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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109879, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677567

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant. Maternal Cd exposure throughout pregnancy caused fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, the pivotal time window of Cd-evoked FGR and its mechanism are unknown. Here, we will establish a murine model to explore the effects of maternal Cd exposure at different stages of gestation on fetal growth and placental progesterone biosynthesis. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups. For Cd groups, mice were given with CdCl2 (150 mg/L) through drinking water at early (GD0-GD6), middle (GD7-GD12) and late (GD13-GD17) gestation, respectively. The controls received reverses osmosis (RO) water. Results showed that maternal cadmium exposure only in late gestation lowered fetal weight and length. Correspondingly, placental Cd level in late gestational Cd exposure is the highest among three different gestational stages. Although gestational Cd exposure had few adverse effects in the weight and diameter of mouse placenta, placental vascular development, as determined by H&E staining and cluster of differentiation-34 (CD-34) immunostaining, was impaired in mice exposed to Cd during late pregnancy. Additionally, late gestational exposure to cadmium markedly reduced progesterone level in maternal serum and placenta. In line, the expression of key progesterone synthetases, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3ß-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), was obviously downregulated in placenta from mice was exposed Cd during late pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal Cd exposure during late pregnancy, but not early and middle pregnancy, induces fetal growth restriction partially via inhibiting placental progesterone synthesis.

2.
Pharmacol Rev ; 72(1): 1-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767622

RESUMO

Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow limitation. Although asthma was once simply categorized as atopic or nonatopic, emerging analyses over the last few decades have revealed a variety of asthma endotypes that are attributed to numerous pathophysiological mechanisms. The classification of asthma by endotype is primarily routed in different profiles of airway inflammation that contribute to bronchoconstriction. Many asthma therapeutics target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which either enhance bronchodilation or prevent bronchoconstriction. Short-acting and long-acting ß 2-agonists are widely used bronchodilators that signal through the activation of the ß 2-adrenergic receptor. Short-acting and long-acting antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are used to reduce bronchoconstriction by blocking the action of acetylcholine. Leukotriene antagonists that block the signaling of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 are used as an add-on therapy to reduce bronchoconstriction and inflammation induced by cysteinyl leukotrienes. A number of GPCR-targeting asthma drug candidates are also in different stages of development. Among them, antagonists of prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 have advanced into phase III clinical trials. Others, including antagonists of the adenosine A2B receptor and the histamine H4 receptor, are in early stages of clinical investigation. In the past decade, significant research advancements in pharmacology, cell biology, structural biology, and molecular physiology have greatly deepened our understanding of the therapeutic roles of GPCRs in asthma and drug action on these GPCRs. This review summarizes our current understanding of GPCR signaling and pharmacology in the context of asthma treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Although current treatment methods for asthma are effective for a majority of asthma patients, there are still a large number of patients with poorly controlled asthma who may experience asthma exacerbations. This review summarizes current asthma treatment methods and our understanding of signaling and pharmacology of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in asthma therapy, and discusses controversies regarding the use of GPCR drugs and new opportunities in developing GPCR-targeting therapeutics for the treatment of asthma.

3.
Waste Manag ; 101: 180-187, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622863

RESUMO

With the rapid development of photovoltaic industry, the recycling of waste solar photovoltaic (PV) panels is becoming a critical and global challenge. Considering PV panels recycling is significantly effective and worthwhile to save natural resources and reduce the cost of production, how to selectively recycle valuable components of PV panels is the hot and dominant topic. Different from current mechanical crushing, heat treatment and chemical operation processes, novel and environment-friendly recycling approaches by using high voltage pulse discharge in water, called high voltage fragmentation (HVF), was discussed under different discharge conditions. The results showed that discharging across surface and interior of PV panels produced ablation round holes, sputter metal particles and dendritic channels. The average particle size decreased with the ascent of pulse number and voltage amplitude. Considering the energy consumption, the optimal condition of HVF in this paper was 160 kV for 300 pulses with the energy consumption of 192.99 J/g, crushing the PV panels into particles of 4.1 mm in average (13.7% of the initial size). More particle was distributed among the 0.1-2 mm size fractions as the energy increased. Selective fragmented products, such as Cu, Al, Pb, Ag and Sn, are concentrated on the fractions under 1 mm. Finally, hybrid crushing energy consumption model combined with fractal theory was discussed, which presented close relationship between energy and average particle size. Walker's model (n = 2.047 determined by fractal theory) had the best fitting effect.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Metais , Reciclagem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683329

RESUMO

AIMS: Irisin, Betatrophin and Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance (IR) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), respectively. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential accuracy of this combination of three cytokines in screening PCOS. METHODS: 186 individuals were recruited for this study. Circulating Irisin, Betatrophin and ZAG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between these serum biomarkers and PCOS was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these biomarkers for PCOS women. RESULTS: In women with PCOS, serum Irisin and Betatrophin levels were markedly elevated compared to those in healthy controls (p<0.01), while ZAG levels were lower (p<0.01). PCOS women with IR (M-value<6.28) had lower circulating ZAG concentrations, and higher circulating Irisin and Betatrophin levels relative to PCOS women without IR (M-value ≥ 6.28). ROC curve analyses showed that the AUC for Irisin, ZAG and Betatrophin for predicting PCOS were 0.77, 0.83 and 0.85, respectively. In a joint ROC curves analysis of these serum markers and other parameters, the results showed that the AUC was 0.93, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.1 % and 92.3 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: When compared to using single cytokine, the analysis of Irisin, ZAG and Betatrophin elevates the accuracy in diagnosing PCOS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718964

RESUMO

Fluorescent sensor has been noticed in detecting system due to its sensitive, selective, operational simplicity and low cost. We designed a coumarin-connected carboxylic indolium sensor molecule that is water-soluble and cytomembrane-permeable. This infrared (IR) emitter is selectively sensitive towards cyanide detection in aqueous media according to CN- nucleophilic attack on the indole C=N function. Upon the addition of CN- anion, the color of sensor in water varied from blue to colorless by naked eyes and fluorescence quenching was observed by spectroscopic method. This was because the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) effect occurred when the fluorescent sensor was added with CN-. The minimum detection limit of the sensor's fluorescence response to CN- is 4.44 × 10-7 mol/L. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity test shows the sensor has lower cytotoxicity, and indicates that this sensor can be utilized for practical detection of trace cyanide in wastewater.

6.
Transplant Proc ; 51(9): 3159-3162, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be the best currently available method to treat relapsed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) related to Epstein-Barr virus. The high rate of transplantation-related complications was initially the main obstacle preventing the wider adoption of this protocol; however, the previously more common complications, such as infection and graft failure, have fallen to very low levels with the development of new drugs and methods. Some other complications, such as veno-occlusive disease and transplantation associated thrombotic microangiopathy, are rare after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but the morbidity and mortality associated with them are very high. CASE PRESENTATION: A patient with relapsed HLH related to Epstein-Barr virus showed the sequential severe complications of veno-occlusive disease, transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, and acute graft-vs-host disease after haploidentical transplantation. This patient was successfully treated by stopping administration of calcineurin inhibitors and instead treating with defibrotide, rituximab, CD25 monoclonal antibody, atorvastatin calcium tablets, methylprednisolone, budesonide, continuous plasma exchange, and bedside ultrafiltration. At the last follow-up, the patient had been living disease free for 2 years without any other complications. CONCLUSION: Epstein-Barr virus related-HLH patients have severe clinical features and currently poor prognosis. Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be the best way to treat this disease; however, the management of related complications is vital in the improvement of long-term survival.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713566

RESUMO

A series of Ni1Mg2Al1Ox, Mn1Mg2Al1Ox, 0.5Pt/Ni1Mg2Al1Ox and 0.5Pt/Mn1Mg2Al1Ox catalysts were carefully prepared and their NOx storage and reduction (NSR) performance including NOx oxidation efficiency (NOE), NOx storage capacity (NSC), NOx conversion rate (XNO), N2 selectivity (SN2), N2O selectivity (SN2O) and NH3 selectivity (SNH3), was systematically investigated. A SO2 resistance test was also performed in the presence of 100 ppm SO2. The NOE and NSC experimental results revealed that the Ni1Mg2Al1Ox catalyst possesses a higher NSC, while the Mn1Mg2Al1Ox catalyst possesses a better NOE. With regard to XNO, 0.5Pt/Ni1Mg2Al1Ox presented higher results at 200 °C and 400 °C, while 0.5Pt/Mn1Mg2Al1Ox obtained the highest result at 300 °C, which was more than 60% for both. In addition, compared to 0.5Pt/Ni1Mg2Al1Ox, 0.5Pt/Mn1Mg2Al1Ox exhibited a relatively higher SN2 and lower SN2O and SNH3. The NOx-TPD and H2-TPSR results indicated that NOx adsorbed on Ni1Mg2Al1Ox and 0.5Pt/Ni1Mg2Al1Ox is more stable, and that NH3 can be formed in large amounts in a lower temperature range. Both Pt-containing catalysts presented a quite stable XNO in ten cycles in the presence of 100 ppm SO2, and their SN2 can be remarkably enhanced to more than 80%, which could be attributed to the reactions of NH3-SCR and SO2 + NH3. We believe this new insight can provide a new way of thinking for the development of NSR catalysts.

8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(11): 1436-1448, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685992

RESUMO

PTENα and PTENß are two longer translational variants of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) messenger RNA. Their expressional regulations and functions in carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that, in contrast with the well-established tumour-suppressive role of canonical PTEN, PTENα and PTENß promote tumourigenesis by directly interacting with the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) presenter WDR5 to promote H3K4 trimethylation and maintain a tumour-promoting signature. We also show that USP9X and FBXW11 bind to the amino-terminal extensions of PTENα/ß, and respectively deubiquitinate and ubiquitinate lysines 235 and 239 in PTENα to regulate PTENα/ß stability. In accordance, USP9X promotes tumourigenesis and FBXW11 suppresses tumourigenesis through PTENα/ß. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pten gene is a double-edged sword for carcinogenesis, and reinterpretation of the importance of the Pten gene in carcinogenesis is warranted.

9.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674180

RESUMO

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging as a noninvasive biomedical imaging technology exhibits high spatial resolution and deep tissue penetration for in vivo imaging. In order to fully explore the potential of PA imaging in biomedical applications, new contrast agents with improved PA stability and efficiency are in high demand. Herein, we present a new PA agent based on an oxygen-embedded quinoidal nonacene chromophore that is self-assembled into nanoparticles (Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG), assisted by polyethylene glycol (PEG). Notably, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG is 1.5 fold that of semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (Nano(PCPDTBT)-PEG) and 2.8 fold that of Au nanorods, owing to the low quantum yield of Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG. Thereby, Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG possess a greatly elevated PA signal intensity, compared to Nano(PCPDTBT)-PEG and Au nanorods, which have been widely explored for PA imaging. Due to the high resistance to photo bleaching, Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG exhibits higher PA signal stability, which may be employed for long-term PA imaging. Moreover, when magnetic Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 nanoparticles are incorporated into Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG, not only are magnetic resonance signals generated but also the photoacoustic efficacy is greatly enhanced. Therefore, Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG offers distinct properties: (i) the elevated photoacoustic effect allows for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging, (ii) small size (10 nm in diameter) results in efficient tumor-targeting, and (iii) the facile application of efficient photothermal therapy in vivo. The current work offers the possibility of oxygen-embedded quinoidal acene as a promising PA probe for precision phototheranostics.

10.
Small ; : e1904224, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724819

RESUMO

3D electronic/optoelectronic devices have shown great potentials for various applications due to their unique properties inherited not only from functional materials, but also from 3D architectures. Although a variety of fabrication methods including mechanically guided assembly have been reported, the resulting 3D devices show no stimuli-responsive functions or are not free standing, thereby limiting their applications. Herein, the stimulus responsive assembly of complex 3D structures driven by temperature-responsive hydrogels is demonstrated for applications in 3D multifunctional sensors. The assembly driving force, compressive buckling, arises from the volume shrinkage of the responsive hydrogel substrates when they are heated above the lower critical solution temperature. Driven by the compressive buckling force, the 2D-formed membrane materials, which are pre-defined and selectively bonded to the substrates, are then assembled to 3D structures. They include "tent," "tower," "two-floor pavilion," "dome," "basket," and "nested-cages" with delicate geometries. Moreover, the demonstrated 3D bifunctional sensors based on laser induced graphene show capability of spatially resolved tactile sensing and temperature sensing. These multifunctional 3D sensors would open new applications in soft robotics, bioelectronics, micro-electromechanical systems, and others.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(19): 2333-2345, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HCMR (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry) is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, prospective registry of 2,755 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) recruited from 44 sites in 6 countries. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to improve risk prediction in HCM by incorporating cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), genetic, and biomarker data. METHODS: Demographic and echocardiographic data were collected. Patients underwent CMR including cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) (replacement fibrosis), and T1 mapping for measurement of extracellular volume as a measure of interstitial fibrosis. Blood was drawn for the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and genetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,755 patients were studied. Mean age was 49 ± 11 years, 71% were male, and 17% non-white. Mean ESC (European Society of Cardiology) risk score was 2.48 ± 0.56. Eighteen percent had a resting left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient ≥30 mm Hg. Thirty-six percent had a sarcomere mutation identified, and 50% had any LGE. Sarcomere mutation-positive patients were more likely to have reverse septal curvature morphology, LGE, and no significant resting LVOT obstruction. Those that were sarcomere mutation negative were more likely to have isolated basal septal hypertrophy, less LGE, and more LVOT obstruction. Interstitial fibrosis was present in segments both with and without LGE. Serum NT-proBNP and cTnT levels correlated with increasing LGE and extracellular volume in a graded fashion. CONCLUSIONS: The HCMR population has characteristics of low-risk HCM. Ninety-three percent had no or only mild functional limitation. Baseline data separated patients broadly into 2 categories. One group was sarcomere mutation positive and more likely had reverse septal curvature morphology, more fibrosis, but less resting obstruction, whereas the other was sarcomere mutation negative and more likely had isolated basal septal hypertrophy with obstruction, but less fibrosis. Further follow-up will allow better understanding of these subgroups and development of an improved risk prediction model incorporating all these markers.

12.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700117

RESUMO

We recently demonstrated that leukocyte Ig-like receptor 4 (LILRB4) expressed by monocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells mediates T-cell inhibition and leukemia cell infiltration via its intracellular domain. The cytoplasmic domain of LILRB4 contains three immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs); the tyrosines at positions 360, 412, and 442 are phosphorylation sites. Here, we analyzed how the ITIMs of LILRB4 in AML cells mediate its function. Our in vitro and in vivo data show that Y412 and Y442, but not Y360, of LILRB4 are required for T-cell inhibition, and all three ITIMs are needed for leukemia cell infiltration. We constructed chimeric proteins containing the extracellular domain of LILRB4 and the intracellular domain of LILRB1 and vice versa. The intracellular domain of LILRB4, but not that of LILRB1, mediates T-cell suppression and AML cell migration. Our studies thus defined the unique signaling roles of LILRB4 ITIMs in AML cells.

13.
Arch Virol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734749

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has spread globally and emerged as an urgent public health threat. Bacteriophages are considered an effective weapon against multidrug-resistant pathogens. In this study, we report a novel lytic phage, kpssk3, which is able to lyse CRKP and degrade exopolysaccharide (EPS). The morphological characteristics of kpssk3 observed by transmission electron microscopy, including a polyhedral head and a short tail, indicate that it belongs to the family Podoviridae. A one-step growth curve revealed that kpssk3 has a latent period of 10 min and a burst size of 200 plaque-forming units (pfu) per cell. kpssk3 was able to lyse 25 out of 27 (92.59%) clinically isolated CRKP strains, and it also exhibited high stability to changes in temperature and pH. kpssk3 has a linear dsDNA genome of 40,539 bp with 52.80% G+C content and 42 putative open reading frames (ORFs). No antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, or integrases were identified in the genome. Based on bioinformatic analysis, the tail fiber protein of phage kpssk3 was speculated to possess depolymerase activity towards EPS. By comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis, it was determined that kpssk3 is a new T7-like virus and belongs to the subfamily Autographivirinae. The characterization and genomic analysis of kpssk3 will promote our understanding of phage biology and diversity and provide a potential strategy for controlling CRKP infection.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759011

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to develop new, rice starch-based superabsorbent materials (SPAMs), degradable and eco-friendly. Indica rice starch-based SPAM had the best water absorption capacity (439 g water/g) with a relatively high amylose content (23.6%) that may enhance the interaction and structural strength of polymer chains through the formation of hydrogen-bond. Meanwhile, the rigidity and structure of branched chain of amylopectin can improve the water holding capacity, thus the glutinous rice starch (75.1% amylopectin content)-based SPAM also had good water absorption characteristics (399 g water/g). Regeneration rate has a certain correlation with water absorption rate, therefore, the indica rice starch-based SPAMs only lost 30% of their reswelling capacity when reused three consecutive times. On the other hand, the effects of 4 cations on SPAM water absorption were according the following order: K+ < Na+ < Ca2+ < Al3+. The formation of graft copolymer of sodium acrylate and rice starch was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and X-Ray diffraction. The microstructure of SPAM showed a porous arrangement as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, when present within the storage environment, the indica rice starch-based SPAM was effective in preventing rice grain moisture accumulation.

15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 77: 105911, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671330

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis results from sustained liver injury and is characterized by inflammation, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and liver structure destruction. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes toxic liver injury and fibrosis, yet the mechanism in liver fibrosis remains unclear. We investigated the effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on liver fibrosis in mice. Mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 3 weeks or 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. OCA (5 mg/kg) or PBS is administered daily during CCl4-treatment. At sacrifice, biochemical parameters and fibrosis were assessed. Pretreatment with OCA alleviated hepatic injury in 6 weeks group but not in 3 weeks group of CCl4 liver cirrhosis. At same time, pretreatment with OCA exhibit a dramatic protection of liver fibrosis in both 3 weeks group and 6 weeks group. Further experiments found that OCA pretreatment inhibited α-SMA expression and the activation of hepatic pSmad3 in 3 weeks group and 6 weeks group of CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis. Moreover, OCA activated FXR nuclear translocation and increased the interaction between liver FXR and pSmad3. This led to the discovery of a novel role for FXR in regulating fibrosis through interaction with pSmad3. Our data suggest that CCl4-induced liver fibrosis is protected by OCA through interaction between farnesoid X receptor and Smad3.

16.
Inflamm Res ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are physiological suppressors of cytokine signaling which have been identified as a negative feedback loop to weaken cytokine signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms is unknown. This study was to investigate the role of SOCS1 in the oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGDR) or LPS-induced inflammation in microglia cell line BV-2 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BV-2 microglial cells were used to construct inflammation model. A SOCS1 over-expression plasmid was constructed, and the SOCS1-deficient cells were generated by utilizing the CRISPR/CAS9 system. BV-2 microglial cells were pretreated with over-expression plasmid or SOCS1 CRISPR plasmid before OGDR and LPS stimulation. The effect of SOCS1 on proinflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated. RESULTS: We found that SOCS1 increased in OGDR or LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. SOCS1 over-expression significantly reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-6, and CRISPR/CAS9-mediated SOCS1 knockout reversed this effect. Also we determined that SOCS1 over-expression reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while the absence of SOCS1 increased the production of ROS after OGDR or LPS-stimulated inflammation. Furthermore, we found that OGDR and LPS induced the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in BV2 cells. Nevertheless, SOCS1 over-expression attenuated the expression of TLR4, while knockdown of SOCS1 upregulated TLR4. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that SOCS1 played a protective role under inflammatory conditions in OGDR or LPS treated BV-2 cells through regulating ROS and TLR4. These data demonstrated that SOCS1 served as a potential therapeutic target to alleviate inflammation after ischemic stroke.

17.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709636

RESUMO

miR-760 is downregulated in various human tumors, and fat metabolism disorder correlates with tumor progression, especially anomalism of key fat metabolic enzymes that are positively modulated by c-Myc. The aim of our study is to elucidate the presumptive molecular mechanisms of miR-760-mediated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell function and to assess the therapeutic significance of miR-760 in ESCC patients. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis indicated that miR-760 was significantly downexpressed in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry denoted that induced ectopic overexpression of miR-760 dramatically inhibited ESCC cells proliferation, attenuated migration, and invasion facilitated apoptosis in vitro. Mechanistically, c-Myc predicted using bioinformatics was identified as a potential target gene of miR-760 by luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression levels of c-Myc and key fat metabolic enzymes were downregulated with miR-760 mimics. The above investigation results, responsible for the antineoplastic properties of miR-760 in ESCC, preliminarily highlighted that the hypothetical signal amongst miR-760, c-Myc, and key fat metabolic enzymes may develop a novel diagnostic marker, therapeutic target, and independent prognostic indicator.

18.
Neuroscience ; 422: 134-145, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682951

RESUMO

Schwann cells (SCs) combined with acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) effectively promote the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerves, but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. However, the disadvantages of SCs include their limited source and slow rate of expansion in vitro. Previous studies have found that adipose-derived stem cells have the ability to differentiate into Schwann-like cells. Therefore, we speculated that Schwann-like cells combined with ANAs could profoundly facilitate nerve regeneration and repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of regeneration and repair. In this study, tissue-engineered nerves were first constructed by adipose-derived Schwann-like cells and ANAs to bridge missing sciatic nerves. Then, the rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 12 per group): a Control group; a Model group; an ADSC group; an SC-L group; and a DMEM group. Twelve weeks postsurgery, behavioral function tests and molecular biological techniques were used to evaluate the function of regenerated nerves and the relevant molecular mechanisms after sciatic nerve injury (SNI). The results showed that adipose-derived Schwann-like cells combined with ANAs markedly promoted sciatic nerve regeneration and repair. These findings also demonstrated that the expression of neurotrophic factors (NFs) was increased, and the expression of Janus activated kinase2 (JAK2)/P-JAK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3)/P-STAT3 was decreased in the spinal cord after SNI. Therefore, these results suggested that highly expressed NFs in the spinal cord could promote nerve regeneration and repair by inhibiting activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

19.
J Nat Prod ; 82(11): 3111-3120, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686503

RESUMO

Buxaustroines A-N (1-14), a series of triterpenoidal alkaloids featuring a novel 17(13→18)abeo motif, were obtained from the extract of Buxus austro-yunnanensis. Their structures were assigned based on NMR data analysis and X-ray diffraction crystallography. A putative biosynthetic pathway for one of the alkaloids from a co-isolate 15 is proposed. In the assessment of their bioactivities, some of the compounds displayed protective effects against doxorubicin-induced injury of myocardial cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies of 1-14, which are based on the same skeleton, were conducted.

20.
iScience ; 21: 499-508, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710965

RESUMO

A gold-catalyzed 6-endo-dig carbocyclization of alkyne with the pendent diazo group is reported. It provides an expeditious approach for the synthesis of multi-functionalized naphthalene derivatives under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies suggest that a vinyl gold carbene is generated as the key intermediate in this cascade transformation that smoothly delivers naphthalene products through an unprecedented stepwise aromatization or an intermolecular aromatic substitution process. The unique endocyclic vinyl species is inaccessible with other precursors; thus, novel carbene cascade transformations could be envisioned with the current catalytic model. Functional groups, such as alkenyl, hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups, remain untouched under these conditions. In addition, the utility of these generated 2-carboxyl naphthalenes is illustrated by the synthesis of chiral 1,2'-binaphthalene ligands and π-conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons (CPHs).

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