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1.
Anal Chem ; 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973472

RESUMO

The unique capability of surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) in single nanoparticle analysis has found use in various chemical and biological applications. While SPRM offers exceptional sensitivity, the statistical analysis of numerous nanoparticles has been extremely laborious and time-consuming. Herein, we presented an image processing software package for nanoparticle analysis in SPRM, which is empowered by a deep learning algorithm. This package enabled fully automated nanoparticle identification, digital counting, three-dimensional tracking of particle locations, and quantification of dwell time and Brownian motion properties. With a built-in image filtering process to improve the contrast, robust identification and analysis have been achieved from SPRM images of low refractive index nanoparticles. This software tool would largely promote the translation of SPRM technology into the digital sensing platform for high throughput sample screening.

2.
Environ Res ; 198: 111269, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945811

RESUMO

To improve air quality, China issued a new version of Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012, and Tianjin officially implemented these new standards in 2013. In order to observe whether the atmospheric quality and health had been improved after the release of the new standards, this study compared the exposure-response relationships between pollutant concentrations and daily deaths (and years of life lost, YLL) in the six central districts of Tianjin in 2007-2010 and 2014-2017, which were the two periods around the release of the new standards. The exposure-response coefficients were calculated by using the generalized additive model with the time series data. The results showed that the effects of PM10 and NO2 during 2014-2017 were lower than those during 2007-2010 (PM10: 0.10<0.30, 2.07<4.52; NO2: 0.24<0.87, 6.39<11.98), while the results of SO2 were opposite (SO2: 0.61>0.31, 10.31>1.64). And the excess deaths and YLL caused by the portion of the pollutants that exceeded the new standards also declined (PM10: 156<206 persons, 3493<3913 person-years; NO2: 64<136 persons, 1844<2895 person-years; SO2 did not exceed the new standards). The results proved that the new standards had a certain protective effect on the health of the population in the central districts of Tianjin. These findings may provide evidence for the formulation of public health policies and further improvement and development of the Ambient Air Quality Standards.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25834, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950994

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chromosomal aberrations are generally considered to have a remarkable impact on the outcome of multiple myeloma. Bortezomib helps to achieve complete responses and leads to longer life expectancy in many multiple myeloma patients. This study was designed to clarify whether bortezomib can improve the poor prognosis resulting from del(17q13), del(13q14), amp(1q21), t(4,14), t(14,16) in patients with multiple myeloma. A total of 255 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens were included in this study. All chromosomal aberrations were detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Kaplan-Meier survival and Multivariable Cox regression analysis were employed to assess the prognostic situation in progression-free survival and overall survival. The result showed that the progression-free survival and overall survival of patients with del(17q13) were shorter than those without del(17q13) in multivariate analysis and patients with del(13q14), amp(1q21), t(4,14), t(14,16) were similar to patients without these chromosomal aberrations in progression-free survival and overall survival after receiving bortezomib-based regimens.In conclusion Bortezomib-based regimens can overcome the poor prognosis derived from del(13q14), amp(1q21), t(4,14), t(14,16) but not del(17q13).

4.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112678, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964621

RESUMO

Developing materials from natural minerals to efficiently remove arsenite (As(Ⅲ)) from solution is vital important for resources comprehensive utilization and environment protection. In this study, biotite containing minerals was used to prepare a novel composite of amino modified silica supported MnO2/Fe-Al hydroxide (SNMFA composite), which was then applied to remove arsenite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that many amorphous MnO2 and Fe-Al hydroxide nano sheets were loaded on the surface of layered silica structure. Batch experiments showed that this composite could efficiently remove As(Ⅲ) from aqueous solution, and the maximal removal capacity was identified as 46.11 mg/g. As(Ⅲ) adsorption behaviours of SNMFA composite were confirmed by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, indicating that As(Ⅲ) adsorption on its surface was monolayer adsorption. The adsorption process was a pH and temperature dependent process, and increasing pH and temperature have facilitated the removal of As(Ⅲ). Thermodynamic analysis showed that As(Ⅲ) adsorption process was a spontaneous endothermic reaction. The As(Ⅲ) removal was mainly relied on the stable inner-sphere coordination model, and the corresponding mechanisms were involved in chelation, precipitation, oxidation-adsorption and electrostatic interaction.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147184, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with various adverse health outcomes. Recently, an increasing concern on its alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) has been aroused due to the restriction use of BPA. Few studies have identified predictors of exposure to BPA alternatives and assessed their health risks. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of BPA and its alternatives and to assess their health risks among pregnant women. METHODS: We detected first morning urinary concentrations of BPA and its alternatives (BPS and BPF) among 1097 pregnant women from an established Chinese cohort. A questionnaire was conducted to obtain demographic characteristics, dietary habits, and lifestyles. We examined the predictors of creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA and its alternatives concentrations using multivariable linear regression. Risk assessment of exposure to BPA and its alternatives was calculated based on the estimated of daily intake (EDI). RESULTS: Geometric means of creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS were 0.92, 0.12, and 0.08 µg/g creatinine, respectively. Pregnant women from Wuhan had lower concentrations of BPA, BPF, and ∑BPs (sum of BPA, BPF, and BPS) than those from Xiaogan. Intake of fried food was related to higher concentrations of BPA, and intake of pickled food was associated with higher concentrations of BPF and ∑BPs. The maximum EDI values for exposure to BPA, BPF, BPS, and ∑BPs ranged from 5.6428 to 13.3356 nmol/kg body weight/day, which were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (18 nmol/kg body weight/day). The maximum hazard index (HI) value was 0.7409. CONCLUSION: Several predictors identified in this study may inform public recommendations to reduce exposure to BPA and its alternatives.

7.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 8879401, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791046

RESUMO

Background: Currently, standards of antibiotic use in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients are controversial. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the value of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels to guide the antibiotic treatment of AECOPD patients. Methods: A total of 371 patients with COPD or AECOPD were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained at admission, 325 AECOPD patients and 46 sCOPD patients treated with antibiotics. The receiver operating curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the relationship between CRP, PCT, and IL-6. Results: This study included medical record/case control 1, the COPD group (n = 46) and the AECOPD group (n = 325), and medical record control 2, the nonchanged antibiotic group (n = 203) and the changed antibiotic group (n = 61). In case 1, CRP, PCT, and IL-6 levels in the AECOPD group were higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), while the result of ROC showed that IL-6 had higher AUC values (0.773) and higher sensitivity (71.7%) than other indicators. The specificity of PCT (93.5%) is higher than other indicators. In case 2, ROC curve results showed that the AUC value of IL-6 (0.771) was slightly higher than PCT and CRP. The sensitivity (85.2%) and specificity (65.5%) of CRP were higher than other indicators. Conclusions: IL-6 and PCT were elevated in AECOPD patients, resulting in a higher diagnostic value for AECOPD. CRP had a higher diagnostic value for antibiotic use in AECOPD patients.

8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 643968, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791245

RESUMO

Thyroid nodules are found in nearly half of the adult population. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in thyroid metabolism, yet the association between gut microbiota capacity, thyroid nodules, and thyroid function has not been studied comprehensively. We performed a gut microbiome genome-wide association study in 196 patients with thyroid nodules and 283 controls by using whole-genome shotgun sequencing. We found that participants with high-grade thyroid nodules have decreased number of gut microbial species and gene families compared with those with lower grade nodules and controls. There are also significant alterations in the overall microbial composition in participants with high-grade thyroid nodules. The gut microbiome in participants with high-grade thyroid nodules is characterized by greater amino acid degradation and lower butyrate production. The relative abundances of multiple butyrate producing microbes are reduced in patients with high-grade thyroid nodules and the relative abundances of L-histidine metabolism pathways are associated with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Our study describes the gut microbiome characteristics in thyroid nodules and a gut-thyroid link and highlight specific gut microbiota as a potential therapeutic target to regulate thyroid metabolism.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901397

RESUMO

Turnover of soil organic carbon (SOC) is strongly affected by a balance between mineral protection and microbial degradation. However, the mechanisms controlling the heterogeneous and preferential adsorption of different types of SOC remain elusive. In this work, the heterogeneous adsorption of humic substances (HSs) and microbial carbon (MC) on a clay mineral (nontronite NAu-2) during microbial-mediated Fe redox cycling was determined using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The results revealed that HSs pre-adsorbed on NAu-2 would partially inhibit structural modification of NAu-2 by microbial Fe(III) reduction, thus retarding the subsequent adsorption of MC. In contrast, NAu-2 without precoated HSs adsorbed a significant amount of MC from microbial polysaccharides as a result of Fe(III) reduction. This was attributed to the deposition of a thin Al-rich layer on the clay surface, which provided active sites for MC adsorption. This study provides direct and detailed molecular evidence for the first time to explain the preferential adsorption of MC over HSs on the surface of clay minerals in iron redox processes, which could be critical for the preservation of MC in soil. The results also indicate that ToF-SIMS is a unique tool for understanding complex organic-mineral-microbe interactions.

10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 154: 106089, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773197

RESUMO

In previous research, the effects of commercial vehicle proportions (CVP) on overall crash propensity have been found to be significant, but the results have been varied in terms of the effect direction. In addition, the mediating or moderating effects of roadway attributes on the CVP-vs-safety relationships, have not been investigated. In addressing this gap in the literature, this study integrates databases on crashes, traffic, and inventory for Hong Kong road segments spanning 2014-2017. The classes of commercial vehicles considered are public buses, taxi, and light-, medium- and heavy-goods vehicles. Random-parameter Tobit models were estimated using the crash rates. The results suggest that the CVP of each class show credible effects on the crash rates, for the various crash severity levels. The results also suggest that the interaction between CVP and roadway attributes is credible enough to mediate the effect of CVP on crash rates, and the magnitude and direction of such mediation varies across the vehicle classes, crash severity levels, and roadway attribute type in four ways. First, the increasing effect of taxi proportion on slight-injury crash rate is magnified at road segments with high intersection density. Second, the increasing effect of light-goods vehicle proportion on slight-injury crash rate is magnified at road segments with on-street parking. Third, the association between the medium- and heavy-goods vehicle proportion and killed/severe injury (KSI) crash rate, is moderated by the roadway width (number of traffic lanes). Finally, a higher proportion of medium- and heavy-goods vehicles generally contributes to increased KSI crash rate at road segments with high intersection density. Overall, the findings of this research are expected not only to help guide commercial vehicle enforcement strategy, licensing policy, and lane control measures, but also to review existing urban roadway designs to enhance safety.

11.
J Safety Res ; 76: 248-255, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated that weather conditions have significant impacts on freeway safety. However, when employing an econometric model to examine freeway crash injury severity, most of the existing studies tend to categorize several different adverse weather conditions such as rainy, snowy, and windy conditions into one category, "adverse weather," which might lead to a large amount of information loss and estimation bias. Hence, to overcome this issue, real-time weather data, the value of meteorological elements when crashes occurred, are incorporated into the dataset for freeway crash injury analysis in this study. METHODS: Due to the possible existence of spatial correlations in freeway crash injury data, this study presents a new method, the spatial multinomial logit (SMNL) model, to consider the spatial effects in the framework of the multinomial logit (MNL) model. In the SMNL model, the Gaussian conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior is adopted to capture the spatial correlation. In this study, the model results of the SMNL model are compared with the model results of the traditional multinomial logit (MNL) model. In addition, Bayesian inference is adopted to estimate the parameters of these two models. RESULT: The result of the SMNL model shows the significance of the spatial terms, which demonstrates the existence of spatial correlation. In addition, the SMNL model has a better model fitting ability than the MNL model. Through the parameter estimate results, risk factors such as vertical grade, visibility, emergency medical services (EMS) response time, and vehicle type have significant effects on freeway injury severity. Practical Application: According to the results, corresponding countermeasures for freeway roadway design, traffic management, and vehicle design are proposed to improve freeway safety. For example, steep slopes should be avoided if possible, and in-lane rumble strips should be recommended for steep down-slope segments. Besides, traffic volume proportion of large vehicles should be limited when the wind speed exceeds a certain grade.

12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(4): e9850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656056

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. However, there is no effective treatment for RSV infection. Here, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers to aid in the treatment of RSV infection. Children in the acute and convalescence phases of RSV infection were recruited and proteomic analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Subsequently, promising candidate proteins were determined by functional enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analysis, and underwent further validation by western blot both in clinical and mouse model samples. Among the 79 DEPs identified in RSV patient samples, 4 proteins (BPGM, TPI1, PRDX2, and CFL1) were confirmed to be significantly upregulated during RSV infection. Functional analysis showed that BPGM and TPI1 were mainly involved in glycolysis, indicating an association between RSV infection and the glycolysis metabolic pathway. Our findings provide insights into the proteomic profile during RSV infection and indicated that BPGM, TPI1, PRDX2, and CFL1 may be potential therapeutic biomarkers or targets for the treatment of RSV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Biomarcadores , Criança , Humanos , Proteômica
13.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(2): 239-246, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) induce immune tolerance in patients after organ transplantation. Various immunosuppressors can affect Tregs function through different mechanisms. PD-1 and TIGIT are important receptors on Tregs surface. Here, we investigated the effects of Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on the inhibitory function of Tregs and explored the regulatory mechanism in patients after liver transplantation. METHODS: Thirty patients that underwent a liver transplant and 15 healthy people were enrolled. Fifteen patients received Tacrolimus only, and 15 received a combination of Tacrolimus and MMF. Tregs and effector T cells (Teffs) were isolated using magnetic beads and were mixed at different ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2 and 1:1. An inhibition assay was performed by adding anti-PD-1 and anti-TIGIT when the mixture ratio was 1:1. The Tregs inhibition rate was determined and the levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured. RESULTS: As the ratios of Tregs to Teffs in the mixture increased, the Tregs inhibition rate increased and the levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α decreased. At each mixture ratio, Tacrolimus + MMF group had the highest Tregs inhibition rate compared to Tacrolimus and control group. At the specific mixture ratio of 1:1, the addition of both anti- PD-1 and anti-TIGIT led to lower Tregs inhibition rate and higher IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in all three groups as opposed to the addition of each antibody separately. Additionally, both the decrease in the Tregs inhibition rate and the increase in the IFN-γ and TNF-α levels were the most for Tacrolimus + MMF group among all cases, either adding antibodies alone or mixed. CONCLUSION: Tacrolimus and MMF enhanced the function of Tregs by synergistically affecting PD-1 and TIGIT in liver transplant patients.

14.
Environ Res ; 197: 110987, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689821

RESUMO

The most common currently used air quality risk communication tool, the Air Quality Index (AQI), has been criticized. As a result, Canada proposed the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) to communicate the health risks of multiple pollutants. However, the AQHI is calculated by directly summing the excess risks from single-pollutant models, which may overestimate the effects of the pollutants. To solve this problem, we introduced two methods for estimating the joint effects of multiple pollutants: the cumulative risk index (CRI) and supervised principal component analysis (SPCA). Based on three methods, i.e., the standard, CRI and SPCA methods, we constructed three types of AQHIs and compared their validity to select the best communication tool. Our results showed that compared with the AQI, all three AQHIs had a linear relationship with mortality. In addition, the CRI-AQHI had the best goodness of fit and captured the overall health risk of pollution mixtures most robustly among various cause-specific mortalities when identifying health risks. Our study indicated that the CRI-AQHI may have the potential to be a better alternative to the standard AQHI in communicating air pollution-related health risks to the public.

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 287, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is an opportunistic pathogen that infects immunodeficient children. The aim of the study is to determine the clinical features and peripheral immune state of Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) infections in children for early detection and diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 21 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with T. marneffei infections and were followed up in the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from January 2010 to January 2020. For each patient, we collected and analyzed clinical characteristics, peripheral immunological results, genetic tests, complications and prognosis. RESULTS: Common clinical features of the patients included fever (20/21, 95.24%), cough (17/21, 80.95%) and hepatomegaly (17/21, 80.95%). Severe complications included septic shock (12/21, 57.14%), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) (11/21, 52.38%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (10/21, 47.62%), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (9/21, 42.86%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (7/21, 33.33%). Eleven children (11/21, 52.38%) eventually died of T. marneffei infections. All patients were HIV negative. Seven cases revealed reduced antibody levels, especially IgG. Higher levels of IgE were detected in 9 cases with an obvious increase in two patients. Ten patients showed decreased complement C3 levels, some of whom had low C4 levels. Three patients displayed decreased absolute T lymphocyte counts, including the CD 4+ and CD 8+ subsets. A reduction in NK cells was present in most patients. No patient had positive nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) test results. Nine patients were screened for common genetic mutations. Of the cases, one case had no disease-specific gene mutation. Four children had confirmed hyperimmunoglobulin M syndrome (HIGM) with CD40LG variation, one case had severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), and one case had hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). One patient was identified as having a heterozygous mutation in STAT3 gene; however, he showed no typical clinical manifestations of HIES at his age. One patient had a mutated COPA gene with uncertain pathogenic potential. Another patient was diagnosed with HIES that depended on her clinical features and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) scoring system. CONCLUSIONS: T. marneffei infections in HIV-negative children induced severe systemic complications and poor prognosis. Children with T. marneffei infections commonly exhibited abnormal immunoglobulin levels in peripheral blood, particularly decreased IgG or increased IgE levels, further suggesting possible underlying PIDs in these patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Micoses/imunologia , Criança , China , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talaromyces
16.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(1): 167-171, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of CD40/CD40L in multiple myeloma(MM) patients and its influence on prognosis. METHODS: Thirty patients with MM treated in Cangzhou People's Hospital from May 2016 to June 2017 were selected and divided into MM group, then 30 healthy people with a physical examination in our hospital at the same time were selected as the normal group. The serum CD40/CD40L levels of the patients in the two groups was detected by flow cytometry, and its correlation with the lymphocyte population, pathological grade and prognostic significance of MM patients was anaysis. RESULTS: The expression of CD40 in serum of the patients in MM group was significantly higher than those in normal group (P<0.05). The expression of CD40L in serum of the patients in MM group showed no significant difference as compared with those in normal group (P>0.05). The levels of CD40 and CD40L in the patients before and after chemotherapy showed no difference(P>0.05). The levels of Ts and NK cells in the patients of MM group were lower than those in normal group (P<0.05). The proportion of total B lymphocytes, Th and Th/Ts cells between the two groups showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The CD40 level was correlated with the serum total B lymphocyte level of the patients in MM group (r=0.877, P=0.005). There was a correlation with CD40L and Th cells in the serum of MM patients (r=-0.783, P=0.035). The expression of serum CD40 in the patients at phase III-IV was higher than those of the patients at phase I-II, the levels of serum CD40L in MM patients at different periods showed no significant difference(P>0.05). The survival rate of MM patients with high CD40 expression was lower than that of MM patients with low CD40 expression (χ2=1.639, P=0.201). The high level CD40 was the main factor affecting the prognosis of MM patients (95%CI: 1.156-4.125). CONCLUSION: The increasing of CD40 level in MM patients is related to the pathological grade of the patients. Chemotherapy can reduce the level of CD40. The increasing of CD40 is an important factor for the poor prognosis of MM patients. CD40L level is not meaningful for MM treatment and prognosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD40 , Ligante de CD40 , Linfócitos B , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Prognóstico
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 897, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563974

RESUMO

The dynamics, duration, and nature of immunity produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear. Here, we longitudinally measured virus-neutralising antibody, specific antibodies against the spike (S) protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the nucleoprotein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as T cell responses, in 25 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients up to 121 days post-symptom onset (PSO). All patients seroconvert for IgG against N, S, or RBD, as well as IgM against RBD, and produce neutralising antibodies (NAb) by 14 days PSO, with the peak levels attained by 15-30 days PSO. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAb remain detectable and relatively stable 3-4 months PSO, whereas IgM antibody rapidly decay. Approximately 65% of patients have detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses 3-4 months PSO. Our results thus provide critical evidence that IgG, NAb, and T cell responses persist in the majority of patients for at least 3-4 months after infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , /virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Cinética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124115, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535357

RESUMO

In this study, the performances of Sporosarcina saromensis W5 assisted bio-permeable reactive barrier, containing activated carbon (AC) or zero-valent iron (ZVI), were investigated by column experiments in removal of Cr(Ⅵ) from simulated groundwater. The enhanced Cr(Ⅵ) removal performances were observed in biotic columns. Cr(Ⅵ) was first detected in effluent on day 24 and day 85 in Bio-AC and Bio-ZVI columns, respectively whereas it breakthrough only on day 4 and day 15 in AC and ZVI columns. Additionally, Cr(Ⅵ) removal performances induced by biofilm in Bio-QZ columns were promoted with the increase of influent Cr(Ⅵ) concentrations. According to fluorescent images, activated carbon was found to be the best biofilm carrier. Fe0 may not be suitable for microbial colonization because biofilm depolymerization occurred on Fe0 surface. Moreover, high concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) would lag the evolution of biofilm. Magnetite generating was found on the Fe0 surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the removal mechanism of Cr(Ⅵ) in biotic columns was biotransformation of Cr(Ⅵ) to Cr(Ш) species. Our results may provide a new insight in Cr(Ⅵ) in-situ remediation from groundwater by Bio-PRB system.

19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627802

RESUMO

NOD-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is implicated in inflammation-associated diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome is beneficial to these diseases, but few NLRP3 inflammasome-selective inhibitors are identified to date. Essential oils (EOs) are liquid mixtures of volatile and low molecular-weight organic compounds extracted from aromatic plants, which show various pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we screened active ingredients from essential oils, and identified 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene (1,2,4-TTB) as a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor. We showed that 1,2,4-TTB (1 mM) markedly suppressed nigericin- or ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, thus decreased caspase-1 activation and IL-1ß secretion in immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (iBMDMs) and in primary mouse microglia. Moreover, 1,2,4-TTB specifically inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome without affecting absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome activation. We further demonstrated that 1,2,4-TTB inhibited oligomerization of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and protein-protein interaction between NLRP3 and ASC, thus blocking NLRP3 inflammasome assembly in iBMDMs and in primary mouse macrophages. In mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), administration of 1,2,4-TTB (200 mg · kg-1 · d-1, i.g. for 17 days) significantly ameliorated EAE progression and demyelination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 1,2,4-TTB is an NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor and attenuates the clinical symptom and inflammation of EAE, suggesting that 1,2,4-TTB is a potential candidate compound for treating NLRP3 inflammasome-driven diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

20.
Prog Neurobiol ; 201: 102022, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617919

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous cell-derived membranous structures that arise from the endosome system or directly detach from the plasma membrane. In recent years, many advances have been made in the understanding of the clinical definition and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, but translation into effective treatments is hampered by several factors. Current research indicates that EVs are involved in the pathology of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD). Besides, EVs are also involved in the process of myelin formation, and can also cross the blood-brain barrier to reach the sites of CNS injury. It is suggested that EVs have great potential as a novel therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we reviewed the advances in understanding the role of EVs in neurodegenerative diseases and addressed the critical function of EVs in the CNS. We have also outlined the physiological mechanisms of EVs in myelin regeneration and highlighted the therapeutic potential of EVs in neurodegenerative diseases.

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