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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130598, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293547

RESUMO

In this study, glutamic acid and zein were utilized to prepare colloidal nanoparticles as stabilizers for Pickering emulsions. The effect of the ratio of glutamic acid to zein on the stability, zeta potential, particle size, morphology, and structure of colloidal nanoparticles was studied. The results showed that zein and glutamic acid combined in the form of noncovalent bonds, which changed the characteristics of the zein. In addition, colloidal particles aggregation was induced by glutamic acid, which altered the distribution of droplets in the emulsion, and increased the adsorption of proteins on the surface of the oil droplets, as reflected by the analysis of the size, microstructure, rheological behaviours, and driving force of the Pickering emulsion. Hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic interactions were the main driving forces for the formation of colloidal particles, which was determined by driving force analysis and the change of the zeta potential.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Zeína , Emulsões , Ácido Glutâmico , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0050321, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612694

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to elucidate the role of IS1294 in plasmid reorganization and to analyze biological characteristics of cointegrates derived from different daughter plasmids. The genetic profiles of plasmids in Escherichia coli strain C21 and its transconjugants were characterized by conjugation, S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE), Southern hybridization, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis, and PCR. The traits of cointegrates were characterized by conjugation and stability assays. blaCTX-M-55-bearing IncI2 pC21-1 and nonresistant IncI1 pC21-3, as conjugative helper plasmids, were fused with nonconjugative rmtB-bearing IncN-X1 pC21-2, generating cointegrates pC21-F1 and pC21-F2. Similarly, pC21-1 and pC21-3 were fused with nonconjugative IncF33:A-:B- pHB37-2 from another E. coli strain to generate cointegrates pC21-F3 and pC21-F4 under experimental conditions. Four cointegrates were further conjugated into the E. coli strain J53 recipient at high conjugation frequencies, ranging from 2.8 × 10-3 to 3.2 × 10-2. The formation of pC21-F1 and pC21-F4 was the result of host- and IS1294-mediated reactions and occurred at high fusion frequencies of 9.9 × 10-4 and 2.1 × 10-4, respectively. Knockout of RecA resulted in a 100-fold decrease in the frequency of plasmid reorganization. The phenomenon of cointegrate pC21-F2 and its daughter plasmids coexisting in transconjugants was detected for the first time in plasmid stability experiments. IS26-orf-oqxAB was excised from cointegrate pC21-F2 through a circular intermediate at a very low frequency, which was experimentally observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of IS1294-mediated fusion between plasmids with different replicons. This study provides insight into the formation and evolution of cointegrate plasmids under different drug selection pressures, which can promote the dissemination of MDR plasmids. IMPORTANCE The increasing resistance to ß-lactams and aminoglycoside antibiotics, mainly due to extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and 16S rRNA methylase genes, is becoming a serious problem in Gram-negative bacteria. Plasmids, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and horizontal gene transfer, serve a key role in terms of antibiotic resistance emergence and transmission. IS26, present in many antibiotic-resistant plasmids from Gram-negative bacteria, plays a critical role in the spread, clustering, and reorganization of resistance determinant-encoding plasmids and in plasmid reorganization through replicative transposition mechanisms and homologous recombination. However, the role of IS1294, present in many MDR plasmids, in the formation of cointegrates remains unclear. Here, we investigated experimentally the intermolecular recombination of IS1294, which occurred with high frequencies and led to the formation of conjugative MDR cointegrates and facilitated the cotransfer of blaCTX-M-55 and rmtB, and we further uncovered the significance of IS1294 in the formation of cointegrates and the common features of IS1294-driven cointegration of plasmids.

3.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 210, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593768

RESUMO

Melatonin is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that regulates plant growth and responses to various abiotic stresses. The last step of melatonin synthesis in plants can be catalyzed by caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), a multifunctional enzyme reported to have N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) activity; however, the ASMT activity of COMT has not yet been characterized in nonmodel plants such as watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Here, a total of 16 putative O-methyltransferase (ClOMT) genes were identified in watermelon. Among them, ClOMT03 (Cla97C07G144540) was considered a potential COMT gene (renamed ClCOMT1) based on its high identities (60.00-74.93%) to known COMT genes involved in melatonin biosynthesis, expression in almost all tissues, and upregulation under abiotic stresses. The ClCOMT1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of ClCOMT1 significantly increased melatonin contents, while ClCOMT1 knockout using the CRISPR/Cas-9 system decreased melatonin contents in watermelon calli. These results suggest that ClCOMT1 plays an essential role in melatonin biosynthesis in watermelon. In addition, ClCOMT1 expression in watermelon was upregulated by cold, drought, and salt stress, accompanied by increases in melatonin contents. Overexpression of ClCOMT1 enhanced transgenic Arabidopsis tolerance against such abiotic stresses, indicating that ClCOMT1 is a positive regulator of plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 710479, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604215

RESUMO

Dysregulation of protein posttranslational modification (PTM) can lead to a variety of pathological processes, such as abnormal sperm development, malignant tumorigenesis, depression, and aging process. SIRT7 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase. Besides known deacetylation, SIRT7 may also have the capacity to remove other acylation. However, the roles of SIRT7-induced other deacylation in aging are still largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of SIRT7 was significantly increased in senescent fibroblasts and aged tissues. Knockdown or overexpression of SIRT7 can inhibit or promote fibroblast senescence. Knockdown of SIRT7 led to increased pan-lysine crotonylation (Kcr) levels in senescent fibroblasts. Using modern mass spectrometry (MS) technology, we identified 5,149 Kcr sites across 1,541 proteins in senescent fibroblasts, and providing the largest crotonylome dataset to date in senescent cells. Specifically, among the identified proteins, we found SIRT7 decrotonylated PHF5A, an alternative splicing (AS) factor, at K25. Decrotonylation of PHF5A K25 contributed to decreased CDK2 expression by retained intron (RI)-induced abnormal AS, thereby accelerating fibroblast senescence, and supporting a key role of PHF5A K25 decrotonylation in aging. Collectively, our data revealed the molecular mechanism of SIRT7-induced k25 decrotonylation of PHF5A regulating aging and provide new ideas and molecular targets for drug intervention in cellular aging and the treatment of aging-related diseases, and indicating that protein crotonylation has important implications in the regulation of aging progress.

5.
Food Chem ; 372: 131240, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619520

RESUMO

Non-thermal plasma has increasingly been used for surface modification of various materials as a novel green technology. In this study, we prepared potato starch nanocrystals (SNCs) assisted by dielectric barrier discharge plasma technology and investigated its multiscale structure, physicochemical properties and rheology. Plasma treatment did not change the morphology and crystalline pattern of SNCs but reduced the crystallinity. The amylose content, swelling power, gelatinization temperature, and apparent viscosity of SNCs decreased after the plasma process by depolymerizing the amylopectin branch chains and degrading SNCs molecules. Besides, plasma increased the rapidly digestible starch and resistant starch content. Changes in rheological properties of plasma treated SNCs suggested that the plasma process increased the flowing capacity. The effective structural and functional changes of plasma treated SNCs confirm that plasma technology has great potential for modification of SNCs.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2105080, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693564

RESUMO

Circularly polarized thermally activated delayed fluorescence (CP-TADF) and multiple-resonance thermally activated delayed fluorescence (MR-TADF), which exhibit novel circularly polarized luminescence and excellent color fidelity, respectively, have gained immense popularity. In this study, integrated CP-TADF and MR-TADF (CPMR-TADF) are prepared by strategic design and synthesis of asymmetrical peripherally locked enantiomers, which are separated and denoted as (P,P″,P″)-/(M,M″,M″)-BN4 and (P,P″,P″)-/(M,M″,M″)-BN5 and exhibit TADF and circularly polarized light (CPL) properties. As the entire molecular frame participates in the frontier molecular orbitals, the resulting helical chirality of (+)/(-)-BN4- and (+)/(-)-BN5-based solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) helps in achieving a narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 49/49 and 48/48 nm and a high maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 20.6%/19.0% and 22.0%/26.5%, respectively. Importantly, unambiguous circularly polarized electroluminescence signals with dissymmetry factors (gEL ) of +3.7 × 10-3 /-3.1 × 10-3 (BN4) and +1.9 × 10-3 /-1.6 × 10-3 (BN5) are obtained. The results indicate successful exploitation of CPMR-TADF-emitter-based OLEDs to exhibit three characteristics: high efficiency, color purity, and circularly polarized light.

7.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(6): 1386, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650634

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitation. The diagnosis of COPD is mainly based on pulmonary function examination. In recent years, it has been indicated that small airway dysfunction occurs in patients with all stages of COPD, even in high-risk smoking groups who have not yet met the diagnostic criteria for COPD. Early recognition of small airway dysfunction and early initiation of small airway targeted therapy have become foci of research. In the present review, the methods of evaluating small airway function were summarized and their merits and shortcomings were discussed. Furthermore, the potential of targeted treatment of small airways in patients with COPD was outlined.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5777, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599195

RESUMO

Electrorefining process has been widely used to separate and purify metals, but it is limited by deposition potential of the metal itself. Here we report in-situ anodic precipitation (IAP), a modified electrorefining process, to purify aluminium from contaminants that are more reactive. During IAP, the target metals that are more cathodic than aluminium are oxidized at the anode and forced to precipitate out in a low oxidation state. This strategy is fundamentally based on different solubilities of target metal chlorides in the NaAlCl4 molten salt rather than deposition potential of metals. The results suggest that IAP is able to efficiently and simply separate components of aluminum alloys with fast kinetics and high recovery yields, and it is also a valuable synthetic approach for metal chlorides in low oxidation states.

9.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1561, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyroptosis plays a dual role in the development of cancer and malignancy; as such, it may potentially be a new target for cancer treatment. However, the inflammatory response to pyroptosis may have adverse effects on the body. The roles of gasdermin E (GSDME), caspases, and related proteins associated with pyroptosis in cancer remain controversial. AIM: The goal of this study was to determine whether the expression levels of caspase-3 and GSDME affect the clinical stage, pathological grade, or survival prognosis of patients with lung cancer. METHODS: We examined the protein levels of GSDME, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 in lung tissue samples from 100 patients with lung cancer by using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found that GSDME, caspase-3, and caspase-8 were more highly expressed in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, we found that GSDME could serve as a prognostic factor as there was a positive correlation between its expression level and the postoperative survival rate of patients with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: GSDME may be an independent factor affecting the prognosis of patients with lung cancer. However, the role of GSDME and its related proteins in cancer requires further research.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127088, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482077

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has become a global public health problem. Recently, various environmental pollutants have been reported to induce the proliferation of antibiotic resistance. However, the impact of multiple pollutants (e.g., heavy metals and antibiotics), which more frequently occur in practical environments, is poorly understood. Herein, one widely distributed heavy metal (Ag+) and one frequently detected antibiotic (tetracycline) were chosen to investigate their coexisting effect on the proliferation of antibiotic resistance in the activated sludge system. Results show that the co-occurrence of Ag+ and tetracycline at environmentally relevant concentrations exhibited no distinct inhibition in reactor performances. However, they inhibited the respiratory activity by 42%, destroyed the membrane structure by 218%, and increased membrane permeability by 29% compared with the blank control bioreactor. Moreover, the relative abundances of target antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (e.g., tetA, blaTEM-1, and sulII) in effluent after exposure of coexisting Ag+ and tetracycline were increased by 92-1983% compared with those in control reactor, which were 1.1-4.3 folds higher than the sum of the sole ones. These were possibly attributed to the enrichments of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results would illumine the coexisting effect of heavy metals and antibiotics on the dissemination of ARGs in activated sludge system.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing use of colistin causes a serious breach in our last line of defence against MDR Gram-negative pathogens. Our previous study showed that CpxR overexpression increases the susceptibility of acrB and cpxR double-deleted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to colistin. OBJECTIVES: To identify the mechanism of CpxAR and efflux pumps that synergistically enhance the susceptibility of S. Typhimurium to colistin. METHODS: A series of cpxR- and tolC-deleted mutants and a cpxR-complemented strain from a multidrug-susceptible standard strain of S. Typhimurium (JS) were generated in our previous study. Herein, we investigated the susceptibility of these strains to colistin through the broth microdilution method, time-kill curves and survival assays. Growth curves were measured by OD600 in LB broth, tryptone-soy broth (TSB) and M9-glucose (0.2%) minimal media. Finally, molecular mechanisms underlying the mode of action were elucidated by transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: We found that in contrast to JS (0.8 mg/L), the MIC of colistin for JSΔtolC::kan showed a 16-fold decrease (0.05 mg/L). Notably, JSΔcpxRΔtolC and JSΔcpxRΔtolC/pcpxR were associated with a 256-fold decrease (0.0031 mg/L) compared with JS. Growth curves identified that JSΔcpxRΔtolC and JSΔcpxRΔtolC/pcpxR displayed a markedly lower growth rate and poorer adaptability. In addition, time-kill curves and survival assays showed that JSΔcpxRΔtolC and JSΔcpxRΔtolC/pcpxR were more susceptible to colistin. Lastly, double deletion of cpxR and tolC enhanced oxidative damage through promoting oxidative phosphorylation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) respiration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that double deletion of cpxR and tolC significantly increases the susceptibility of S. Typhimurium to colistin.

12.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(7): e12065, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the first reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, there have been 198 million confirmed cases worldwide as of August 2021. The scientific community has joined efforts to gain knowledge of the newly emerged virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the immunopathological mechanisms leading to COVID-19, and its significance for patients with allergies and asthma. METHODS: Based on the current literature, recent advances and developments in COVID-19 in the context of allergic diseases were reviewed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we discuss the prevalence of COVID-19 in subjects with asthma, attacks of hereditary angioedema, and other allergic diseases during COVID-19. Underlying mechanisms suggest a protective role of allergy in COVID-19, involving eosinophilia, SARS-CoV-2 receptors expression, interferon responses, and other immunological events, but further studies are needed to fully understand those associations. There has been significant progress in disease evaluation and management of COVID-19, and allergy care should continue during the COVID-19 pandemic. The European Academy of Allergy & Clinical Immunology (EAACI) launched a series of statements and position papers providing recommendations on the organization of the allergy clinic, handling of allergen immunotherapy, asthma, drug hypersensitivity, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic diseases. Treatment of allergies using biologics during the COVID-19 pandemic has also been discussed. Allergic reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines, including severe anaphylaxis, have been reported. Vaccination is a prophylactic strategy that can lead to a significant reduction in the mortality and morbidity associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and in this review, we discuss the proposed culprit components causing rare adverse reactions and recommendations to mitigate the risk of anaphylactic events during the administration of the vaccines.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 931, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a machine learning-based CT radiomics model is critical for the accurate diagnosis of the rapid spreading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective study, a total of 326 chest CT exams from 134 patients (63 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 71 non-COVID-19 patients) were collected from January 20 to February 8, 2020. A semi-automatic segmentation procedure was used to delineate the volume of interest (VOI), and radiomic features were extracted. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) model was built on the combination of 4 groups of features, including radiomic features, traditional radiological features, quantifying features, and clinical features. By repeating cross-validation procedure, the performance on the time-independent testing cohort was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: For the SVM model built on the combination of 4 groups of features (integrated model), the per-exam AUC was 0.925 (95% CI 0.856 to 0.994) for differentiating COVID-19 on the testing cohort, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.816 (95% CI 0.651 to 0.917) and 0.923 (95% CI 0.621 to 0.996), respectively. As for the SVM models built on radiomic features, radiological features, quantifying features, and clinical features, individually, the AUC on the testing cohort reached 0.765, 0.818, 0.607, and 0.739, respectively, significantly lower than the integrated model, except for the radiomic model. CONCLUSION: The machine learning-based CT radiomics models may accurately classify COVID-19, helping clinicians and radiologists to identify COVID-19 positive cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Curr Protoc ; 1(9): e254, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554657

RESUMO

QIIME is a widely used, open-source microbiome analysis software package that converts raw sequence data into interpretable visualizations and statistical results. QIIME2 has recently succeeded QIIME1, becoming the most updated platform. The protocols in this article describe our effort in automating core functions of QIIME2, using datasets available at docs.qiime2.org. While these specific examples are microbial 16S rRNA gene sequences, our automation can be easily applied to other types of QIIME2 analysis. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Preparing files and folders Support Protocol 1: Preparing your data for QAP Support Protocol 2: Understanding automated options Basic Protocol 2: Importing into QIIME Basic Protocol 3: DADA2: Filtering, trimming, merging pairs Basic Protocol 4: Performing core metrics Basic Protocol 5: Sample filtering by metadata Basic Protocol 6: Alpha diversity metrics Basic Protocol 7: Cross-sectional beta diversity Basic Protocol 8: Longitudinal feature volatility Basic Protocol 9: Sample classification.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenômica/métodos , Automação , Estudos Transversais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Nephron ; : 1-15, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glomerular endothelial cell damage plays an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the role of XCL1 in DN-mediated glomerular endothelial cell apoptosis and whether the function was related to the activation of the p53/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. METHODS: Candidate biomarkers were identified by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value was calculated and used to evaluate the discriminating ability. Cell viability, apoptosis, and interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α expression at messenger RNA and protein levels were detected by using the Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, ELISA, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assays. In vivo studies were conducted in the DN mice. RESULTS: The LASSO regression model displayed good discriminating performance, with a C-index of 0.803 and good calibration, and high XCL1 expression was identified as the predicting factor for DN in diabetes mellitus patients. XCL1 expression was upregulated in glomeruli of db/db mice, which was closely related to the expression of its receptor (XCR1). XCL1 overexpression played an important role in the apoptosis and inflammatory response of high glucose (HG)-treated human renal glomerular endothelial cells. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 and the levels of inflammatory cytokines were upregulated upon XCL1 overexpression. p53 silencing with its inhibitor blocked the apoptotic response and inflammatory response in XCL1-overexpressed cells exposed to HG. Besides, the XCL1 overexpression-induced downregulation of NF-κB was reversed by pifithrin-α pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in this work provided the mechanistic insights into the effects of XCL1 on the modulation of DN development, illustrating that XCL1 might serve as an essential prognostic indicator and therapeutic target for DN progression.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564951

RESUMO

Over the recent decades,protein oxidation in muscle foods has gained increasing research interests as it is known that protein oxidation can affect eating quality and nutritional value of meat and aquatic products. Protein oxidation occurs during freezing/thawing and frozen storage of muscle foods, leading to irreversible physicochemical changes and impaired quality traits. Controlling oxidative damage to muscle foods during such technological processes requires a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of freezing-induced protein oxidation. This review focus on key physicochemical factors in freezing/thawing and frozen storage of muscle foods, such as formation of ice crystals, freeze concentrating and macromolecular crowding effect, instability of proteins at the ice-water interface, freezer burn, lipid oxidation, and so on. Possible relationships between these physicochemical factors and protein oxidation are thoroughly discussed. In addition, the occurrence of protein oxidation, the impact on eating quality and nutrition, and controlling methods are also briefly reviewed. This review will shed light on the complicated mechanism of protein oxidation in frozen muscle foods.

17.
Cell Reprogram ; 23(5): 270-276, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491831

RESUMO

The osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is strongly related with the inflammatory microenvironment. The ability of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs is vital for the bone tissue engineering. Interleukin (IL)-10, a well-known anti-inflammatory factor, plays a key role in tissue repair. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), with the advantage of convenience of extraction, are suitable for the bone tissue engineering. Therefore, it is meaning to explore the effects of IL-10 on the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. The proliferation activity of DPSCs were evaluated by MTS assay (CellTiter 96® Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay [Promega]) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs were determined by Alizarin Red staining, RT-PCR, and alkaline phosphatase activity test. The glucose metabolism was detected by Mito Stress test and glycolysis assay. IL-10 (10 or 20 nM) could enhance the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and promoted the metabolic switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), whereas IL-10 (5 and 50 nM) has no obvious effects on the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. The OXPHOS inhibitor restrained the promotion of osteogenic differentiation induced by IL-10. These findings show that IL-10 can promote the osteogenesis of DPSCs through the activation of OXPHOS, which provides a potential way for enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs in bone tissue engineering.

18.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153726, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isomeric ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) compounds have recently garnered great attention due to their biological effects. Previously, it had been shown that UA and OA can exert important pharmacological action via the protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, and that they can induce the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) in HepG2 cells. This study aims to investigate the role of PKC/NF-κB signaling in regulating the expression of UGT1A1 and examine how UA and OA induce UGT1A1 based on this signaling pathway. METHODS: HepG2 cells, hp65-overexpressed HepG2 cell and lentivirus-hp65-shRNA silenced HepG2 cells were stimulated with PKC/NF-κB specific agonists and inhibitors for 24 h in the presence or absence of UA and OA. The expression of UGT1A1, PKC, and NF-κB were determined by qRT-PCR, western blot, and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. RESULTS: PKC/NF-κB activation downregulates UGT1A1 expression. This effect is countered by UA and OA treatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the agonists of PKC and NF-κB signaling, respectively, significantly inhibit hp65-mediated UGT1A1 luciferase activity. UA, OA, and the PKC/NF-κB inhibitors suppress this effect. PMA and LPS do not affect UGT1A1 activity in p65-silenced HepG2 cells; however, UA and OA mildly influence UGT1A1 expression in these cells. CONCLUSION: The activation of PKC/NF-κB signaling can significantly downregulate UGT1A1 expression. By inhibiting the PKC/NF-κB signaling pathway, UA and OA promote UGT1A1 expression in HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Oleanólico , Glucuronosiltransferase , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos , Regulação para Cima
19.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(38): 10682-10691, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524819

RESUMO

Hydrolases are a critical component for modern chemical, pharmaceutical, and environmental sciences. Identifying mutations that enhance catalytic efficiency presents a roadblock to design and to discover new hydrolases for broad academic and industrial uses. Here, we report the statistical profiling for rate-perturbing mutant hydrolases with a single amino acid substitution. We constructed an integrated structure-kinetics database for hydrolases, IntEnzyDB, which contains 3907 kcats, 4175 KMs, and 2715 Protein Data Bank IDs. IntEnzyDB adopts a relational architecture with a flattened data structure, enabling facile and efficient access to clean and tabulated data for machine learning uses. We conducted statistical analyses on how single amino acids mutations influence the turnover number (i.e., kcat) and efficiency (i.e., kcat/KM), with a particular emphasis on profiling the features for rate-enhancing mutations. The results show that mutation to bulky nonpolar residues with a hydrocarbon chain involves a higher likelihood for rate acceleration than to other types of residues. Linear regression models reveal geometric descriptors of substrate and mutation residues that mediate rate-perturbing outcomes for hydrolases with bulky nonpolar mutations. On the basis of the analyses of the structure-kinetics relationship, we observe that the propensity for rate enhancement is independent of protein sizes. In addition, we observe that distal mutations (i.e., >10 Å from the active site) in hydrolases are significantly more prone to induce efficiency neutrality and avoid efficiency deletion but involve similar propensity for rate enhancement. The studies reveal the statistical features for identifying rate-enhancing mutations in hydrolases, which will potentially guide hydrolase discovery in biocatalysis.

20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0155221, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586903

RESUMO

Silicate mineral weathering (dissolution) plays important roles in soil formation and global biogeochemical cycling. In this study, a combination of genomics, transcriptomics, and genetics was used to identify the molecular basis of mineral weathering activity and acid tolerance in Pseudomonas azotoformans F77. Biotite was chosen as a silicate mineral to investigate mineral weathering. The genome of strain F77 was sequenced, and the genes significantly upregulated when grown in the presence of biotite included mineral weathering-related genes associated with gluconic acid metabolism, flagellar assembly, and pilus biosynthesis and acid tolerance-related genes associated with neutralizing component production, reducing power, and proton efflux. Then, the biotite-weathering behaviors of strain F77 and its mutants that were created by deleting the tkt, tal, gntP, potF, nuoF, and gdtO genes, which are involved in gluconic acid metabolism and acid tolerance, respectively, were determined. The Fe and Al concentrations in the strain F77-inoculated medium increased 2.2- to 13.7-fold compared to the controls. The cell numbers of strain F77 increased over time, while the pH values in the medium ranged from 3.75 to 3.90 between 20 and 36 h of incubation. The release of Al and Fe was significantly reduced in the mutants F77Δtal, F77ΔgntP, F77ΔpotF, and F77ΔnuoF. Bacterial growth was significantly reduced in the presence of biotite in the mutants F77ΔpotF and F77ΔnuoF. Our results demonstrated the acid tolerance of strain F77 and suggested that multiple genes and metabolic pathways in strain F77 are involved in biotite weathering and acid tolerance during the mineral weathering process. IMPORTANCE Acid production and tolerance play important roles in effective and persistent mineral weathering in bacteria, although the molecular mechanisms governing acid production and acid tolerance in bacteria have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the molecular mechanisms underlying biotite (as a silicate mineral) weathering (dissolution) and acid tolerance of P. azotoformans F77 were characterized using genomics, transcriptomics, and genetics analyses. Our results showed that the genes and metabolic pathways for gluconic acid metabolism, flagellar assembly, and pilus biosynthesis may play important roles in mineral weathering by strain F77. Notably, the genes associated with neutralizing component production, reducing power, and proton efflux may be related to acid tolerance in strain F77. The expression of these acid production- and acid tolerance-related genes was observed to be increased by biotite in strain F77. Our findings may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing mineral weathering and, especially, acid tolerance in mineral-weathering bacteria.

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