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1.
Opt Lett ; 49(9): 2273-2276, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691697

RESUMO

As a complex anisotropic medium, variation in birefringence within biological tissues is closely associated with numerous physiological behaviors and phenomena. In this Letter, we propose a polarization feature fusion method and corresponding polarimetric parameters, which exhibit excellent performance of capturing the birefringence dynamic variation process in complex anisotropic media. By employing the feature fusion method, we combine and transform polarization basis parameters (PBPs) to derive fused polarization feature parameters (FPPs) with explicit expressions. Subsequently, we conduct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FPPs from two variation dimensions of birefringence direction θ and modulus Δn. Leveraging mathematical modeling and linear transformations, we investigate and abstract their response patterns concerning θ and Δn. Finally, the experiments confirm that the FPPs show superior adaptability and interpretability in characterizing the birefringence dynamic process of turbid media. The findings presented in this study provide new, to the best of our knowledge, methodological insights of information extraction for computational polarimetry in biomedical research.

2.
Zool Res ; 45(3): 617-632, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766745

RESUMO

The Chinese tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has emerged as a promising model for investigating adrenal steroid synthesis, but it is unclear whether the same cells produce steroid hormones and whether their production is regulated in the same way as in humans. Here, we comprehensively mapped the cell types and pathways of steroid metabolism in the adrenal gland of Chinese tree shrews using single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptome analysis, mass spectrometry, and immunohistochemistry. We compared the transcriptomes of various adrenal cell types across tree shrews, humans, macaques, and mice. Results showed that tree shrew adrenal glands expressed many of the same key enzymes for steroid synthesis as humans, including CYP11B2, CYP11B1, CYB5A, and CHGA. Biochemical analysis confirmed the production of aldosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone but not dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in the tree shrew adrenal glands. Furthermore, genes in adrenal cell types in tree shrews were correlated with genetic risk factors for polycystic ovary syndrome, primary aldosteronism, hypertension, and related disorders in humans based on genome-wide association studies. Overall, this study suggests that the adrenal glands of Chinese tree shrews may consist of closely related cell populations with functional similarity to those of the human adrenal gland. Our comprehensive results (publicly available at http://gxmujyzmolab.cn:16245/scAGMap/) should facilitate the advancement of this animal model for the investigation of adrenal gland disorders.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais , Esteroides , Animais , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Humanos , Esteroides/biossíntese , Esteroides/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Camundongos , Tupaiidae , Feminino , Multiômica
3.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28582, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586416

RESUMO

The combination of Chaidangbo (CDB) is an antidepressant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription simplified by Xiaoyaosan (a classic antidepressant TCM prescription) through dismantling research, which has the effect of dispersing stagnated liver qi and nourishing blood in TCM theory. Although the antidepressant effect of CBD has been confirmed in animal studies, the material basis and possible molecular mechanism for antidepressant activity in CBD have not been clearly elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of CDB antidepressant fraction (petroleum ether fraction of CDB, PEFC) on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice using network pharmacology and metabolomics. First, a UPLC-QE/MS was employed to identify the components of PEFC. To extract active ingredients, SwissADME screening was used to the real PEFC components that were found. Potential PEFC antidepressant targets were predicted based on a network pharmacology approach, and a pathway enrichment analysis was performed for the predicted targets. Afterward, a CUMS mouse depression model was established and LC-MS-based untargeted hippocampal metabolomics was performed to identify differential metabolites, and related metabolic pathways. Finally, the protein expressions in mouse hippocampi were determined by Western blot to validate the network pharmacology and metabolomics deduction. A total of 16 active compounds were screened in SwissADME that acted on 73 core targets of depression, including STAT3, MAPKs, and NR3C1; KEGG enrichment analysis showed that PEFC modulated signaling pathways such as PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, endocrine resistance, and MAPK to exert antidepressant effects. PEFC significantly reversed abnormalities of hippocampus metabolites in CUMS mice, mainly affecting the synthesis and metabolism of glycine, serine, and threonine, impacting catecholamine transfer and cholinergic synapses and regulating the activity of the mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, Western blot analysis confirmed that PEFC significantly influenced the main protein levels of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in the hippocampus of mice subjected to CUMS. This study integrated metabolomics, network pharmacology and biological verification to explore the potential mechanism of PEFC in treating depression, which is related to the regulation of amino acid metabolism dysfunction and the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in the hippocampus. The comprehensive strategy also provided a reasonable way for unveiling the pharmacodynamic mechanisms of multi-components, multi-targets, and multi-pathways in TCM with antidepressant effect.

4.
Heliyon ; 10(7): e28597, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596051

RESUMO

Background: Pathophysiology plays a significant role in the scientific study of ischemic stroke, and has attracted increasing interest from researchers in the field. However, a comprehensive bibliometric analysis is lacking in this field. The purpose of this study is to identify the current research status and hotspots of ischemic stroke pathophysiology from a bibliometric perspective. Methods: The Web of Science Core Collection database was searched for articles published from 1990 to 2022. CiteSpace, VOSviewer, and R package "bibliometrix" software were used to analyze countries/regions, institutions, journals, authors, papers, and keywords to predict the latest trends in ischemic stroke pathophysiology research. Results: This analysis collected 7578 records of ischemic stroke pathophysiology. China and America emerged as the leading countries in this field, with Harvard University being the most active institution. Among journals and authors in this field, journal Stroke and author Gregory YH Lip published the most papers, while Nature Medicine was the journal with the highest citation per article. Keywords and co-citation clusters were closely related to "central nervous system", "mechanisms", "biochemistry & molecular biology" and "radiology, nuclear medicine & medical imaging", while other related fields, such as peripheral organs damage induced by the central nervous system and rehabilitation after ischemic stroke, require further research efforts. Conclusion: This is the first bibliometric study that comprehensively mapped out the knowledge structure and development trends of ischemic stroke pathophysiology in recent 32 years, which may provide a reference for scholars to explore ischemic stroke pathophysiology.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(8)2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673076

RESUMO

Porous suspended particles are hazardous to human health due to their strong absorption capacity for toxic substances. A fast, accurate, in situ and high-throughput method to characterize the microporous structure of porous particles has extensive application value. The polarization changes during the light scattering of aerosol particles are highly sensitive to their microstructural properties, such as pore size and porosity. In this study, we propose an overlapping sphere model based on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to calculate the polarization scattering characteristics of porous particles. By combining scattering calculations with multi-dimensional polarization indexes measured by a multi-angle polarized scattering vector detection system, we achieve the identification and classification of pore-type components in suspended particles. The maximum deviation based on multiple indexes is less than 0.16% for the proportion analysis of mixed particles. Simultaneously, we develop a quantitative inversion algorithm on pore size and porosity. The inversion results of the three porous polymer particles support the validity and feasibility of our method, where the inversion error of partial particles is less than 4% for pore size and less than 6% for porosity. The study demonstrates the potential of polarization measurements and index systems applied in characterizing the micropore structure of suspended particles.

6.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 46(4): 3108-3121, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666925

RESUMO

Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) catalyzes the synthesis of C15 farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) from C5 dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and two or three C5 isopentenyl diphosphates (IPPs). FPP is an important precursor for the synthesis of isoprenoids and is involved in multiple metabolic pathways. Here, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from Sporobolomyces pararoseus NGR (SpFPPS) was isolated and expressed by the prokaryotic expression system. The SpFPPS full-length genomic DNA and cDNA are 1566 bp and 1053 bp, respectively. This gene encodes a 350-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 40.33 kDa and a molecular weight of 58.03 kDa (40.33 kDa + 17.7 kDa), as detected by SDS-PAGE. The function of SpFPPS was identified by induction, purification, protein concentration and in vitro enzymatic activity experiments. Structural analysis showed that Y90 was essential for chain termination and changing the substrate scope. Site-directed mutation of Y90 to the smaller side-chain amino acids alanine (A) and lysine (K) showed in vitro that wt-SpFPPS catalyzed the condensation of the substrate DMAPP or geranyl diphosphate (GPP) with IPP at apparent saturation to synthesize FPP as the sole product and that the mutant protein SpFPPS-Y90A synthesized FPP and C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), while SpFPPS-Y90K hydrolyzed the substrate GGPP. Our results showed that FPPS in S. pararoseus encodes the SpFPPS protein and that the amino acid substitution at Y90 changed the distribution of SpFPPS-catalyzed products. This provides a baseline for potentially regulating SpFPPS downstream products and improving the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway.

7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(4)2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38667201

RESUMO

Polarization imaging and sensing techniques have shown great potential for biomedical and clinical applications. As a novel optical biosensing technology, Mueller matrix polarimetry can provide abundant microstructural information of tissue samples. However, polarimetric aberrations, which lead to inaccurate characterization of polarization properties, can be induced by uneven biomedical sample surfaces while measuring Mueller matrices with complex spatial illuminations. In this study, we analyze the detailed features of complex spatial illumination-induced aberrations by measuring the backscattering Mueller matrices of experimental phantom and tissue samples. We obtain the aberrations under different spatial illumination schemes in Mueller matrix imaging. Furthermore, we give the corresponding suggestions for selecting appropriate illumination schemes to extract specific polarization properties, and then provide strategies to alleviate polarimetric aberrations by adjusting the incident and detection angles in Mueller matrix imaging. The optimized scheme gives critical criteria for the spatial illumination scheme selection of non-collinear backscattering Mueller matrix measurements, which can be helpful for the further development of quantitative tissue polarimetric imaging and biosensing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Imagens de Fantasmas , Humanos
8.
Phytomedicine ; 128: 155472, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, imposing an enormous economic burden on individuals and human society. Laboratory studies have identified several drugs that target mitophagy for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Only a few of these drugs have been successful in clinical trials, and most studies have been limited to animal and cellular models. Furthermore, conventional drugs used to treat CVD, such as antiplatelet agents, statins, and diuretics, often result in adverse effects on patients' cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory systems. In contrast, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has gained significant attention for its unique theoretical basis and clinical efficacy in treating CVD. PURPOSE: This paper systematically summarizes all the herbal compounds, extracts, and active monomers used to target mitophagy for the treatment of CVD in the last five years. It provides valuable information for researchers in the field of basic cardiovascular research, pharmacologists, and clinicians developing herbal medicines with fewer side effects, as well as a useful reference for future mitophagy research. METHODS: The search terms "cardiovascular disease," "mitophagy," "herbal preparations," "active monomers," and "cardiac disease pathogenesis" in combination with "natural products" and "diseases" were used to search for studies published in the past five years until January 2024. RESULTS: Studies have shown that mitophagy plays a significant role in the progression and development of CVD, such as atherosclerosis (AS), heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI), cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia. Herbal compound preparations, crude extracts, and active monomers have shown potential as effective treatments for these conditions. These substances protect cardiomyocytes by inducing mitophagy, scavenging damaged mitochondria, and maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. They display notable efficacy in combating CVD. CONCLUSION: TCM (including herbal compound preparations, extracts, and active monomers) can treat CVD through various pharmacological mechanisms and signaling pathways by inducing mitophagy. They represent a hotspot for future cardiovascular basic research and a promising candidate for the development of future cardiovascular drugs with fewer side effects and better therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Mitofagia , Humanos , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Animais
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 201, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of applying CBL teaching method and SEGUE Framework in the doctor-patient communication skills of resident physicians in the department of otolaryngology. METHODS: This is an observational study to compare the score changes in doctor-patient communication skills of 120 resident physicians, before and after using CBL combined SEGUE Framework teaching method. The effects of gender, age, grade, educational background and marital status on SEGUE score were analyzed. RESULTS: Through the combined application of CBL teaching method and SEGUE Framework, the SEGUE score of 120 resident physicians was significantly improved. There was no significant difference in SEGUE score among different sex and marital status of resident physicians. SEGUE score is positively correlated with age; Different grades and educational backgrounds have significant effects on SEGUE score. CONCLUSION: The combination of CBL teaching method and SEGUE Framework is feasible and effective in the education program of doctor-patient communication skills for resident physicians in the department of otolaryngology, and worthy of popularization and application in other medical specialties.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Otolaringologia , Médicos , Humanos , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Otolaringologia/educação , Ensino , Estudos de Viabilidade
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 2): 130030, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336330

RESUMO

Schisandra chinensis, as a famous medicinal and food homologous plant, has a long history of medicinal and dietary therapy. It has the functions of nourishing the kidney, calming the heart, tranquilising the mind, tonifying Qi and producing fluid to relieve mental stress, based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Accumulating evidence has shown that S. chinensis polysaccharides (SCPs) are one of the most important bioactive macromolecules and exhibit diverse biological activities in vitro and in vivo, including neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, cardioprotective, antitumour and anti-inflammatory activities, etc. This review aims to thoroughly review the recent advances in the extraction and purification methods, structural features, biological activities and structure-activity relationships, potential applications and quality assessment of SCPs, and further highlight the therapeutic potentials and health functions of SCPs in the fields of therapeutic agents and functional food development. Future insights and challenges of SCPs were also critically discussed. Overall, the present review provides a theoretical overview for the further development and utilization of S. chinensis polysaccharides in the health food and pharmaceutical fields.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Schisandra , Extratos Vegetais/química , Schisandra/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta , Polissacarídeos/química
11.
J Biomed Opt ; 29(5): 052919, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420109

RESUMO

Significance: Most biological fibrous tissues have anisotropic optical characteristics, which originate from scattering by their fibrous microstructures and birefringence of biological macromolecules. The orientation-related anisotropic interpretation is of great value in biological tissue characterization and pathological diagnosis. Aim: We focus on intrinsic birefringence and form birefringence in biological tissue samples. By observing and comparing the forward Mueller matrix of typical samples, we can understand the interpretation ability of orientation-related polarization parameters and further distinguish the sources and trends of anisotropy in tissues. Approach: For glass fiber, silk fiber, skeletal muscle, and tendon, we construct a forward measuring device to obtain the Mueller matrix image and calculate the anisotropic parameters related to orientation. The statistical analysis method based on polar coordinates can effectively analyze the difference in anisotropic parameters. Results: For those birefringent fibers, the statistical distribution of fast-axis values derived from Mueller matrix polar decomposition was found to exhibit bimodal characteristics, which is a key point in distinguishing the single-layer birefringent fiber sample from a layered, multioriented fibrous sample. The application conditions and interference factors of anisotropic orientation parameters are analyzed. Based on the parameters extracted from the orientation bimodal distribution, we can evaluate the relative change trend of intrinsic birefringence and form birefringence in anisotropic samples. Conclusions: The cross-vertical bimodal distribution of the fast axis of anisotropic fibers is beneficial to accurately analyze the anisotropic changes in biological tissues. The results imply the potential of anisotropic orientation analysis for applications in pathological diagnosis.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Tendões , Anisotropia , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Birrefringência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305866

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of chronic disease in which multiple factors are responsible for the structural and functional disorders of the kidney. Piperazine ferulate (PF) has anti-platelet and anti-fibrotic effects, and its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PF against CKD in rats and to determine its mechanism of action. Network pharmacology was used to predict potential PF action targets in the treatment of CKD and to further validate them. A rat model of CKD was established; blood was collected, etc., for the assessment of the renal function; renal pathologic damage was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining; changes in the levels of TGF-ß1 and α-SMA were determined with ELISA; EPOR, FN, and COL I expression were detected utilizing immunohistochemistry; and HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and EPO protein molecules were analyzed deploying western blotting. PF reduces Scr, BUN, and 24 h UP levels; decreases FN and COL I expression; and attenuates renal injury. Additionally, PF inhibited TGF-ß1 and stimulated the production of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, which downregulated α-SMA and upregulated EPO. PF attenuated the progression of the CKD pathology, and the mechanism of its action is possibly associated with the promotion of HIF-1α/HIF-2α/EPO production and TGF-ß1 reduction.

13.
Opt Express ; 32(3): 3804-3816, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297593

RESUMO

In biomedical studies, Mueller matrix polarimetry is gaining increasing attention because it can comprehensively characterize polarization-related vectorial properties of the sample, which are crucial for microstructural identification and evaluation. For backscattering Mueller matrix polarimetry, there are two photon coordinate selection conventions, which can affect the following Mueller matrix parameters calculation and information acquisition quantitatively. In this study, we systematically analyze the influence of photon coordinate system selection on the backscattering Mueller matrix polarimetry. We compare the Mueller matrix elements in the right-handed-nonunitary and non-right-handed-unitary coordinate systems, and specifically deduce the changes of Mueller matrix polar decomposition, Mueller matrix Cloude decomposition and Mueller matrix transformation parameters widely used in backscattering Mueller matrix imaging as the photon coordinate system varied. Based on the theoretical analysis and phantom experiments, we provide a group of photon coordinate system transformation invariants for backscattering Mueller matrix polarimetry. The findings presented in this study give a crucial criterion of parameters selection for backscattering Mueller matrix imaging under different photon coordinate systems.

14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 324: 117785, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262525

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common psychiatric disorder in women after childbirth. Per data from epidemiologic studies, PPD affects about 5%-26.32% of postpartum mothers worldwide. Biological factors underlying this condition are multiple and complex and have received extensive inquiries for the roles they play in PPD. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), which is widely used as a complementary and alternative therapy for neurological disorders, possesses multi-component, multi-target, multi-access, and low side effect therapeutic characteristics. CHM has already shown efficacy in the treatment of PPD, and a lot more research exploring the mechanisms of its potential therapeutic effects is being conducted. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the underlying mechanisms of PPD, as well as samples the progress made in researching the potential role of CHM in treating the disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature was searched comprehensively in scholarly electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI and WanFang DATA, using the search terms "postpartum depression", "genetic", "hormone", "immune", "neuroinflammation", "inflammation", "neurotransmitter", "neurogenesis", "brain-gut axis", "traditional Chinese medicine", "Chinese herbal medicine", "herb", and an assorted combination of these terms. RESULTS: PPD is closely associated with genetics, as well as with the hormones, immune inflammatory, and neurotransmitter systems, neurogenesis, and gut microbes, and these biological factors often interact and work together to cause PPD. For example, inflammatory factors could suppress the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin by inducing the regulation of tryptophan-kynurenine in the direction of neurotoxicity. Many CHM constituents improve anxiety- and depression-like behaviors by interfering with the above-mentioned mechanisms and have shown decent efficacy clinically against PPD. For example, Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang invigorates the neuroendocrine system by boosting the hormone levels of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes, regulating the imbalance of Treg/T-helper cells (Th) 17 and Th1/Th2, and modulating neurotransmitter system to play antidepressant roles. The Shenguiren Mixture interferes with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway to enhance the number, morphology and apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampus of PPD rats. Other herbal extracts and active ingredients of CHM, such as Paeoniflorin, hypericin, timosaponin B-III and more, also manage depression by remedying the neuroendocrine system and reducing neuroinflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The pathogenesis of PPD is complex and diverse, with the main pathogenesis not clear. Still, CHM constituents, like Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang, the Shenguiren Mixture, Paeoniflorin, hypericin and other Chinese Medicinal Formulae, active monomers and Crude extracts, treats PPD through multifaceted interventions. Therefore, developing more CHM components for the treatment of PPD is an essential step forward.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Depressão Pós-Parto , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Glucosídeos , Monoterpenos , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Ratos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Depressão Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fatores Biológicos , Neurotransmissores
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 170: 115994, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070249

RESUMO

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a natural phenolic acid compound with a variety of bioactive properties. However, the antidepressant activity and mechanism of RA remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of RA on chronic CORT injection induced depression-like behavior in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with CORT (10 mg/kg) and were orally given RA daily (10 or 20 mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days. In vitro, the HT22 cells were exposed to CORT (200 µM) with RA (12.5, 25 or 50 µM) and LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) or ANA-12 (a TrkB inhibitor) treatment. The depression-like behavior and various neurobiological changes in the mice and cell injury and levels of target proteins in vitro were subsequently assessed. Here, RA treatment decreased the expression of p-GR/GR, HSP90, FKBP51, SGK-1 in mice hippocampi. Besides, RA increased the average optical density of Nissl bodies and number of dendritic spines in CA3 region, and enhanced Brdu and DCX expression and synaptic transduction in DG region, as well as up-regulated both the BDNF/TrkB/CREB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. Moreover, RA reduced structural damage and apoptosis in HT22 cells, increased the differentiation and maturation of them. More importantly, LY294002, but not ANA-12, reversed the effect of RA on GR nuclear translocation. Taken together, RA exerted antidepressant activities by modulating the hippocampal glucocorticoid signaling and hippocampal neurogenesis, which related to the BDNF/TrkB/PI3K signaling axis regulating GR nuclear translocation, provide evidence for the application of RA as a candidate for depression.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácido Rosmarínico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Hipocampo , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Neurogênese
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 319(Pt 3): 117289, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844745

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix Bupleuri, also named "Chaihu" in Chinese, is a substance derived from the dry roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. [Apiaceae] and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. [Apiaceae]. Radix Bupleuri was initially recorded as a medicinal herb in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the earliest monograph concerning traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ever since, Radix Bupleuri has been broadly used to alleviate exterior syndrome, disperse heat, modulate the liver-qi, and elevate yang-qi in TCM. Radix Bupleuri has also been utilized as an important component in Xiaoyaosan, a classical formula for relieving depression, which was originated from the famous Chinese medical book called "Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang" in Song Dynasty. Currently, many valuable pharmacological effects of Radix Bupleuri have been explored, such as antidepressant, neuroprotective activities, antiinflammation, anticancer, immunoregulation, etc. Former studies have illustrated that Saikosaponin A (SSa), one of the primary active components of Radix Bupleuri, possesses potential antidepressant properties. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: We used a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) mouse model to explore the ameliorative effects and potential mechanisms of SSa in depressive disorder in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CSDS mouse model was established and mice underwent behavioral studies using assays such as the social interaction test (SIT), sucrose preference test (SPT), forced-swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open field test (OFT). Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Golgi staining were performed to investigate signaling pathway activity, and alterations in synaptic spines in the hippocampus. To model the anticipated interaction between SSa and Tet1, molecular docking and microscale thermophoresis (MST) techniques were employed. Finally, sh-RNA Tet1 was employed for validation via lentiviral transfection in CSDS mice to confirm the requirement of Tet1 for SSA efficacy. RESULTS: SSa dramatically reduced depressed symptoms, boosted the expression of Tet1, Notch, DLL3, and BDNF, encouraged hippocampus development, and enhanced the dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons. In contrast, Tet1 knockdown in CSDS mice dampened the beneficial effects of SSa on depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, our results suggest that SSa significantly activates the Tet1/Notch/DLL3 signaling pathways and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis to exert antidepressant effects in the CSDS mouse model in vivo. The present results also provide new insight into the importance of the Tet1/DLL3/Notch pathways as potential targets for novel antidepressant development.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo , Neurogênese , Transdução de Sinais
18.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 1018, 2023 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although the current European Association of Urology(EAU) guideline recommends that patients with intermediate-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) should accept intravesical chemotherapy or Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for no more than one year after transurethral resection of bladder tumor(TURBT), there is no consensus on the optimal duration of chemotherapy. Hence, we explored the optimal duration of maintenance intravesical chemotherapy in patients with intermediate-risk NMIBC. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a real-world single-center retrospective cohort study. In total 158 patients with pathologically confirmed intermediate-risk NMIBC were included, who were divided into 4 subgroups based on the number of instillations given. We used Cox regression analysis and survival analysis chart to explore the 3-yr recurrence outcomes of tumor.The optimal duration was determined by receive operating characteristic curve (ROC). RESULTS: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. Compared with instillation for 1-2 months, the Hazard Ratios(HR) values of instillation for less than 1 month, maintenance instillation for 3-6 months and > 6 months were 3.57、1.57 and 0.22(95% CI 1.27-12.41;0.26-9.28;0.07-0.80, P = 0.03;0.62;0.02, respectively). We found a significant improvement in 3-yr relapse-free survival in intermediate-risk NMIBC patients who maintained intravesical instillation chemotherapy for longer than 6 months, and the best benefit was achieved with 10.5 months of maintenance chemotherapy by ROC. CONCLUSIONS: In our scheme, the optimal duration of intravesical instillation with pirrubicin is 10.5 months. This new understanding provides valuable experience for the precise medical treatment model of intermediate-risk NMIBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias não Músculo Invasivas da Bexiga , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Administração Intravesical , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Invasividade Neoplásica
19.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 9(1): 82, 2023 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37903770

RESUMO

There has been an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over the past few decades, making cardiovascular disease (CVD) the leading cause of death worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of CVD is multi-factorial, complex, and not fully understood. The gut microbiome has long been recognized to play a critical role in maintaining the physiological and metabolic health of the host. Recent scientific advances have provided evidence that alterations in the gut microbiome and its metabolites have a profound influence on the development and progression of CVD. Among the trillions of microorganisms in the gut, bifidobacteria, which, interestingly, were found through the literature to play a key role not only in regulating gut microbiota function and metabolism, but also in reducing classical risk factors for CVD (e.g., obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes) by suppressing oxidative stress, improving immunomodulation, and correcting lipid, glucose, and cholesterol metabolism. This review explores the direct and indirect effects of bifidobacteria on the development of CVD and highlights its potential therapeutic value in hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. By describing the key role of Bifidobacterium in the link between gut microbiology and CVD, we aim to provide a theoretical basis for improving the subsequent clinical applications of Bifidobacterium and for the development of Bifidobacterium nutritional products.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Metabólicas , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(22): 6761-6773, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37698607

RESUMO

Pullulan is a polymer produced by Aureobasidium spp. The yield of pullulan production can be impacted by the cellular differentiation of Aureobasidium spp., which changes with alterations in the growth environment. To improve pullulan yield, identifying key factors that regulate cellular differentiation is crucial. In this study, the main form of pullulan synthesis in Aureobasidium pullulans NG was through swollen cells (SC). The results showed that citric acid (CA) can regulate the cellular differentiation of Aureobasidium pullulans NG by accumulating higher levels of CA in the cells to maintain growth in SC form and increase pullulan production. The addition of 1.0% CA to Aureobasidium pullulans NG for 96 h resulted in a significant increase in pullulan production, producing 18.32 g/l compared to the control group which produced 10.23 g/l. Our findings suggest that controlling cellular differentiation using CA is a promising approach for enhancing pullulan production in Aureobasidium pullulans. KEY POINTS: • The regulation of cell differentiation in Aureobasidium pullulans NG is demonstrated to be influenced by citric acid. • Intracellular citric acid levels in Aureobasidium pullulans NG have been shown to support the growth of swollen cells. • Citric acid has been found to increase pullulan production in Aureobasidium pullulans NG.

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