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1.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the incidence, mortality, and other burden of oral cancer as well as their secular trends are necessary to provide policy-makers with the information needed to allocate resources appropriately. The purpose of this study was to use the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 results to estimate the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for oral cancer from 1990 to 2017. METHODS: We collected detailed data on oral cancer from 1990 to 2017 from the GBD 2017. The global incidence, mortality, and DALYs attributable to oral cancer as well as the corresponding age-standardized rates (ASRs) were calculated. The estimated annual percentage changes in the ASRs of incidence (ASRI) and mortality (ASRM) and age-standardized DALYs of oral cancer were also calculated according to regions and countries to quantify the secular trends in these rates. RESULTS: We tracked the incidence, mortality, and DALYs of oral cancer in 195 countries/territories over 28 years. Globally, the incidence, mortality, and DALYs of oral cancer increased by about 1.0-fold from 1990 to 2017. The ASRI of oral cancer showed a similar trend, increasing from 4.41 to 4.84 per 100,000 person-years during the study period. The ASRM remained approximately stable at about 2.4 per 100,000 from 1990 to 2017, as did the age-standardized DALYs, at about 64.0 per 100,000 person-years. ASRI was highest in Pakistan (27.03/100,000, 95% CI = 22.13-32.75/100,000), followed by Taiwan China, and lowest in Iraq (0.96/100,000, 95% CI = 0.86-1.06/100,000). ASRM was highest in Pakistan (16.85/100,000, 95% CI = 13.92-20.17/100,000) and lowest in Kuwait (0.51/100,000, 95% CI = 0.45-0.58/100,000). CONCLUSIONS: The ASRI of oral cancer has increased slightly worldwide, while the ASRM and age-standardized DALY have remained stable. However, these characteristics vary between countries, suggesting that current prevention strategies should be reoriented, and much more targeted and specific strategies should be established in some countries to forestall the increase in oral cancer.

2.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(1): 013904, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012528

RESUMO

We present a newly developed facility comprising a combinatorial laser molecular beam epitaxy system and an in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This facility aims at accelerating the materials research in a highly efficient way by advanced high-throughput film synthesis techniques and subsequent fast characterization of surface morphology and electronic states. Compared with uniform films deposited by conventional methods, the so-called combinatorial thin films will be beneficial in determining the accurate phase diagrams of different materials due to the improved control of parameters such as chemical substitution and sample thickness resulting from a rotary-mask method. A specially designed STM working under low-temperature and ultrahigh vacuum conditions is optimized for the characterization of combinatorial thin films in an XY coarse motion range of 15 mm × 15 mm with submicrometer location precision. The overall configuration and some key aspects such as the sample holder design, scanner head, and sample/tip/target transfer mechanism are described in detail. The performance of the device is demonstrated by synthesizing high-quality superconducting FeSe thin films with gradient thickness and imaging surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, Au (111), Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (BSCCO), and FeSe. In addition, we also have obtained clean noise spectra of tunneling junctions and the superconducting energy gap of BSCCO. The successful manufacturing of such a facility opens a new window for the next generation equipment designed for experimental materials research.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016422

RESUMO

Some transcription factors that specifically bind double-stranded DNA appear to also function as RNA-binding proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor Sox2 is able to directly bind RNA in vitro as well as in mouse and human cells. Sox2 targets RNA via a 60-amino-acid RNA binding motif (RBM) positioned C-terminally of the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) box. Sox2 can associate with RNA and DNA simultaneously to form ternary RNA/Sox2/DNA complexes. Deletion of the RBM does not affect selection of target genes but mitigates binding to pluripotency related transcripts, switches exon usage and impairs the reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Our findings designate Sox2 as a multi-functional factor that associates with RNA whilst binding to cognate DNA sequences, suggesting that it may co-transcriptionally regulate RNA metabolism during somatic cell reprogramming.

4.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 68, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect and correlation between preoperative imaging parameters and the clinical effect of endoscopic transforaminal decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis. METHODS: In this prospective study, 87 patients from Shanxi Province People's Hospital met the criteria for lumbar spinal stenosis and were recruited from June 2014 to January 2016. These patients underwent endoscopic transforaminal decompression. The clinical symptoms were evaluated by VAS, ODI, and claudication at 3 and 6 months after surgery. The overall clinical efficacy was evaluated using the MacNab score. Yellow ligament thickness and area of the dural sac were examined by MRI. Bony vertebral canal area, real spinal canal area, nerve root canal bony area, nerve root canal real area, distance between the articular joints, and vertebral canal sagittal diameter were examined by CT. The soft tissue invasion ratio of the vertebral canal and the invasion ratio of the nerve root canal were calculated. Correlations between imaging parameters and age, sex, and clinical efficacy were examined. RESULTS: The MacNab scores were excellent in 47% of cases, good in 34%, generally good in 8%, and poor in 11%. VAS, ODI, and claudication were significantly improved compared with the preoperative values (P < 0.01). A significant difference was observed between the 71-81 year age group and the other age groups (P < 0.05). There were good correlations between clinical efficacy and vertebral canal sagittal diameter, distance between the articular joints, soft tissue invasion ratio of the vertebral canal, and invasion ratio of the nerve root canal. CONCLUSION: Treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis by endoscopic transforaminal decompression can achieve good clinical results. This operation is less effective in patients older than 71 years of age. There were positive correlations between clinical efficacy and the vertebral canal sagittal diameter, the articular joints, soft tissue invasion ratio of the vertebral canal, and invasion ratio of the nerve root canal.

5.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 61, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plastic bronchitis (PB) frequently occurs as a serious postoperative complication of the Fontan procedure. The definitive causes of PB are unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a pediatric case of PB secondary to adenoviral infection. A 4-year-old girl was admitted to the general pediatric ward for cough since 2 weeks and fever since 11 days. Consolidated lesions were noted in the right upper and both lower lung lobes. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed because the patient's respiratory failure remained unalleviated despite the use of a ventilator. Bronchial dendritic casts were extracted using flexible bronchoscopy, and the patient's breathing improved. Pathological examination of the dendritic cast confirmed the diagnosis of type I PB. The exfoliated cells of sputum and cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive for adenoviral antigen. Human adenovirus 7 was detected by next-generation sequencing of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The patient recovered and was discharged 39 days after admission without recurrence of cough or wheezing. CONCLUSIONS: PB due to human adenovirus 7 infection should be considered in children with persistent respiratory failure. Flexible bronchoscopy should be performed early to confirm diagnosis and to remove any airway obstruction.

6.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(3): 715-730, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922237

RESUMO

Age­related hearing loss, also termed central presbycusis, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease; it is a devastating disorder that severely affects the quality of life of elderly individuals. Substantial evidence has indicated that oxidative stress and associated protein folding dysfunction have a marked influence on neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to cells to investigate whether metformin protects against age­related pathologies and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms; specifically, we focused on the role of unfolded protein response (UPR) via the AMPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. For this purpose, the biguanide compound, metformin, a medication widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was administered to rats in a model of mimetic aging. In addition, senescent PC12 were treated with metformin. Although it has been well established that UPR signaling is activated in response to cellular stress and is associated with the pathogenesis of neuronal deterioration, the detailed functions of the UPR in the auditory cortex remain unclear. We found that metformin treatment markedly affected the UPR and the AMPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and maintained the auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold during the aging process. The results indicated that the regulation of the UPR and AMPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway by metformin significantly attenuated hearing loss, cell apoptosis and age­related neurodegeneration. Reversing these harmful effects through the use of metformin suggests its involvement in restoring the antioxidant status and protein homeostasis related to the underlying pathology of presbycusis. The findings of this study may provide a better approach for the treatment of age­related neurodegeneration diseases.

7.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the postoperative complications of box-shift osteotomy performed at our center for Chinese orbital hypertelorism patients from 2008 to 2017. METHOD: This retrospective study reviews the records of 78 patients with complete medical records and at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up data. Both radiologic and anthropometric assessments were conducted before, 1 month after and 2 years after surgery to evaluate the bony and soft-tissue alterations. Postoperative complications were recorded during hospitalization and at each follow-up visit and divided into 3 groups: acute complications that occurred within 1 month after surgery; early complications that occurred within 6 months after surgery; and long-term complications that occurred within 2 years after surgery. RESULTS: Both bony and soft-tissue alterations were significant at 1 month after surgery. The acute complications that occurred in our center included infection (12.8%), cerebrospinal fluid leakage (29.5%), epilepsy (2.6%), and nasal tip skin necrosis (1.3%). The early complications included strabismus (11.5%) and nasolacrimal duct obstruction (3.8%). The long-term complications included insufficient correction (55.1%), palpable metal implants (92.3%) and a drooping nasal tip (33.9%). Due to the insufficient correction and the continued growth of rib graft, the difference in the hypertelorism index and nasal length, between one month and 2 years postoperatively were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Other radiographic and anthropometric measurements changed with growth without a significance difference between 1 month and 2 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: In this study, we recorded all postoperative complications of box-shift osteotomy. The challenge of our future work is to identify methods for decreasing the incidence of these complications.

8.
ISA Trans ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924313

RESUMO

Industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPSs) have received increasing attention from both academia and industry. However, the privacy-utility trade-off of process parameters is still a challenge in the ICPSs. To address this challenge, a Kalman filter-based differential privacy and an unscented Kalman filter-based differential privacy algorithms are derived. In order to increase the utility of process parameters while protecting the privacy of process parameters, a differentially private square root unscented Kalman filter algorithm is proposed by employing the square root unscented Kalman filter and differential privacy. The experiments based on a numerical control lathe are presented to prove the privacy and evaluate the utility of process parameters.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2129-2133, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955575

RESUMO

Labile heme (LH) is an important signaling molecule in virtually all organisms. However, specifically detecting LH remains an outstanding challenge. Herein, by learning from the bioactivation mechanism of artemisinin, we have developed the first LH-responsive small-molecule fluorescent probe, HNG, based on a 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide (NG) fluorophore. HNG showed high selectivity for LH without interference from hemin, protein-interacting heme, and zinc protoporphyrin. Using HNG, the changes of LH levels in live cells were imaged, and a positive correlation of LH level with the degree of hemolysis was uncovered in hemolytic mice. Our study not only presents the first molecular probe for specific LH detection but also provides a strategy to construct probes with high specificity through a bioinspired approach.

10.
Adv Mater ; : e1907156, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995267

RESUMO

Humans are undergoing a fateful transformation focusing on artificial intelligence, quantum information technology, virtual reality, etc., which is inseparable from intelligent nano-micro devices. However, the booming of "Big Data" brings about an even greater challenge by growing electromagnetic radiation. Herein, an innovative flexible multifunctional microsensor is proposed, opening up a new horizon for intelligent devices. It integrates "non-crosstalk" multiple perception and green electromagnetic interference shielding only in one pixel, with satisfactory sensitivity and fast information feedback. Importantly, beneficial by deep insight into the variable-temperature electromagnetic response, the microsensor tactfully transforms the urgent threat of electromagnetic radiation into "wealth," further integrating self-power. This result will refresh researchers' realization of next-generation devices, ushering in a new direction for aerospace engineering, remote sensing, communications, medical treatment, biomimetic robot, prosthetics, etc.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(3): 2178-2188, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930683

RESUMO

Exercise training is believed to have a positive effect on cardiac hypertrophy after hypertension. However, its mechanism is still not fully understood. Herein, our findings suggest that heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) improves exercise-initiated myocardial angiogenesis after pressure overload. A sustained narrowing of the diagonal aorta (TAC) and moderately- intense exercise training protocol were imposed on HSF1 heterozygote (KO) and their littermate wild-type (WT) male mice. After two months, the cardiac function was assessed using the adaptive responses to exercise training, or TAC, or both of them such as catheterization and echocardiography. The HE stains assessed the area of myocyte cross-sectional. The Western blot and real-time PCR measured the levels of expression for heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in cardiac tissues. The anti-CD31 antibody immunohistochemical staining was done to examine how exercise training influenced cardiac ontogeny. The outcome illustrated that exercise training significantly improved the cardiac ontogeny in TAC mice, which was convoyed by elevated levels of expression for VEGF and HIF-1α and preserved the heart microvascular density. More importantly, HSF1 deficiency impaired these effects induced by exercise training in TAC mice. In conclusion, exercise training encourages cardiac ontogeny by means of HSF1 activation and successive HIF-1α/VEGF up-regulation in endothelial cells during continued pressure overload.

12.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(2): 343-352, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789424

RESUMO

Oxidative and inflammatory damage has been suggested to play important roles in the pathogenesis of skin photoaging. Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB) is a soluble derivative of andrographolide and has known antioxidant and anti­inflammatory properties. In the present study, cellular experiments were designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ASB in relieving ultraviolet (UV)­induced photo­damage. Following ASB pretreatment and UV irradiation, the apoptosis and necrosis of HaCaT cells were investigated by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated using a DCFH­DA fluorescence probe. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of p65, NF­κB inhibitor­α, nuclear factor E2­related factor 2 (Nrf2) and kelch­like ECH­associated protein 1 (keap1) were measured via western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Furthermore, NF­κB­mediated cytokines were assessed by ELISA, and Nrf2­mediated genes were detected by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR. Pretreatment with ASB markedly increased cell viability, decreased cell apoptosis and decreased UV­induced excess ROS levels. In addition, ASB activated the production of Nrf2 and increased the mRNA expression levels of glutamate­cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, while ASB downregulated the protein expression of p65 and decreased the production of interleukin (IL)­1ß, IL­6 and tumor necrosis factor­α. These results suggested that ASB attenuates UV­induced photo­damage by activating the keap1/Nrf2 pathway and downregulating the NF­κB pathway in HaCaT keratinocytes.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 134752, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812390

RESUMO

The human biological monitoring of metals (metalloids) is of importance, which concentrations could indicate a wide range of health related information. Reference values (RVs) of metals (metalloids) in specific matix of populations are critically required when performing a statistical evaluation accurately. Recent studies show that RVs of metals (metalloids) are influenced by many multiple factors, including lifestyle, diet, dissimilar environment, location, as well as race. However, it is virtually absent across many nations/regions, especially multi-race coexistence regions. The aim of the work was to establish RVs of metals (metalloids) in urine of adult in Xinjiang, China. Totally 178 urine samples from healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer or optical emission spectrometer (ICP-MS/OES). RVs of 26 metals (metalloids) in urine for adult of Xinjiang, China were then established. Effects of race, gender and age on RVs were investigated using partial least squares discriminant analysis and student T-test. The result demonstrated that above factors showed mild influence for the establishment of RVs. The RVs derived from total 178 urine adult samples (Han and Uygur half of each) can be applied for different race, gender and age periods. Moreover, it was observed that three metals (metalloids), As, Sc and Ba significantly varied between some subgroups. The established RVs will be valuable for future health or environmental evaluation, and can serve as a theoretical reference for RVs establishment in multi-race coexistence region.

14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(1): 105821, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614177

RESUMO

Longistylin A (LLA) is an abundant stilbene isolated from the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. However, the antibacterial effect of LLA is not yet understood. Therefore, in this study, a detailed investigation of the antibacterial effect of LLA, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), was conducted. In vitro, LLA exhibited strong antibacterial activity against MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.56 µg/mL and displayed much more rapid bactericidal activity (3-log decrease in MRSA survival within 8 h) than vancomycin. A membrane-targeting experiment suggested that the antibacterial activity of LLA is associated with perturbation of the bacterial membrane potential and increased membrane permeability. Notably, LLA had relatively weak cytotoxicity to murine macrophages [50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) = 8.61 ± 0.57 µg/mL]. In vivo, topical treatment of a skin injury with LLA improved wound healing and closure in an MRSA-infected wound healing mouse model. After 3 days treatment, LLA decreased MRSA bacterial counts in the wounded region, reduced the accumulation of immune cells at the injury site, and alleviated induction of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (180.74 ± 10.78 pg/mL vs. 606.57 ± 68.99 pg/mL) and interleukin-6 (87.25 ± 10.19 pg/mL vs. 280.58 ± 42.27 pg/mL) in serum.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 248-252, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent idiopathic facial pain is characterized by persistent facial or oral pain in the absence of a neurologic deficit. This underexplored pain may be conducted by various nerves, including cranial nerves and upper cervical spinal roots, and its etiology is unclear. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient presented with persistent idiopathic facial pain associated with occipital muscle stiffness after an improper neck massage. The patient achieved almost complete pain relief by coblation of right upper cervical nerves (C1 and C2 spinal roots) followed by continuous cervical epidural analgesia for a period of 3 weeks. The analgesic effect was stable during the 3-month follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent idiopathic facial pain may be cervicogenic, and treatments focusing on cervical spinal roots may provide satisfactory pain control in patients with cervical abnormalities.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Dor Facial/cirurgia , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/cirurgia , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Dor Facial/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 502: 214-221, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733195

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disease characterized by clinical or laboratorial hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation and metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, excessive weight or obesity, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The most significant clinical manifestation of PCOS is hyperandrogenism. Excess androgen profoundly affects granulosa cell function and follicular development via complex mechanisms that lead to obesity and insulin resistance. Most PCOS patients with hyperandrogenism have steroid secretion defects that result in abnormal folliculogenesis and failed dominant follicle selection. Hyperandrogenism induces obesity, hairy, acne, and androgenetic alopecia. These symptoms can bring great psychological stress to women. Drugs such as combined oral contraceptive pills, metformin, pioglitazone and low-dose spironolactone help improve pregnancy rates by decreasing androgen levels in vivo. Notably, PCOS is heterogeneous, and hyperandrogenism is not the only pathogenic factor. Obesity and insulin resistance aggravate the symptoms of hyperandrogenism, forming a vicious cycle that promotes PCOS development. Although numerous studies have been conducted, the definitive pathogenic mechanisms of PCOS remain uncertain. This review summarizes and discusses previous and recent findings regarding the relationship between hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, obesity and PCOS.

17.
J Nat Prod ; 83(1): 79-87, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886665

RESUMO

The effects of a single-amino-acid culture strategy on secondary metabolite production in the marine-derived fungus Trichoderma erinaceum F1-1 were investigated by culturing the fungus in GPY medium supplemented or not supplemented with l-phenylalanine. A suite of secondary metabolites, including seven terpenoids (1-7) and one polyketide (8), among which are four new compounds, harziandione A (1), cyclonerodiols A and B (3, 4), and trichodermaerin A (6), were isolated from the GPY medium without l-phenylanine, whereas 18 aromatic compounds (9-26), including six new compounds, trichoderolides A-F (9, 10, and 14-17), were isolated from the culture grown in the GPY medium with l-phenylalanine. The structures of the new compounds were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopic analysis, optical rotation calculations, chemical methods, and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 10, 12, 13, and 26 exhibited cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 human melanocyte cancer cells. Compound 26 was cytotoxic to A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells.

18.
Cell ; 180(1): 107-121.e17, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866069

RESUMO

Fibrosis can develop in most organs and causes organ failure. The most common type of lung fibrosis is known as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in which fibrosis starts at the lung periphery and then progresses toward the lung center, eventually causing respiratory failure. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and periphery-to-center progression of the disease. Here we discovered that loss of Cdc42 function in alveolar stem cells (AT2 cells) causes periphery-to-center progressive lung fibrosis. We further show that Cdc42-null AT2 cells in both post-pneumonectomy and untreated aged mice cannot regenerate new alveoli, resulting in sustained exposure of AT2 cells to elevated mechanical tension. We demonstrate that elevated mechanical tension activates a TGF-ß signaling loop in AT2 cells, which drives the periphery-to-center progression of lung fibrosis. Our study establishes a direct mechanistic link between impaired alveolar regeneration, mechanical tension, and progressive lung fibrosis.

19.
J Pain Res ; 12: 3013-3023, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807058

RESUMO

Background: Mechanisms of neuropathic pain are not fully understood. Molecular changes in spinal dorsal horn take part in the initiation and development of neuropathic pain. Methods: To detect the transcriptome changes in the dorsal spinal cord of neuropathic pain rat, sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats were used. Then, the CCI ipsilateral dorsal spinal cords of lumbar L3-L5 segments were collected at 14th day post-CCI and subjected to microRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)/mRNA microarray. To evaluate functions of differential mRNAs, bioinformatics methods including gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis were conducted for significantly up- and downregulated mRNAs. Results: MicroRNA microarrays showed that 13 microRNAs were differently expressed between CCI and sham-operated rats (fold change ≥ 2.0). Six of them were upregulated, and the other seven were downregulated in CCI group. MicroRNA-1b overexpressed 18.7 times after CCI. LncRNA/mRNA microarray detected 876 lncRNAs with significant differential expression (fold change ≥ 2.0). Among them, 339 were significantly upregulated, and 537 were downregulated in CCI group. Sixteen of them differentially expressed more than 10 times and the lncRNA XR_356687 overexpressed as high as 53 times. In addition, 950 mRNAs were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 2.0), including 405 upregulated and 545 downregulated in CCI group. Ten of these mRNAs with changed expressions of more than 10 times. The Hspa1b (encodes heat shock protein 70) overexpressed 24 times in CCI rats. Gene ontology analysis revealed that hundreds of differentially expressed mRNAs involved in the biological processes, cellular component, and molecular function. In addition, these genes significantly enriched into 32 KEGG pathways, including the TNF, FoxO, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and calcium signaling pathways. Conclusion: Neuropathic pain induced comprehensive changes of transcription profile in the dorsal spinal cord. These differentially expressed transcripts in spinal cord could be potential targets in defeating neuropathic pain.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831411

RESUMO

Delay and Sum (DAS) is one of the most common beamforming algorithms for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) reconstruction. Based on calculating beamformed signal with simple delaying and summing, DAS can function in a quick response and is quite suitable for real-time PAI. However, high sidelobes and intense artifacts may appear when using DAS due to summing with unnecessary data. In this paper, a beamforming algorithm called Multiple Delay and Sum with Enveloping (multi-DASE) is introduced to solve this problem. Compared to DAS, the multi-DASE algorithm calculates not only the initial value of the beamformed signal but also the complete N-shaped photoacoustic signal for each pixel. Through computer simulation, a phantom experiment and experiment on human finger joint, the multi-DASE algorithm is compared with other beamforming methods in removing artifacts by evaluating the quality of the reconstructed images. Furthermore, by rearranging the calculation sequences, the multi-DASE algorithm can be computing in parallel using GPU acceleration to meet the needs of real-time clinical application.

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