, is characterized by progressive megalencephaly, cortical brain malformations, and distal limb anomalies. Previous studies have revealed that the overactivity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Protein kinase B pathway and the increased cyclin D2 (CCND2) expression were the main factors contributing to this disease. Here, we present the case of a patient who exhibited megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, abnormal neuronal migration, and developmental delay. Serum tandem mass spectrometry and chromosome examination did not detect any metabolic abnormalities or copy number variants. However, whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing revealed a de novo nonsense mutation (NM_001759.3: c.829C>T; p.Gln277X) in the CCND2 gene of the patient. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that this mutation may disrupt the structure and surface charge of the CCND2 protein. This disruption could potentially prevent polyubiquitination of CCND2, leading to its resistance against degradation. Consequently, this could drive cell division and growth by altering the activity of key cell cycle regulatory nodes, ultimately contributing to the development of MPPH. This study not only presents a new case of MPPH and expands the mutation spectrum of CCND2 but also enhances our understanding of the mechanisms connecting CCND2 with overgrowth syndromes.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 162024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LRRC59 is a leucine-rich repeats-containing protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), it serves as a prognostic marker in several cancers. However, there has been no systematic analysis of its role in the tumor immune microenvironment, nor its predictive value of prognosis and immunotherapy response in different cancers. METHODS: A comprehensive pan-cancer analysis of LRRC59 was conducted from various databases to elucidate the associations between its expression and the prognosis of cancer, genetic alterations, tumor metabolism, and tumor immunity. Additionally, further functional assays were performed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to study its biological role in regulating cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and sensitivity to immunotherapy. RESULTS: The pan-cancer analysis reveals a significant upregulation of LRRC59 in pan-cancer, and its overexpression is correlated with unfavorable prognosis in cancer patients. LRRC59 is negatively correlated with immune cell infiltration, tumor purity estimation, and immune checkpoint genes. Finally, the validation in HCC demonstrates LRRC59 is significantly overexpressed in cancer tissue and cell lines, and its knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and migration, promotes cell apoptosis, induces cell cycle arrest, and enhances the sensitivity to immunotherapy in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS: LRRC59 emerges as a novel potential prognostic biomarker across malignancies, offering promise for anti-cancer drugs and immunotherapy.

9.
Nat Med ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740994

RESUMO

Emotional distress (ED), commonly characterized by symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, is prevalent in patients with cancer. Preclinical studies suggest that ED can impair antitumor immune responses, but few clinical studies have explored its relationship with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Here we report results from cohort 1 of the prospective observational STRESS-LUNG study, which investigated the association between ED and clinical efficacy of first-line treatment of ICIs in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. ED was assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale. The study included 227 patients with 111 (48.9%) exhibiting ED who presented depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥5) and/or anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item score ≥5) symptoms at baseline. On the primary endpoint analysis, patients with baseline ED exhibited a significantly shorter median progression-free survival compared with those without ED (7.9 months versus 15.5 months, hazard ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.43, P = 0.002). On the secondary endpoint analysis, ED was associated with lower objective response rate (46.8% versus 62.1%, odds ratio 0.54, P = 0.022), reduced 2-year overall survival rate of 46.5% versus 64.9% (hazard ratio for death 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 2.97, P = 0.016) and detriments in quality of life. The exploratory analysis indicated that the ED group showed elevated blood cortisol levels, which was associated with adverse survival outcomes. This study suggests that there is an association between ED and worse clinical outcomes in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with ICIs, highlighting the potential significance of addressing ED in cancer management. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT05477979 .

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(8): e18292, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652116

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses, particularly those caused by Salmonella enterica with its extensive array of over 2600 serovars, present a significant public health challenge. Therefore, prompt and precise identification of S. enterica serovars is essential for clinical relevance, which facilitates the understanding of S. enterica transmission routes and the determination of outbreak sources. Classical serotyping methods via molecular subtyping and genomic markers currently suffer from various limitations, such as labour intensiveness, time consumption, etc. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that can generate Raman spectra, based on which rapid and accurate discrimination of bacterial pathogens could be achieved. To generate SERS spectra, a Raman spectrometer is needed to detect and collect signals, which are divided into two types: the expensive benchtop spectrometer and the inexpensive handheld spectrometer. In this study, we compared the performance of two Raman spectrometers to discriminate four closely associated S. enterica serovars, that is, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin, enteritidis, typhi and typhimurium. Six machine learning algorithms were applied to analyse these SERS spectra. The support vector machine (SVM) model showed the highest accuracy for both handheld (99.97%) and benchtop (99.38%) Raman spectrometers. This study demonstrated that handheld Raman spectrometers achieved similar prediction accuracy as benchtop spectrometers when combined with machine learning models, providing an effective solution for rapid, accurate and cost-effective identification of closely associated S. enterica serovars.


Assuntos
Salmonella enterica , Sorogrupo , Análise Espectral Raman , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Algoritmos
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 348, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Definitive chemoradiotherapy is one of the primary treatment modalities for older patients with esophageal cancer (EC). However, the evolution of prognosis over time and the factors affected non-EC deaths remain inadequately studied. We examined the conditional survival and annual hazard of death in older patients with EC after chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: We collected data from patients aged 65 or older with EC registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database during 2000-2019. Conditional survival was defined as the probability of survival given a specific time survived. Annual hazard of death was defined the yearly event rate. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis identified the association of age at diagnosis with mortality. RESULTS: Among 3739 patients, the 3-year conditional overall survival increased annually by 7-10%. Non-EC causes accounted for 18.8% of deaths, predominantly due to cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. The hazard of death decreased from 40 to 10% in the first 6 years and then gradually increased to 20% in the tenth year. Non-EC causes surpassed EC causes in hazard starting 5 years post-treatment. RCS indicated a consistent increase in death hazard with advancing age, following a linear relationship. The overall cohort was divided into two groups: 65-74 and ≥ 75 years old, with the ≥ 75-year-old group showing poorer survival and earlier onset of non-EC deaths (HR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.15-1.62, P < 0.001). Patients with early-stage disease (I-II) had higher risks of death from non-EC causes (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.98, P = 0.035). Tumor histology had no significant impact on non-EC death risk (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.98-1.39, P = 0.081). CONCLUSIONS: Survival probability increases with time for older patients with EC treated with chemoradiotherapy. Clinicians and patients should prioritize managing and preventing age-related comorbidities, especially in older cohorts and those with early-stage disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Humanos , Idoso , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Prognóstico , Comorbidade
12.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1378311, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38646627

RESUMO

Objective: The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains a controversial topic. This study aims to analyze the causal relationship between HBV and T2D using Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods: Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and T2D were obtained from BioBank Japan Project, European Bioinformatics Institute, and FinnGen. Mendelian randomization was utilized to evaluate exposure-outcome causality. Inverse variance weighted was used as the primary method for MR analysis. To assess horizontal pleiotropy and heterogeneity, we conducted MR-Egger intercept analysis and Cochran's Q test, and the robustness of the MR analysis results was evaluated through leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. Results: MR analysis revealed that CHB was associated with a decreased genetic susceptibility to T2D (OR, 0.975; 95% CI, 0.962-0.989; p < 0.001) while liver cirrhosis (OR, 1.021; 95% CI, 1.007-1.036; p = 0.004) as well as liver cirrhosis and liver fibrosis (OR, 1.015; 95% CI, 1.002-1.028; p = 0.020) were associated with an increased genetic susceptibility to T2D. MR-Egger intercept showed no horizontal pleiotropy (p > 0.05). Cochran's Q showed no heterogeneity (p > 0.05). Leave-one-out sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust. Conclusion: CHB has the potential to act as a protective factor for T2D, but its effectiveness is constrained by viral load and disease stage. This protective effect diminishes or disappears as viral load decreases, and it transforms into a risk factor with the progression to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172335, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604369

RESUMO

The neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) is a product of inorganic mercury (IHg) after microbial transformation. Yet it remains unclear whether microbial activity or IHg supply dominates Hg methylation in paddies, hotspots of MeHg formation. Here, we quantified the response of MeHg production to changes in microbial activity and Hg supply using 63 paddy soils under the common scenario of straw amendment, a globally prevalent agricultural practice. We demonstrate that the IHg supply is the limiting factor for Hg methylation in paddies. This is because IHg supply is generally low in soils and can largely be facilitated (by 336-747 %) by straw amendment. The generally high activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) do not limit Hg methylation, even though SRB have been validated as the predominant microbial Hg methylators in paddies in this study. These findings caution against the mobilization of legacy Hg triggered by human activities and climate change, resulting in increased MeHg production and the subsequent flux of this potent neurotoxin to our dining tables.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental
14.
J Integr Med ; 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631983

RESUMO

In recent years, preclinical research on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has surged to the forefront of scientific and clinical attention. DKD has become a pervasive complication of type 2 diabetes. Given the complexity of its etiology and pathological mechanisms, current interventions, including drugs, dietary modifications, exercise, hypoglycemic treatments and lipid-lowering methods, often fall short in achieving desired therapeutic outcomes. Iridoids, primarily derived from the potent components of traditional herbs, have been the subject of long-standing research. Preclinical data suggest that iridoids possess notable renal protective properties; however, there has been no summary of the research on their efficacy in the management and treatment of DKD. This article consolidates findings from in vivo and in vitro research on iridoids in the context of DKD and highlights their shared anti-inflammatory activities in treating this condition. Additionally, it explores how certain iridoid components modify their chemical structures through the regulation of intestinal flora, potentially bolstering their therapeutic effects. This review provides a focused examination of the mechanisms through which iridoids may prevent or treat DKD, offering valuable insights for future research endeavors. Please cite this article as: Zhou TY, Tian N, Li L, Yu R. Iridoids modulate inflammation in diabetic kidney disease: A review. J Integr Med. 2024; Epub ahead of print.

15.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619279

RESUMO

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are among the most common problems in clinical settings. Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens will provide practical guidelines for managing and treating RTIs. This study describes a method for rapidly detecting bacterial pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections via multi-channel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool that rapidly detects bacterial nucleic acids with high accuracy and reliability. The proposed method offers a significant advantage over traditional bacterial culturing methods, which are time-consuming and often require greater sensitivity for detecting low levels of bacterial nucleic acids. This article presents representative results of K. pneumoniae infection and its multiple co-infections using LAMP to detect samples (sputum, bronchial lavage fluid, and alveolar lavage fluid) from the lower respiratory tract. In summary, the multi-channel LAMP method provides a rapid and efficient means of identifying single and multiple bacterial pathogens in clinical samples, which can help prevent the spread of bacterial pathogens and aid in the appropriate treatment of RTIs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Ácidos Nucleicos , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Microfluídica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Klebsiella pneumoniae
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(6): 1587-1593, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621943

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the effect of Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Formula(ZGJTQGF) on the lipid metabolism in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) via the insulin receptor(INSR)/adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK)/sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 2(SREBP-2) signaling pathway. Twenty-four db/db mice were randomized into positive drug(metformin, 0.067 g·kg~(-1)) and low-(7.5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) ZGJTQGF groups. Six C57 mice were used as the blank group and administrated with an equal volume of distilled water. The mice in other groups except the blank group were administrated with corresponding drugs by gavage for 6 consecutive weeks. At the end of drug administration, fasting blood glucose(FBG) and blood lipid levels were measured, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Compared with the blank group, the mice treated with ZGJTQGF showed decreased body mass and liver weight coefficient, lowered levels of FBG, total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), and low-density lipoprotein(LDL), and weakened liver function. The pathological changes and lipid accumulation in the liver tissue were examined. Western blot was employed to measure the protein levels of INSR, AMPK, p-AMPK, and SREBP-2. Compared with the blank group, the model group showed down-regulated protein levels of INSR and p-AMPK/AMPK and up-regulated protein level of SREBP-2. Compared with the model group, high-dose ZGJTQGF up-regulated the protein levels of INSR and p-AMPK/AMPK and down-regulated the protein level of SREBP-2. Low-dose ZGJTQGF slightly up-regulated the protein levels of INSR and p-AMPK/AMPK and down-regulated the protein level of SREBP-2, without significant differences. The results suggested that ZGJTQGF may alleviate insulin resistance and improve lipid metabolism in db/db mice by activating the INSR/AMPK/SREBP-2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Fígado , Lipídeos
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 329: 118160, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588985

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hepatic steatosis, a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), represents a significant global health issue. Liver lipidomics has garnered increased focus recently, highlighting Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) role in mitigating such conditions through lipid metabolism regulation. The Zuogui Jiangtang Qinggan Formula (ZGJTQGF), a longstanding TCM regimen for treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) with NAFLD, lacks a definitive mechanism for its lipid metabolism regulatory effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research aims to elucidate ZGJTQGF's mechanism on lipid metabolism in T2DM with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study, utilized db/db mice to establish T2DM with NAFLD models. Evaluations included Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Oil Red O stainedstaining of liver tissues, alongside biochemical lipid parameter analysis. Liver lipidomics and Western blotting further substantiated the findings, systematically uncovering the mechanism of action mechanism. RESULTS: ZGJTQGF notably reduced body weight, and Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), enhancing glucose tolerance in db/db mice. HE, and Oil Red O staining, complemented by biochemical and liver lipidomics analyses, confirmed ZGJTQGF's efficacy in ameliorating liver steatosis and lipid metabolism anomalies. Lipidomics identified 1571 significantly altered lipid species in the model group, primarily through the upregulation of triglycerides (TG) and diglycerides (DG), and the downregulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Post-ZGJTQGF treatment, 496 lipid species were modulated, with increased PC and PE levels and decreased TG and DG, showcasing significant lipid metabolism improvement in T2DM with NAFLD. Moreover, ZGJTQGF's influence on lipid synthesis-related proteins was observed, underscoring its anti-steatotic impact through liver lipidomic alterations and offering novel insights into hepatic steatosis pathogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Liver lipidomics analysis combined with protein verification further demonstrated that ZGJTQGF could ameliorate the lipid disturbance of TG, DG, PC, PE in T2DM with NAFLD, as well as improve fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis and metabolism through De novo lipogenesis pathway.

18.
Cancer Lett ; 591: 216859, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615928

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a solid organ malignancy with a high mortality rate. Statistics indicate that its incidence has been increasing as well as the associated deaths. Most patients with PDAC show poor response to therapies making the clinical management of this cancer difficult. Stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) contribute to the development of resistance to therapy in PDAC cancer cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most prevalent stromal cells in the TME, promote a desmoplastic response, produce extracellular matrix proteins and cytokines, and directly influence the biological behavior of cancer cells. These multifaceted effects make it difficult to eradicate tumor cells from the body. As a result, CAF-targeting synergistic therapeutic strategies have gained increasing attention in recent years. However, due to the substantial heterogeneity in CAF origin, definition, and function, as well as high plasticity, majority of the available CAF-targeting therapeutic approaches are not effective, and in some cases, they exacerbate disease progression. This review primarily elucidates on the effect of CAFs on therapeutic efficiency of various treatment modalities, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. Strategies for CAF targeting therapies are also discussed.

19.
J Wound Care ; 33(5): 368-378, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurate assessment of pressure injuries (PIs) is necessary for a good outcome. Junior and non-specialist nurses have less experience with PIs and lack clinical practice, and so have difficulty staging them accurately. In this work, a deep learning-based system for PI staging and tissue classification is proposed to help improve its accuracy and efficiency in clinical practice, and save healthcare costs. METHOD: A total of 1610 cases of PI and their corresponding photographs were collected from clinical practice, and each sample was accurately staged and the tissues labelled by experts for training a Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Mask R-CNN, Facebook Artificial Intelligence Research, Meta, US) object detection and instance segmentation network. A recognition system was set up to automatically stage and classify the tissues of the remotely uploaded PI photographs. RESULTS: On a test set of 100 samples, the average precision of this model for stage recognition reached 0.603, which exceeded that of the medical personnel involved in the comparative evaluation, including an enterostomal therapist. CONCLUSION: In this study, the deep learning-based PI staging system achieved the evaluation performance of a nurse with professional training in wound care. This low-cost system could help overcome the difficulty of identifying PIs by junior and non-specialist nurses, and provide valuable auxiliary clinical information.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Úlcera por Pressão , Humanos , Úlcera por Pressão/enfermagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Masculino , Feminino
20.
Nat Food ; 5(4): 301-311, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605129

RESUMO

Contamination of rice by the potent neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg) originates from microbe-mediated Hg methylation in soils. However, the high diversity of Hg methylating microorganisms in soils hinders the prediction of MeHg formation and challenges the mitigation of MeHg bioaccumulation via regulating soil microbiomes. Here we explored the roles of various cropland microbial communities in MeHg formation in the potentials leading to MeHg accumulation in rice and reveal that Geobacteraceae are the key predictors of MeHg bioaccumulation in paddy soil systems. We characterized Hg methylating microorganisms from 67 cropland ecosystems across 3,600 latitudinal kilometres. The simulations of a rice-paddy biogeochemical model show that MeHg accumulation in rice is 1.3-1.7-fold more sensitive to changes in the relative abundance of Geobacteraceae compared to Hg input, which is recognized as the primary parameter in controlling MeHg exposure. These findings open up a window to predict MeHg formation and accumulation in human food webs, enabling more efficient mitigation of risks to human health through regulations of key soil microbiomes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Oryza , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Bioacumulação , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/microbiologia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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