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1.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; : 1-12, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perpetrating or witnessing acts that violate one's moral code are frequent among military personnel and active combatants. These events, termed potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), were found to be associated with an increased risk of depression, in cross-sectional studies. However, the longitudinal contribution of PMIEs to depression among combatants remains unclear. METHOD: Participants were 374 active-duty combatants who participated in a longitudinal study with four measurement points: T1-one year before enlistment, T2-at discharge from army service, and then again 6- and 12-months following discharge (T3 and T4, respectively). At T1, personal characteristics assessed through semi-structured interviews. At T2-T4, PMIEs and depressive symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: At discharge (T2), a total of 48.7% of combatants reported experiencing PMIEs incident, compared with 42.4% at T3 and 30.7% at T4. We found a significant interaction effect in which combatants endorsing PMIEs at discharge reported higher severity of depression symptoms at discharge (T2) than combatants who reported no PMIEs. This effect decreased over time as depression levels were lower at T3 and T4. CONCLUSIONS: PMIE experiences, and especially PMIE-Betrayal experiences, were found to be valid predictors of higher severity of depression symptoms after the first year following discharge.

2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2312773, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334135

RESUMO

Background: Combatants who are exposed to events that transgress deeply held moral beliefs might face lasting psychopathological outcomes, referred to as Moral Injury (MI). However, knowledge about pre-deployment factors that might moderate the negative consequences of MI is sparse. In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment personality factors as possible moderators in the link between exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and psychiatric symptomatology among Israeli active-duty combatants.Methods: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: Six months following enlistment - pre-deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment - post-deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures of personality factors: emotional regulation, impulsivity, and aggression (T2) and combat exposure, PMIEs, psychiatric symptomology and posttraumatic symptoms (T3) between 2019 and 2021.Results: Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and negative life events contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment. Higher levels of pre-deployment aggression and lower levels of emotional regulation and impulsivity moderated the association between betrayal, PMIEs and psychiatric symptomology post-deployment, above and beyond pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and life events.Conclusions: Our results highlight that pre-deployment emotional regulation, impulsivity and aggressiveness levels should be assessed, screened, and identified among combatants, as they all facilitate psychiatric symptomology (and PTSS) after combatants are exposed to PMIEs of betrayal. Such pre-assessment will enable the identification of at-risk combatants and might provide them with tailor-made preparation regarding moral and ethical situations that should be investigated in future research.


Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment.Pre-deployment personality moderated the associations between PMIEs and psychiatric symptomatology among combatants.Higher levels of pre-deployment emotional regulation moderated the association between betrayal PMIEs and post-deployment PTSS symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Agressão , Personalidade
3.
J Clin Psychol ; 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) are possible reactions to exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) during military service. However, knowledge about patterns of both PTSS and PTG among female combat veterans is sparse. This study examines constellations of PTSS and PTG among Israeli female combat veterans, as well as military-related exposure and positive psychological correlates of these constellations. METHODS: A volunteer sample of Israeli women combat veterans (n = 885) responded to self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional design study. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to identify four profiles characterized by unique constellations of PTSS and PTG: moderate PTSS and high PTG (33%), moderate PTSS and moderate PTG (30%), low PTSS and high PTG (30%), and low PTSS and PTG (5.5%). Higher levels of combat experiences were associated with higher odds of inclusion in the moderate PTSS and high PTG and moderate PTSS and moderate PTG profiles. Moreover, compared to the other classes, both low PTSS and high PTG and moderate PTSS and high PTG classes were associated with higher levels of satisfaction with life and happiness psychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: The study's findings offer an overview of the complex pattern of associations between PTSS, PTG, and associated predictors and outcomes. Clinicians treating female veterans should be aware of the varying reactions to military service challenges, including the presence of moderate to high levels of PTG reactions in addition to PTSS.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 350: 689-697, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during military service is associated with heightened suicidal ideation (SI). However, no longitudinal study has established temporal associations between these variables and examined the possible mediating roles of depression and loneliness in this effect. METHODS: Participants were 374 active-duty Israeli combatants who participated in a five-year longitudinal study with four measurement points: T1- one year before enlistment, T2- one month before discharge from army service, and then again six months and twelve months following their discharge (T3 and T4, respectively). Data were assessed through semi-structured interviews and validated self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Above and beyond pre-enlistment personal characteristics (T1) and combat exposure (T2), PMIEs-'betrayal' (T2) predicted more frequent SI over the past twelve months (T4) through the mediation of depression. Moreover, both PMIEs-'betrayal' and 'self' (T2) predicted more frequent SI over the past twelve months (T4) through the mediation of loneliness. LIMITATIONS: We used self-report measures to assess PMIEs and SI, which may suffer from various biases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are the first to provide evidence of longitudinal, temporal associations between exposure to PMIEs and SI. Notably, potential interventions might consider addressing the loneliness experienced following exposure to PMIEs during military service, among recently discharged traumatized veterans.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Depressão , Solidão , Estudos Longitudinais , Ideação Suicida
5.
Psychol Trauma ; 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during military service has been associated with heightened trauma-related guilt levels, which in turn, could increase suicide risk among combat veterans. However, no longitudinal study has established temporal associations between these variables while examining a Moderated mediation model with self-forgiveness as a possible moderator of the PMIEs-suicide risk links during the first year following discharge. METHOD: Participants were 374 active-duty Israeli combatants who participated in a 5-year longitudinal study with three measurement points: 1 month before discharge from army service (T1), then 6 months (T2), and 12 months (T3) following their discharge. Data were assessed through semistructured interviews and validated self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: All PMIE dimensions at T1 were negatively associated with self-forgiveness at T1 and positively associated with levels of trauma-related guilt at T2 and suicide risk at T3. Our longitudinal moderated mediation model findings indicate that, among those reporting low levels of self-forgiveness, higher levels of PMIE-Self and PMIE-Others at T1 contribute to trauma-related guilt levels at T2, which, in turn, are linked to a higher suicide risk at T3 among those reporting low levels of self-forgiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing PMIEs, especially PMIE-Self and PMIE-Other, proved to be validated predictors of trauma-related guilt and, in turn, of suicide risk during the first year after the veterans' discharge. Combatants at their discharge from the military should have access to targeted self-forgiveness interventions, as these interventions can have a buffering effect on the development of suicidal ideation and behaviors following PMIEs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 327: 115392, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37536145

RESUMO

We evaluated longitudinal associations between subjective appraisals of transgressions of moral beliefs, values, and expectations (potential morally injurious events; PMIEs) and suicidal ideation (SI) among recently discharged combat veterans. Participants were 374 active-duty Israeli combatants who participated in a five-year longitudinal study with four measurement points: T1- one year before enlistment, T2- one month before discharge from army service, and then again six months and twelve months following discharge (T3 and T4, respectively). A history of lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior was associated with higher levels of subjective appraisals of PMIEs, as compared to no history of suicidal ideation and behavior. Above and beyond pre-enlistment personal characteristics, cross-lagged pathway analyses indicated significant bi-directional pathways between subjective appraisals of PMIEs and SI. For all PMIEs dimensions, SI was associated with greater subjective appraisals of PMIEs, on subsequent measurement. However, cross-lagged effects of PMIEs-'other' (T2) predicting SI (T3) and PMIEs-'betrayal' (T3) predicting SI (T4) were also found. Our findings are the first to provide evidence of longitudinal, temporal associations between subjective appraisals of PMIEs and SI, which might serve as potential intervention targets among recently discharged traumatized veterans.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Longitudinais , Princípios Morais
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(8): 1367-1377, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37011152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during military service is known to be associated with psychiatric symptoms. However, antecedents and outcomes of exposure to PMIEs have only been studied in cross-sectional or retrospective-designed studies. In this prospective study, we examined associations between preenlistment characteristics, predeployment psychological factors, exposure to PMIEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychiatric symptoms, and the moderating roles of ethical leadership and ethical preparation, among combatants. METHOD: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements. Participants' characteristics were assessed via semistructured interviews and validated self-report measures between 2019 and 2021. RESULTS: Above and beyond preenlistment personal characteristics and psychiatric symptoms, predeployment psychological flexibility predicted higher levels of exposure to PMIEs-Other and Betrayal, and combat exposure predicted higher levels of exposure to PMIEs-Self, Other, and betrayal. Moreover, PMIEs-Betrayal predicted higher levels of PTSD and psychiatric symptoms, and ethical preparation predicted lower PTSD and psychiatric symptoms. Importantly, among combatants who reported high levels of ethical preparation and leadership, the association between exposure to PMIEs and PTSD and psychiatric symptoms following deployment dissolved. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study of antecedents and outcomes of exposure to PMIEs among active-duty combatants. Clinicians treating combatants should be aware of the putative role of psychological flexibility for exposure to PMIEs, as well as the promising mitigating role of ethical leadership and preparation for moral injury and psychopathological outcomes among combatants. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

8.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(8): 1259-1270, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36951692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) during military service are associated with mental health problems. However, knowledge about relative contributions of these factors to non-U.S. women combat veterans' posttraumatic sequelae is sparse. This study examines associations between ACEs, combat exposure (CES), military sexual trauma (MST), potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complex PTSD (CPTSD) symptoms among women veterans. METHOD: A volunteer sample of Israeli women combat veterans (n = 885) and noncombat veterans (n = 728) responded to self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional design study. RESULTS: Combat veterans reported higher total average ACEs and were more likely to experience three or more ACEs and specific ACEs of physical abuse and emotional neglect, as compared to noncombat veterans. Combat veterans also reported higher levels of CES, PMIEs, higher prevalence of MST, and higher levels of PTSD symptoms, but not CPTSD symptoms, as compared to noncombat veterans. Importantly, ACEs, CES, MST-assault, and PMIEs of betrayal predicted PTSD symptoms, while only ACEs and PMIEs of betrayal predicted CPTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasized the relatively high exposure to PTEs and PTSD symptoms of women combat veterans as compared to noncombat veterans. Our findings also confirm prior studies demonstrating associations between ACEs, CES, MST, and mental health problems. Importantly, we demonstrated the unique contribution of betrayal-based PMIEs and the differential associations of PTEs with PTSD and CPTSD symptoms among combat veterans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 161: 158-164, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931133

RESUMO

Combatants who are exposed to events which transgress deeply held moral beliefs might face lasting psychopathological outcomes such as Moral Injury (MI) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, insight about pre-deployment personality factors which might facilitate the MI process and its negative consequences is sparse. In this prospective study, we examined pre-deployment aggressiveness as a possible predictor of exposure to combat and potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), trauma-related guilt and shame and PTSS among Israeli active-duty combatants. A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: 6 months following enlistment-pre deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment-post deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures of aggressiveness (T2), combat exposure, PMIEs and PTSS (T3) between 2019 and 2021. Results show that higher levels of pre-deployment aggressiveness predicted both combat exposure and PMIEs-'betrayal'. Combat exposure mediated the association between aggressiveness and PTSS post deployment. Importantly, pre-deployment aggressiveness was significantly associated with the PMIEs-'betrayal' that are associated with trauma-related guilt and shame, which in turn were associated with high levels of PTSS post deployment. Our results highlight the implications of pre-deployment aggressiveness for different forms of exposure to potentially traumatic events during military service. Identification of at-risk combatants for PTSS following exposure to PMIEs of betrayal might provide these combatants with a tailor-made type of preparation regarding moral and ethical situations, which should be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Culpa , Autorrelato , Agressão
10.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 69(5): 1134-1144, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36734242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment protective factors of exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) among Israeli active-duty combatants, as well as psychiatric symptomatology outcomes of exposure. METHODS: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: 6 months following enlistment- pre deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment- post deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures (T2-T3) between 2019 and 2021. RESULTS: Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify three classes characterized by unique patterns of exposure to PMIEs (T2): Minimal Exposure (56.6%), Betrayal-Only (25.5%), and High Exposure (17.8%). Higher levels of pre-deployment psychological flexibility (T1) were associated with higher odds for inclusion in the high exposure class (T2). As compared to the minimal exposure class, both high exposure and betrayal-only classes were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms and MI-related psychological outcomes (T2). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study of antecedents and outcomes of exposure to PMIEs among active-duty combatants. Clinicians treating combatants should be aware of the different types of exposure to PMIEs and their possible psychiatric outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Israel/epidemiologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Fatores de Proteção , Veteranos/psicologia
11.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 624-631, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) in deployment situations facilitates higher suicide risk among combatants. However, knowledge about pre-deployment factors that may moderate the negative contribution of PMIEs to suicide risk is rare. In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment personality factors as possible moderators in the link between exposure to self, other, and betrayal dimensions of PMIEs and post-deployment suicide risk among Israeli active-duty combatants. METHODS: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements: T1-12 months before enlistment, T2-6 months following enlistment (pre-deployment), and T3-18 months following enlistment (post-deployment). Participants were assessed via semi-structured interviews of personal characteristics (e.g., cognitive index) at T1, validated self-report measures of personality factors for emotional regulation, impulsivity, and aggression at T2, and combat exposure, PMIEs, and suicide risk at T3 between 2019 and 2021. RESULTS: All three dimensions of PMIEs were significantly associated with higher suicidal risk among combatants. Importantly, higher levels of pre-deployment aggression and lower levels of emotional regulation moderated the association between PMIEs and suicide risk post-deployment, above and beyond pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and life events. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the roles of pre-deployment factors of emotional regulation and aggressiveness as possible moderators in the PMIEs-suicide risk link. These results emphasize the need for higher awareness of suicide risk among deployed combatants with low emotional regulation and high aggressiveness. Moreover, tailored interventions aiming to decrease emotional dysregulation and aggressiveness levels should be considered, as such interventions may help reduce suicide risk following combat-related transgressive acts.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Suicídio , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Suicídio/psicologia , Personalidade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(Suppl 2): S436-S445, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Moral injury (MI) is a stressor-related phenomenon that may entail long-term ramifications. However, no study to date has examined mental health professionals' (MHPs') knowledge and treatment perspectives regarding patients with MI. This study aims to shed light on MHPs' perspectives in an experimental design using a manipulation concerning a hypothetical patient. METHOD: The sample included 846 MHPs who were presented with one of four vignettes of a virtual patient with differential clinical conditions. Participants were then posed several questions regarding the patient's clinical condition, their willingness to treat, and their knowledge regarding MI. RESULTS: Most participants reported no knowledge regarding MI. MHPs receiving MI-related scenarios were less willing to treat and more willing to refer the patient out than MHPs receiving non-MI scenarios. Professional seniority and training concerning MI contributed to greater familiarity with MI. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight that MHPs have minimal knowledge of MI, which may relate to their reluctance to treat patients with the psychological manifestations of MI. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pacientes
13.
Crisis ; 44(3): 198-208, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138155

RESUMO

Background: Modern warfare in a civilian setting may expose combatants to severe moral challenges. Whereas most of these challenges are handled effectively, some potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) may have deleterious psychological effects on the combatants, such as suicide ideation (SI). Self-disclosure, which includes sharing distressing thoughts and emotions, has been recognized as a protective factor against SI in the aftermath of stressful events. The current study is the first to examine the moderating role of self-disclosure in the relationship between PMIE exposure and SI among combat veterans. Method: A sample of 190 recently discharged Israeli combat veterans completed validated self-report questionnaires measuring combat exposure, PMIEs, depressive symptoms, SI, and self-disclosure in a cross-sectional design study. Results: PMIE dimensions and self-disclosure significantly contributed to current SI. Notably, the moderating model indicated that self-disclosure moderated the link between PMIE-Self and current SI, as PMIE-Self and current SI demonstrated a stronger association among veterans with low self-disclosure than among those with high self-disclosure. Limitations: Cross-sectional design of volunteers, the findings may not be directly generalizable to veterans' population. Conclusion: Self-disclosure, as a factor promoting a sense of belongingness, interpersonal bonding, and support, might diminish SI risk following PMIE exposure. Various mechanisms accounting for these associations are suggested, and the clinical implications of these interactions are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Ideação Suicida , Emoções
14.
J Child Fam Stud ; 32(1): 301-313, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350596

RESUMO

Although empirical studies have documented associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and parenting among various high-risk populations, there is a relatively limited amount of research on paternal parenting among veterans. Moreover, the understanding of possible mechanisms which may account for this effect is severely lacking. This study examined associations between military related PTSS and parenting sense of competence (PSOC) among veteran fathers. Furthermore, we examined the mediating role of experiential avoidance (EA) and parental reflective functioning (PRF) in the association between PTSS and PSOC. Participants were 189 Israel Defense Forces (IDF) male combat veterans (mean age = 30.03) who completed a set of validated self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional design study. Results showed negative associations between PTSS and PSOC-parental satisfaction but not parental efficacy. Furthermore, EA mediated the association between PTSS and parental satisfaction and efficacy; PRF- Pre mentalizing modes mediated the association between PTSS and parental satisfaction. Our findings imply that EA and PRF may serve as mechanisms of the association between PTSS and PSOC among veteran fathers. These findings are discussed in light of a psychological trauma perspective, and clinical implications to increase fathers' mentalization and psychological flexibility are suggested.

15.
Psychol Trauma ; 15(8): 1324-1333, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Indirect exposure to traumatized combat veterans may facilitate positive transformations in the form of posttraumatic growth (PTG) among family members. We aimed to use a dyadic approach to explore the association between veterans' and parents' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and their PTG and that of their parents' secondary PTG (SPTG), as well as to examine the moderating role of distress tolerance (DT) in these associations. METHOD: A volunteer sample of 102 dyads of Israeli combat veterans and their parents responded to online validated self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Veterans' PTG was positively correlated with parents' SPTG. Moreover, parents' secondary PTSS was associated with higher levels of their own SPTG and their veteran offspring's PTG. Furthermore, veterans' DT contributed to lower levels of their own PTSS and their PTG, but the moderation effects of DT were not found. CONCLUSIONS: Parents' experience of secondary PTSS, which refers to their offspring's military service, may be also associated with their offspring higher levels of PTG. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

16.
Stress Health ; 39(3): 651-662, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525571

RESUMO

Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during military service is associated with mental health problems. However, knowledge about these associations and possible mechanisms of effect among female combat veterans is sparse. This study examines associations between PMIEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms among female veterans, as well as the mediating role of disruption in assumptive world and moral injury (MI) symptoms. A volunteer sample of Israeli female combat veterans (n = 885) and non-combat veterans (n = 728) responded to self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional design study. Results show that combat veterans reported higher levels of PMIEs, PTSD and MI symptoms, but not CPTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms, as compared to non-combat veterans. Importantly, PMIEs was indirectly associated with PTSD, complex PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms through serial mediators of disruption in assumptive world and MI symptoms. This study emphasized the exposure to PMIEs and its posttraumatic sequelae among female combat veterans as compared to non-combat veterans. Our findings also suggest that future longitudinal studies should examine the mediating role of disruption in assumptive world and MI symptoms for the deleterious effects of exposure to PMIEs during military service.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Veteranos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Israel/epidemiologia , Princípios Morais
17.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 923928, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873252

RESUMO

Potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) entail acts of commission (e.g., cruelty, proscribed or prescribed violence) or omission (e.g., high stakes failure to protect others) and bearing witness (e.g., to grave inhumanity, to the gruesome aftermath of violence), or being the victim of others' acts of commission (e.g., high stakes trust violations) or omission (e.g., being the victim of grave individual or systemic failures to protect) that transgress deeply held beliefs and expectations about right and wrong. Although there is a proliferation of interest in moral injury (the outcome associated with exposure to PMIEs), there has been no operational definition of the putative syndrome and no standard assessment scheme or measure, which has hampered research and care in this area. We describe an international effort to define the syndrome of moral injury and develop and validate the Moral Injury Outcome Scale (MIOS) in three stages. To ensure content validity, in Stage I, we conducted interviews with service members, Veterans, and clinicians/Chaplains in each country, inquiring about the lasting impact of PMIEs. Qualitative analysis yielded six operational definitions of domains of impact of PMIEs and components within domains that establish the parameters of the moral injury syndrome. From the domain definitions, we derived an initial pool of scale items. Stage II entailed scale refinement using factor analytic methods, cross-national invariance testing, and internal consistency reliability analyses of an initial 34-item MIOS. A 14-item MIOS was invariant and reliable across countries and had two factors: Shame-Related (SR) and Trust-Violation-Related (TVR) Outcomes. In Stage III, MIOS total and subscale scores had strong convergent validity, and PMIE-endorsers had substantially higher MIOS scores vs. non-endorsers. We discuss and contextualize the results and describe research that is needed to substantiate these inaugural findings to further explore the validity of the MIOS and moral injury, in particular to examine discriminant and incremental validity.

18.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 68(5): 1026-1035, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic can affect health and social care workers' (HSCWs') mental health in their role as frontline workers in this crisis. The pandemic poses unique challenges to HSCWs as they face morally daunting decisions while working with limited knowledge and resources. This study primary objective was to examine the moderating role of thwarted belongingness in the relationships between HSCWs' exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and moral injury symptoms, depression, and anxiety. METHOD: A sample of 296 Israeli HSCWs completed validated self-report questionnaires that include measures of depression, anxiety, PMIE exposure, moral injury symptoms, and a sense of thwarted belongingness. RESULTS: About one-third (33.6%) of the sample met the criteria for major depression and 21.5% for generalized anxiety. Beyond demographic and work-related characteristics, PMIEs contributed to depression and anxiety levels. The indirect effect of PMIE exposure on anxiety/depression symptoms through MI symptoms was significant only at high levels of thwarted belongingness among HSCWs. Thus, greater PMIE exposure contributes to more MI symptoms, which, in turn, is linked to higher levels of anxiety/depression symptoms among HSCWs with high levels of thwarted belongingness. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design, self-report questionnaires, sample limited to Israeli HSCWs. CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings highlight the mental burden of HSCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic and the critical contribution of PMIE exposure and thwarted belongingness to this burden. Clinicians treating HSCWs coping with depression and anxiety following the COVID-19 should also attend to moral injury symptoms as well to the belongingness experience.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
19.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 35(5): 518-532, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic can affect the mental health of health and social care workers (HSCWs) who are frontline workers in this crisis. The pandemic poses unique challenges to HSCWs as they face morally daunting decisions while working with limited knowledge and resources. This study examined the relationships between exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and depression and anxiety among HSCWs. METHOD: A sample of 243 Israeli HSCWs completed validated self-report questionnaires that include measures of depression, anxiety, exposure to PMIEs, perceived stress, and moral injury symptoms. RESULTS: About one-third (33.6%) of the sample met the criteria for major depressive disorder, 21.5% met the criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, and 19.1% reported comorbidity of depression and anxiety. Beyond demographic, COVID-19, and work-related characteristics, PMIEs contributed to depression and anxiety among HSCWs. The integrative model indicated the mediating role of perceived stress and moral injury symptoms in the associations of PMIEs with depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings highlight HSCWs' mental burden during the COVID-19 pandemic and the important contribution of exposure to PMIEs to this burden. Clinicians treating HSCWs coping with depression and anxiety following the COVID-19 should also attend to moral injury symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
20.
Psychol Trauma ; 14(8): 1314-1323, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health and social care workers (HSCWs) are facing morally challenging situations and life-threatening decisions. Following exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) that undermine deeply held moral beliefs and expectations, HSCWs might experience moral injury (MI) and other deleterious psychiatric consequences. The present study examined associations between exposure to PMIEs, MI symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), complex PTSD (CPTSD), and self-criticism among HSCWs. METHOD: A sample of 296 Israeli HSCWs responded to online validated self-report questionnaires in a cross-sectional designed survey in February and March 2021. RESULTS: Participants' self-reported PTSD (8.9%) and CPTSD (4.8%) rates match the rates of Israel's general population. A moderated-mediation model shows that high self-criticism intensified the relations between exposure to PMIEs and MI symptoms, and between MI symptoms and CPTSD symptoms. Importantly, the indirect effect of exposure to PMIEs on both PTSD and CPTSD symptoms via MI symptoms existed only among those with high levels of self-criticism. CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings offer a novel overview of the associations between patterns of exposure to PMIEs, MI, PTSD, and CPTSD. Clinicians treating HSCWs coping with COVID-19-related moral injury should be aware of the importance of high self-criticism in the possible posttraumatic sequelae of exposure to PMIEs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Pandemias , Apoio Social
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