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1.
Opt Express ; 31(22): 36000-36011, 2023 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38017759

RESUMO

An optofluidic phase shifter can be used to generate virtually arbitrary intensity patterns, but only if the phase shift generated by the controllably deformed fluidic surface can be appropriately defined. To enable this functionality, we present two phase retrieval algorithms based on neural networks and least-squares optimization which are used to determine the necessary phase profile to generate a desired target intensity pattern with high accuracy. We demonstrate the utility of the algorithms by showing experimentally the ability of an optofluidic phase shifter to generate arbitrary complex intensity distributions.

2.
J Biomed Opt ; 28(4): 045003, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37077500

RESUMO

Significance: For the development and routine characterization of optical devices used in medicine, tissue-equivalent phantoms mimicking a broad spectrum of human skin properties are indispensable. Aim: Our work aims to develop a tissue-equivalent phantom suitable for photoplethysmography applications. The phantom includes the optical and mechanical properties of the three uppermost human skin layers (dermis, epidermis, and hypodermis, each containing different types of blood vessels) plus the ability to mimic pulsation. Approach: While the mechanical properties of the polydimethylsiloxane base material are adjusted by different mixing ratios of a base and curing agent, the optical properties are tuned by adding titanium dioxide particles, India ink, and synthetic melanin in different concentrations. The layered structure of the phantom is realized using a doctor blade technique, and blood vessels are fabricated using molding wires of different diameters. The tissue-mimicking phantom is then integrated into an artificial circulatory system employing piezo-actuated double diaphragm pumps for testing. Results: The optical and mechanical properties of human skin were successfully replicated. The diameter of the artificial blood vessels is linearly dependent on pump actuation, and the time-dependent expansion profile of real pulse forms were mimicked. Conclusions: A tissue equivalent phantom suitable for the ex-vivo testing of opto-medical devices was demonstrated.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Ópticos , Pele , Humanos , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotopletismografia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Epiderme
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 57-63, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spectroscopic techniques are widely used for the non-destructive maturation and quality monitoring of different fruits. To develop new sensor devices for this purpose, knowing the optical properties of the agricultural sample is crucial for enabling the prediction of the interaction of the incident light with the fruit. RESULTS: In the present study, the optical properties of three different seedless grape varieties (ARRA15, Tawny and Melody/Blagratwo) were determined from 400 to 1000 nm using a UV-visible/near-infrared spectrometer with an integrating sphere and subsequent calculation of the absorption and scattering coefficients and the anisotropy factor using the inverse adding doubling method. The results indicate that the optical properties of different grape varieties have significant differences, especially in the visible wavelength region, whereas these are less distinct in the near-infrared range. Independent of grape variety, the grape berry skin has a higher scattering coefficient and scattering occurs predominantly in the forward direction. Based on the optical properties of the grape berries, a three-dimensional grape berry model is generated within OpticStudio (Zemax, LLC) for the different varieties that can be used in optical illumination simulations. The bulk scattering inside the fruit is modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein distribution. A comparison of the simulated values for the total transmission and the specular reflection determined experimentally shows that realistic optical grape models can be created within OpticStudio. CONCLUSION: Overall, the procedure for creating optical grape models presented here will be helpful for the development of optical applications used in pre- and post-harvest food quality monitoring. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Vitis , Frutas/química , Simulação por Computador , Análise Espectral , Qualidade dos Alimentos
4.
Opt Express ; 30(20): 35871-35881, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36258528

RESUMO

We analyze the feasibility of using refractive free-form phase plates at the aperture stop of microscope objectives as an alternative to active alignment to compensate for assembly tolerances. The method involves the determination of misalignment-induced aberrations at the exit pupil, and transferring them to the aperture stop while taking pupil aberrations into consideration. We demonstrate that despite being able to correct only for field-independent aberrations, this method can restore near-diffraction-limited imaging performance of passively aligned systems with practical tolerances, given that the as-designed system is highly corrected. We confirm the results via numerical simulations for two different commercial objective designs.

5.
Opt Express ; 30(16): 28335-28344, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299031

RESUMO

Tunable light sources are a key enabling technology for many applications such as ranging, spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, digital imaging and interferometry. For miniaturized laser devices, whispering gallery resonator lasers are a well-suited platform, offering low thresholds and small linewidths, however, many realizations suffer from the lack of reliable tuning. Rare-earth ion-doped lithium niobate offers a way to solve this issue. Here we present a single-frequency laser based on a neodymium-doped lithium niobate whispering gallery mode resonator that is tuned via the linear electro-optic effect. Using a special geometry, we suppress higher-order transverse modes and hence ensure single-mode operation. With an applied voltage of just 68 V, we achieve a tuning range of 3.5 GHz. The lasing frequency can also be modulated with a triangular control signal. The freely running system provides a frequency and power stability of better than Δ ν=20MHz and 6 %, respectively, for a 30-minute period. This concept is suitable for full integration with existing photonic platforms based on lithium niobate.

6.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 77: 103597, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638061

RESUMO

Background: The gold standard for detecting bladder cancer is white light cystoscopy (WLC) and resection of suspicious lesions. In this study, we evaluate two miniaturized Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) probes for endoscopic use, regarding their applicability in diagnosing urothelial cancer. Materials and methods: In total, 33 patients who underwent a radical cystectomy were included. Preoperative oncological staging and determining the indication for the surgical intervention were done following the latest European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. Samples were taken from bladder tissue after bladder removal and prepared for OCT measurement. Additionally, porcine bladder samples were used as reference tissue. We took measurements using two miniaturized probes: a bimodal probe and a single modality OCT probe. A non-miniaturized standard OCT scanner was used as a reference. Results: Histopathological examination revealed urothelial cancer in all but three patients. Measurements on porcine tissue revealed a clear distinction between the urothelial layers for all probes. Furthermore, we detected improved image quality thanks to the stretching of the tissue. We took 271 measurements in human samples. While the urothelial layers were well delineated in healthy tissue, all the probes revealed a loss of these structures in cancerous regions. While the single-modality probe delivered an image quality equaling the reference images, it was possible to detect cancerous areas with the bimodal probe. Conclusion: We demonstrate that endoscopic probes for OCT imaging are technologically feasible and deliver acceptable image quality. A distinction between healthy and abnormal tissue is possible. We propose combining different endoscopic imaging modalities as a promising approach for urothelial cancer diagnostics.

7.
Appl Opt ; 60(18): 5302-5311, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263767

RESUMO

Fluidic lenses based on electrowetting actuation are attractive for their wide focal tuning range, yet are limited by optical aberrations, either intrinsic to the lenses themselves or due to the optical imaging systems in which they are employed. However, the ability to control the meniscus shape that forms the lens refractive surface with a high degree of spatial accuracy will allow correction of and compensation for a wide range of these aberrations. We demonstrate here for what we believe, to the best of our knowledge, is the first time a tunable optofluidic lens controlled by 32 azimuthally placed electrodes for which most aberrations up to the fourth radial Zernike order may be corrected. Using both wavefront sensing and sensorless wavefront estimation techniques, it is shown that focal length tunability with a significant reduction in imaging aberrations and the ability to compensate for externally induced aberrations may be achieved using a single component.

8.
Opt Express ; 29(10): 15733-15746, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985269

RESUMO

One of the limitations in the application of electrowetting-based tunable fluidic lenses is their slow response time. We consider here two approaches for enhancing the response speed of tunable fluidic lenses: optimization of the properties of the fluids employed and modification of the time-dependent actuation voltages. Using a tubular optofluidic configuration, it is shown through simulations how one may take advantage of the interplay between liquid viscosities and surface tension to reduce the actuation time. In addition, by careful designing the actuation pulses, the response speed of both overdamped and underdamped systems may be increased by over an order of magnitude, leading to response times of several ten milliseconds. These performance improvements may significantly enhance the applicability of tunable optofluidic-based components and systems.

9.
Science ; 372(6538): 182-186, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833122

RESUMO

Glass is one of the most relevant high-performance materials that has the benefit of a favorable environmental footprint compared with that of other commodity materials. Despite the advantageous properties of glasses, polymers are often favored because they can be processed using scalable industrial replication techniques like injection molding (IM). Glasses are generally processed through melting, which is both energy intensive and technologically challenging. We present a process for glassworks using high-throughput IM of an amorphous silicon dioxide nanocomposite that combines established process technologies and low-energy sintering. We produce highly transparent glass using classical IM and sintering, allowing for a potentially substantial reduction in energy consumption. Our strategy merges polymer and glass processing, with substantial implications for glass utilization.

10.
Appl Opt ; 59(26): 7968-7974, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976472

RESUMO

Recently developed alignment techniques for liquid crystals enable the definition of arbitrary alignment patterns. We present a method to determine these two-dimensional spatial alignment distributions as well as the retardation of thin nematic liquid crystal films. The method is based on quantifying the influence of the birefringence of such a film on light with known input polarization by measuring the Stokes parameters of light. We show that we are able to distinguish arbitrary alignment patterns unambiguously. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to evaluate the homogeneity of the alignment as well as the thickness or birefringence of the film.

11.
Appl Opt ; 59(12): 3784-3791, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400506

RESUMO

Sample-induced optical aberrations in microscopy are, in general, field dependent, limiting their correction via pupil adaptive optics (AO) to the center of the available field-of-view (FoV). This is a major hindrance, particularly for deep tissue imaging, where AO has a significant impact. We present a new wide-field AO microscopy scheme, in which the deformable element is located at the pupil plane of the objective. To maintain high-quality correction across its entirety, the FoV is partitioned into small segments, and a separate aberration estimation is performed for each via a modal-decomposition-based indirect wavefront sensing algorithm. A final full-field image is synthesized by stitching of the partitions corrected consecutively and independently via their respective measured aberrations. The performance and limitations of the method are experimentally explored on synthetic samples imaged via a custom-developed AO fluorescence microscope featuring an optofluidic refractive wavefront modulator.

12.
Opt Express ; 28(7): 9944-9956, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225593

RESUMO

Adaptive optics (AO) represents a powerful range of image correction technologies with proven benefits for many life-science microscopy methods. However, the complexity of adding a reflective wavefront modulator and in some cases a wavefront sensor into an already complicated microscope has made AO prohibitive for its widespread adaptation in microscopy systems. We present here the design and performance of a compact fluorescence microscope using a fully refractive optofluidic wavefront modulator, yielding imaging performance on par with that of conventional deformable mirrors, both in correction fidelity and articulation. We combine this device with a modal sensorless wavefront estimation algorithm that uses spatial frequency content of acquired images as a quality metric and thereby demonstrate a completely in-line adaptive optics microscope that can perform aberration correction up to 4th radial order of Zernike modes. This entirely new concept for adaptive optics microscopy may prove to extend the performance limits and widespread applicability of AO in life-science imaging.

13.
Opt Lett ; 45(7): 1730-1733, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235985

RESUMO

We demonstrate a pyrometric contact-less temperature sensor using a flexible fused silica fiber of 360 µm diameter able to measure down to 30°C with a precision better than 1°C at 10 Hz. Silica fibers, as opposed to dedicated mid-IR fibers, are non-degrading, low-cost, and bio-compatible. The large bandwidth (up to several kilohertz) and the broad temperature range (up to 235°C) of the sensor can be instrumental for time-resolved analysis and control of laser ablation and electrothermal surgery procedures.

14.
Opt Express ; 28(3): 2939-2947, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121971

RESUMO

Adiabatic frequency conversion has some key advantages over nonlinear frequency conversion. No threshold and no phase-matching conditions need to be fulfilled. Moreover, it exhibits a conversion efficiency of 100 % down to the single-photon level. Adiabatic frequency conversion schemes in microresonators demonstrated so far suffer either from low quality factors of the employed resonators resulting in short photon lifetimes or small frequency shifts. Here, we present an adiabatic frequency conversion (AFC) scheme by employing the Pockels effect. We use a non-centrosymmetric ultrahigh-Q microresonator made out of lithium niobate. Frequency shifts of more than 5 GHz are achieved by applying just 20 V to a 70-µm-thick resonator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that with the same setup positive and negative frequency chirps can be generated. With this method, by controlling the voltage applied to the crystal, almost arbitrary frequency shifts can be realized. The general advances in on-chip fabrication of lithium-niobate-based devices make it feasible to transfer the current apparatus onto a chip suitable for mass production.

15.
J Biophotonics ; 13(3): e201960125, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816163

RESUMO

Electrosurgery with argon plasma coagulation is a widespread technique used in various medical fields for applications which range from hemostasis to devitalization processes. Developing tools which provide feedback concerning tissue condition during these surgeries is fundamental for improving the safety and success of this treatment. We present here a method based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to monitor gastric mucosal devitalization treatments. The analysis of the diffusely reflected spectra of the tissue allows us to differentiate between ablation states by using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a classification algorithm. An ex vivo pilot study on several swine stomachs showed promising results, with 97.8% of correctly classified ablation states on a new unseen stomach, encouraging further tests with human tissue.


Assuntos
Coagulação com Plasma de Argônio , Mucosa Gástrica , Mucosa Gástrica/cirurgia , Projetos Piloto , Análise Espectral , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Estômago/cirurgia
16.
Analyst ; 145(4): 1445-1456, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867582

RESUMO

Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer affects millions of people worldwide, resulting in significant discomfort to the patient and potential death. Today, cystoscopy is the gold standard for bladder cancer assessment, using white light endoscopy to detect tumor suspected lesion areas, followed by resection of these areas and subsequent histopathological evaluation. Not only does the pathological examination take days, but due to the invasive nature, the performed biopsy can result in significant harm to the patient. Nowadays, optical modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), have proven to detect cancer in real time and can provide more detailed clinical information of a lesion, e.g. its penetration depth (stage) and the differentiation of the cells (grade). In this paper, we present an ex vivo study performed with a combined piezoelectric tube-based OCT-probe and fiber optic RS-probe imaging system that allows large field-of-view imaging of bladder biopsies, using both modalities and co-registered visualization, detection and grading of cancerous bladder lesions. In the present study, 119 examined biopsies were characterized, showing that fiber-optic based OCT provides a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 69% for the detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, while RS, on the other hand, provides a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 61% for the grading of low- and high-grade tissues. Moreover, the study shows that a piezoelectric tube-based OCT probe can have significant endurance, suitable for future long-lasting in vivo applications. These results also indicate that combined OCT and RS fiber probe-based characterization offers an exciting possibility for label-free and morpho-chemical optical biopsies for bladder cancer diagnostics.


Assuntos
Fibras Ópticas , Análise Espectral Raman , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica
17.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(3): 1-5, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562707

RESUMO

We present coregistered images of tissue vasculature that allow a direct comparison between the performance of narrow-band imaging (NBI) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Images were generated with a bimodal endomicroscope having a size of 15 × 2.4 × 3.3 3 ( l , w , h ) that combines two imaging channels. The white light imaging channel was used to perform NBI, the current gold standard for endoscopic visualization of vessels. The second channel allowed the simultaneous acquisition of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCTA images, enabling a three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of morphological as well as functional tissue information. In order to obtain 3-D OCT images scanning of the light-transmitting fiber was implemented by a small piezoelectric tube. A field of view of ∼1.1 mm was achieved for both modalities. Under the assumption that OCTA can address current limitations of NBI, their performance was studied and compared during in vivo experiments. The preliminary results show the potential of OCT regarding an improved visualization and localization of vessel beds, which can be beneficial for diagnosis of pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Endoscópios , Mucosa Bucal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Capilares , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Mucosa Bucal/irrigação sanguínea
18.
Appl Opt ; 58(4): 1064-1072, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874155

RESUMO

We present a novel open-loop control method for an electrostatically actuated optofluidic refractive phase modulator, and demonstrate its performance for high-order aberration correction. Contrary to conventional electrostatic deformable mirrors, an optofluidic modulator is capable of bidirectional (push-pull) actuation through hydro-mechanical coupling. Control methods based on matrix pseudo-inversion, the common approach used for deformable mirrors, thus perform sub-optimally for such a device. Instead, we formulate the task of finding driving voltages for a given desired wavefront shape as an optimization problem with inequality constraints that can be solved using an interior-point method in real time. We show that this optimization problem is a convex one and that its solution represents a global minimum in residual wavefront error. We use the new method to control both the refractive phase modulator and a conventional electrostatic deformable mirror, and experimentally demonstrate improved correction fidelity for both.

19.
J Biophotonics ; 12(4): e201800382, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652423

RESUMO

A forward imaging endoscope for optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) featuring a piezoelectric fiber scanner is presented. Imaging is performed with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system incorporating an akinetic light source with a center wavelength of 1300 nm, bandwidth of 90 nm and A-line rate of 173 kHz. The endoscope operates in contact mode to avoid motion artifacts, in particular, beneficial for OCTA measurements, and achieves a transversal resolution of 12 µm in air at a rigid probe size of 4 mm in diameter and 11.3 mm in length. A spiral scan pattern is generated at a scanning frequency of 360 Hz to sample a maximum field of view of 1.3 mm. OCT images of a human finger as well as visualization of microvasculature of the human palm are presented both in two and three dimensions. The combination of morphological tissue contrast with qualitative dynamic blood flow information within this endoscopic imaging approach potentially enables improved early diagnostic capabilities of internal organs for diseases such as bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Angiografia/instrumentação , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Artefatos , Dedos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Movimento
20.
Appl Opt ; 57(22): 6338-6344, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117864

RESUMO

We introduce a transmissive refractive adaptive optics system featuring a deformable transparent optofluidic wavefront modulator and a sensorless wavefront error estimation algorithm. The wavefront modulator consists of a cavity filled with an optical liquid which is sealed by a deformable elastic polymer membrane. Deformation of the membrane is achieved through electrostatic actuation using 25 transparent indium tin oxide electrodes buried in the cavity. Modulation of the two-dimensional phase distribution generated by the system is performed using open loop control both with and without active wavefront sensing. For the latter, a progressive modal decomposition algorithm is used to estimate and correct distortion in the point-spread function (PSF) of the wavefront arising due to the optical system and other sources of wavefront distortion. Using this control method, we experimentally demonstrate high-fidelity recreation of Zernike modes up to the fourth order, and blind (sensorless) PSF correction in a wide-field microscope.

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