Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.483
Filtrar
1.
Neuroscience ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682951

RESUMO

Schwann cells (SCs) combined with acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) effectively promote the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerves, but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. However, the disadvantages of SCs include their limited source and slow rate of expansion in vitro. Previous studies have found that adipose-derived stem cells have the ability to differentiate into Schwann-like cells. Therefore, we speculated that Schwann-like cells combined with ANAs could profoundly facilitate nerve regeneration and repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of regeneration and repair. In this study, tissue-engineered nerves were first constructed by adipose-derived Schwann-like cells and ANAs to bridge missing sciatic nerves. Then, the rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=12 per group): a Control group; a Model group; an ADSC group; an SC-L group; and a DMEM group. Twelve weeks postsurgery, behavioral function tests and molecular biological techniques were used to evaluate the function of regenerated nerves and the relevant molecular mechanisms after sciatic nerve injury (SNI). The results showed that adipose-derived Schwann-like cells combined with ANAs markedly promoted sciatic nerve regeneration and repair. These findings also demonstrated that the expression of neurotrophic factors (NFs) was increased, and the expression of Janus activated kinase2 (JAK2)/P-JAK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3)/P-STAT3 was decreased in the spinal cord after SNI. Therefore, these results suggested that highly expressed NFs in the spinal cord could promote nerve regeneration and repair by inhibiting activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683329

RESUMO

AIMS: Irisin, Betatrophin and Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance (IR) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), respectively. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential accuracy of this combination of three cytokines in screening PCOS. METHODS: 186 individuals were recruited for this study. Circulating Irisin, Betatrophin and ZAG concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between these serum biomarkers and PCOS was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these biomarkers for PCOS women. RESULTS: In women with PCOS, serum Irisin and Betatrophin levels were markedly elevated compared to those in healthy controls (p<0.01), while ZAG levels were lower (p<0.01). PCOS women with IR (M-value<6.28) had lower circulating ZAG concentrations, and higher circulating Irisin and Betatrophin levels relative to PCOS women without IR (M-value ≥ 6.28). ROC curve analyses showed that the AUC for Irisin, ZAG and Betatrophin for predicting PCOS were 0.77, 0.83 and 0.85, respectively. In a joint ROC curves analysis of these serum markers and other parameters, the results showed that the AUC was 0.93, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82.1 % and 92.3 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: When compared to using single cytokine, the analysis of Irisin, ZAG and Betatrophin elevates the accuracy in diagnosing PCOS.

3.
Nat Cell Biol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685992

RESUMO

PTENα and PTENß are two longer translational variants of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) messenger RNA. Their expressional regulations and functions in carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that, in contrast with the well-established tumour-suppressive role of canonical PTEN, PTENα and PTENß promote tumourigenesis by directly interacting with the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) presenter WDR5 to promote H3K4 trimethylation and maintain a tumour-promoting signature. We also show that USP9X and FBXW11 bind to the amino-terminal extensions of PTENα/ß, and respectively deubiquitinate and ubiquitinate lysines 235 and 239 in PTENα to regulate PTENα/ß stability. In accordance, USP9X promotes tumourigenesis and FBXW11 suppresses tumourigenesis through PTENα/ß. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pten gene is a double-edged sword for carcinogenesis, and reinterpretation of the importance of the Pten gene in carcinogenesis is warranted.

4.
J Nat Prod ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686503

RESUMO

Buxaustroines A-N (1-14), a series of triterpenoidal alkaloids featuring a novel 17(13→18)abeo motif, were obtained from the extract of Buxus austro-yunnanensis. Their structures were assigned based on NMR data analysis and X-ray diffraction crystallography. A putative biosynthetic pathway for one of the alkaloids from a co-isolate 15 is proposed. In the assessment of their bioactivities, some of the compounds displayed protective effects against doxorubicin-induced injury of myocardial cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies of 1-14, which are based on the same skeleton, were conducted.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 105927, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679847

RESUMO

Root resorption is usually inflammatory in nature and has a tight link with immune system. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) could promote cementum regeneration. The cross-talk of immune cells and cementoblasts may play an important role in the regeneration which stayed to be elucidated. In this study, a CD8+ T cells-OCCM-30 cells coculture system was established in vitro to investigate whether CD8+ T cells could enhance the anabolic effect of iPTH on cementoblasts and to find out the potential link of the effect with Wnt signal pathway. Determined by real-time PCR and Western Blot, we found an amplified cementogenesis in the OCCM-30 cells from coculture system, including increased mRNA and protein expression of Alp, Opn and Runx2, ALP activity and mineralization. We also found iPTH could increase the expression of Wnt10b in CD8+ T cells by ELISA. In addition, Wnt10b would promote the proliferation of OCCM-30 cells, while the effect on differentiation was various in different culture medium. These results demonstrated that the stimulating effect of iPTH on cementoblasts could be mediated through an interaction with CD8+ T cells, and T-cell-induced Wnt10b might be a key mechanism in the mediation.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680516

RESUMO

Doping in a lattice refers to the introduction of very small quantities of foreign atoms and has generally small effect on decreasing the lattice thermal conductivity, unlike alloying which involves large fractions of other elements and strongly enhances point defect phonon scattering. Here, we report that, by alloying only 3% of In on the Cu sites of the diamond-like lattice of CuFeS2 chalcopyrite compound (Cu1-xInxFeS2 x=0.03) has a disproportionally large effect in reducing the lattice thermal conductivity of the compound from 2.32 to 1.36 Wm-1K-1 at 630 K. We find that In is not fully ionized to +3 when on the Cu sublattice and exists mainly in the +1 oxidation state. The 5s2 lone pair of electrons of In+ makes this atom incompatible (referred to as discordant) with the tetrahedral geometry of the crystallographic site. This causes strong local bond distortions thereby softening the In-S and Cu-S chemical bonds and introducing localized low frequency vibrations. The latter couple with the base phonon frequencies of the CuFeS2 matrix enhancing the anharmonicity and decreasing the phonon velocity, and consequently the lattice thermal conductivity. The control material in which the In doping is on the Fe3+ site of the structure at the same doping level (and found in the site-compatible In3+ state), has a far smaller effect on the phonon scattering.

7.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8352-8362, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Increasing antibiotic resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) in patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) has resulted in treatment using bacteriophage. This study aimed to identify Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci and antibiotic resistance in patients with BSI in a burn intensive care unit (BICU). The environment, including sewage systems, were investigated for the presence of lytic bacteriophage. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between January 2011 to December 2017, 486 patients with BSI were admitted to the BICU. Blood culture identified the main infectious organisms. Bacterial screening tests for antibiotic resistance included the D test and the modified Hodge test (MHT). Lytic bacteriophage was isolated from the environment. RESULTS In 486 patients with BSI, the main causative organisms were Gram-negative bacilli (64.6%), Gram-positive cocci (27.7%), and fungi (7.7%). The main pathogenic organisms that showed multidrug resistance (MDR) were Acinetobacter baumannii (26.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.8%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%). Bacteriophage was mainly isolated from Gram-negative bacilli. Screening of hospital and residential sewage systems identified increased levels of bacteriophage in hospital sewage. CONCLUSIONS The causative organisms of BSI and the presence of MDR in a hospital BICU were not typical, which supports the need for routine bacterial monitoring. Hospital sewage provides a potential source of bacteriophage for the treatment of MDR pathogenic bacteria.

8.
Structure ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669042

RESUMO

"Universal" synthetic antibody (sAB)-based fiducial marks have been generated by customized phage display selections to facilitate the rapid structure determination of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling complexes by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (SP cryo-EM). sABs were generated to the two major G protein subclasses: trimeric Gi and Gs, as well as mini-Gs, and were tested to ensure binding in the context of their cognate GPCRs. Epitope binning revealed that multiple distinct epitopes exist for each G(αßγ) protein. Several Gßγ-specific sABs, cross-reactive between trimeric Gi and Gs, were identified suggesting they could be used across all subclasses in a "plug and play" fashion. sABs were also generated to a representative of another class of GPCR signaling partner, G protein receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) and evaluated further, supporting the generalizability of the approach. EM data suggested that the subclass-specific sABs provide effective single and dual fiducials for multiple GPCR signaling complexes.

9.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674180

RESUMO

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging as noninvasive biomedical imaging technology exhibits high spatial resolution and deep tissue penetration for in vivo imaging. In order to fully exert the potential of PA imaging in biomedical applications, new contrast agents with improved PA stability and efficiency are highly demanded. Herein, we present a new PA agent based on oxygen-embedded quinoidal nonacene chromophore that is self-assembled into nanoparticle (Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG), assisted by polyethylene glycol (PEG). Notably, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG is 1.5 folds that of semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (Nano(PCPDTBT)-PEG), and 2.8 folds that of Au nanorods, owing to the low quantum yield of Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG. And thereby, Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG possess the greatly elevated PA signal intensity, compared to Nano(PCPDTBT)-PEG and Au nanorods, which have been widely explored for PA imaging. Due to the high resistance to photo bleaching, Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG exhibits higher PA signal stability, which may be employed for long-term PA imaging. Moreover, when magnetic Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 nanoparticles are incorporated into Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG, not only magnetic resonance signals are generated, but also the photoacoustic efficacy is greatly enhanced. Therefore, Nano(O-Nonacene)-PEG offer distinct properties: (i) The elevated photoacoustic effect allows for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging; (ii) Small size (10 nm in diameter) results in efficient tumor-targeting; (iii) The facile application of efficient photothermal therapy in vivo. The current work opens a possibility of oxygen-embedded quinoidal acene as a promising PA probe for precision phototheranostics.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4949, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666511

RESUMO

Surface plasmons polaritons are mixed electronic and electromagnetic waves. They have become a workhorse of nanophotonics because plasmonic modes can be confined in space at the nanometer scale and in time at the 10 fs scale. However, in practice, plasmonic modes are often excited using diffraction-limited beams. In order to take full advantage of their potential for sensing and information technology, it is necessary to develop a microscale ultrafast electrical source of surface plasmons. Here, we report the design, fabrication and characterization of nanoantennas to emit surface plasmons by inelastic electron tunneling. The antenna controls the emission spectrum, the emission polarization, and enhances the emission efficiency by more than three orders of magnitude. We introduce a theoretical model of the antenna in good agreement with the results.

11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 77: 105911, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671330

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis results from sustained liver injury and is characterized by inflammation, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and liver structure destruction. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes toxic liver injury and fibrosis, yet the mechanism in liver fibrosis remains unclear. We investigated the effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on liver fibrosis in mice. Mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 3 weeks or 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. OCA (5 mg/kg) or PBS is administered daily during CCl4-treatment. At sacrifice, biochemical parameters and fibrosis were assessed. Pretreatment with OCA alleviated hepatic injury in 6 weeks group but not in 3 weeks group of CCl4 liver cirrhosis. At same time, pretreatment with OCA exhibit a dramatic protection of liver fibrosis in both 3 weeks group and 6 weeks group. Further experiments found that OCA pretreatment inhibited α-SMA expression and the activation of hepatic pSmad3 in 3 weeks group and 6 weeks group of CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis. Moreover, OCA activated FXR nuclear translocation and increased the interaction between liver FXR and pSmad3. This led to the discovery of a novel role for FXR in regulating fibrosis through interaction with pSmad3. Our data suggest that CCl4-induced liver fibrosis is protected by OCA through interaction between farnesoid X receptor and Smad3.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109879, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677567

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant. Maternal Cd exposure throughout pregnancy caused fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, the pivotal time window of Cd-evoked FGR and its mechanism are unknown. Here, we will establish a murine model to explore the effects of maternal Cd exposure at different stages of gestation on fetal growth and placental progesterone biosynthesis. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups. For Cd groups, mice were given with CdCl2 (150 mg/L) through drinking water at early (GD0-GD6), middle (GD7-GD12) and late (GD13-GD17) gestation, respectively. The controls received reverses osmosis (RO) water. Results showed that maternal cadmium exposure only in late gestation lowered fetal weight and length. Correspondingly, placental Cd level in late gestational Cd exposure is the highest among three different gestational stages. Although gestational Cd exposure had few adverse effects in the weight and diameter of mouse placenta, placental vascular development, as determined by H&E staining and cluster of differentiation-34 (CD-34) immunostaining, was impaired in mice exposed to Cd during late pregnancy. Additionally, late gestational exposure to cadmium markedly reduced progesterone level in maternal serum and placenta. In line, the expression of key progesterone synthetases, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3ß-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), was obviously downregulated in placenta from mice was exposed Cd during late pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal Cd exposure during late pregnancy, but not early and middle pregnancy, induces fetal growth restriction partially via inhibiting placental progesterone synthesis.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(19): 2333-2345, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HCMR (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry) is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, prospective registry of 2,755 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) recruited from 44 sites in 6 countries. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to improve risk prediction in HCM by incorporating cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), genetic, and biomarker data. METHODS: Demographic and echocardiographic data were collected. Patients underwent CMR including cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) (replacement fibrosis), and T1 mapping for measurement of extracellular volume as a measure of interstitial fibrosis. Blood was drawn for the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and genetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,755 patients were studied. Mean age was 49 ± 11 years, 71% were male, and 17% non-white. Mean ESC (European Society of Cardiology) risk score was 2.48 ± 0.56. Eighteen percent had a resting left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient ≥30 mm Hg. Thirty-six percent had a sarcomere mutation identified, and 50% had any LGE. Sarcomere mutation-positive patients were more likely to have reverse septal curvature morphology, LGE, and no significant resting LVOT obstruction. Those that were sarcomere mutation negative were more likely to have isolated basal septal hypertrophy, less LGE, and more LVOT obstruction. Interstitial fibrosis was present in segments both with and without LGE. Serum NT-proBNP and cTnT levels correlated with increasing LGE and extracellular volume in a graded fashion. CONCLUSIONS: The HCMR population has characteristics of low-risk HCM. Ninety-three percent had no or only mild functional limitation. Baseline data separated patients broadly into 2 categories. One group was sarcomere mutation positive and more likely had reverse septal curvature morphology, more fibrosis, but less resting obstruction, whereas the other was sarcomere mutation negative and more likely had isolated basal septal hypertrophy with obstruction, but less fibrosis. Further follow-up will allow better understanding of these subgroups and development of an improved risk prediction model incorporating all these markers.

14.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700117

RESUMO

We recently demonstrated that leukocyte Ig-like receptor 4 (LILRB4) expressed by monocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells mediates T-cell inhibition and leukemia cell infiltration via its intracellular domain. The cytoplasmic domain of LILRB4 contains three immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs); the tyrosines at positions 360, 412, and 442 are phosphorylation sites. Here, we analyzed how the ITIMs of LILRB4 in AML cells mediate its function. Our in vitro and in vivo data show that Y412 and Y442, but not Y360, of LILRB4 are required for T-cell inhibition, and all three ITIMs are needed for leukemia cell infiltration. We constructed chimeric proteins containing the extracellular domain of LILRB4 and the intracellular domain of LILRB1 and vice versa. The intracellular domain of LILRB4, but not that of LILRB1, mediates T-cell suppression and AML cell migration. Our studies thus defined the unique signaling roles of LILRB4 ITIMs in AML cells.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578850

RESUMO

Smart materials with multiple shape memory capacities gradually interested a broad mass of researchers due to their potential application in textiles, smart actuators and aerospace engineering. However, the design and sustainable synthesis of multiple shape memory polymers (SMPs) simultaneously possessing robust mechanical strength, reprocessability, reconfigurability still remain full of challenges. Starting from a readily available biomass material cellulose, a well-defined SMPs, cellulose-graft-poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-1-vinylimidazole) copolymer (Cell-g-(BA-co-VI)), was facilely synthesized by addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) and the subsequent metallosupramolecular crosslinking. Taking advantageous of the dynamic bonding, i.e. the rapid reversible fragmentation and the formation of metal ion-imidazole coordination, polymer networks with highly tunable mechanical properties, excellent solid-state plasticity and quadruple-shape memory capacity are handily attainable. Microscopically, the metal-ligand clusters have a strong tendency to phase segregate from soft grafted copolymers indicated by atomic force microscope (AFM), which serving as netpoints to construct novel SMPs. This article represents our new exploration of the next-generation SMPs basing on cellulose backbone where carrying with supramolecular crosslinked soft grafted copolymers. This architecture design allows achieving robust, reprocessable and reconfigurable thermoplastic SMPs that are tough challengingly realized by many other methods. Integrating these properties into one system with a synergetic manner also provides a novel approach to the high value-adding application of cellulose in the fabrication of advanced functional materials.

16.
Curr Med Chem ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580246

RESUMO

The stories of fluorinated inhalation anesthetics, including synthesis, physicochemistry and pharmacologies, were summarized in this review. Retrospecting the history of inhalation anesthetics revealed their increasing reliance on fluorine and ether structures. Halothane causes a rare but severe immune-based hepatotoxicity, which was resplaced by enflurane in the 1970s. Isoflurane took the place of enflurane in the 1980s, showing modest advantages (e.g., lower solubility, better metabolic stability, and without convulsive predisposition). Desflurane and sevoflurane came into use in the 1990s, which are better anesthetics than isoflurane (less hepatotoxicity, lower solubility, and/or markedly decreased pungency). However, they are still less than perfect. To gain more ideal inhalation anesthetics, a large number of fluorinated halocarbons, polyfluorocycloalkanes, polyfluorocycloalkenes, fluoroarenes, and polyfluorooxetanes, were prepared and their potency and toxicity were evaluated. Although the pharmacology studies suggested that some of these agents produced anesthesia, no further works were continued on these compounds because they showed obvious shortages as anasthetics. Moreover, the anesthetic activity cannot be simply predicted from the molecular structures, and it has to be inferred from the experiments. Several regularities were found by experimental studies: 1) the potency and toxicity of the saturated linear chain halogenated ether are enhanced when its molecular weight is increased; 2) the margin of safety decreases and the recovery time is prolonged when the boiling point of the candidate increases; and 3) compounds with an asymmetric carbon terminal exhibit good anesthesia. Nevertheless, the development of new inhalation anesthetics better than desflurane and sevoflurane is still challenging not only because of the poor structure/activity relationship known so far but also the synthetic issues.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596014

RESUMO

Twelve Hu sheep × thin-tail Han crossbred dry ewes with an average body weight of 32.6 ± 0.68 kg and an age of 3 years were arranged in a 3 × 3 Latin square design, with each experimental period of 24 d to evaluate the effect of substituting alfalfa hay in a portion of concentrate on nutrient intake, digestibility, N utilisation efficiency and methane emissions. The ratios of corn straw to alfalfa to concentrate for 3 diet treatments were 60:0:40, 60:15:25 and 60:30:10, respectively. Intake and digestibility were measured for each of the ewes, which were housed in individual metabolism crates for 6 d after an adaptation period of 14 d, and the feed was offered at 1.2 MEm to ensure approximately 10% orts. Methane emissions were determined in a respiration chamber for 2 consecutive d. An increase in the levels of alfalfa as a substitute for concentrate significantly increased the roughage, NSC and ADF intake and faecal N output as a proportion of N intake and manure N output. Furthermore, this increase in alfalfa input levels decreased DE, ME and N intake; nutrient digestibility; DE/GE, ME/GE and CH4 emissions per day; CH4 output expressed as a portion of the DM, OM and GE intake; and urinary N and ammonia N output, especially between extreme treatments. Alfalfa input levels had no effect on the BW, DM and GE intake; the EB or EB/GE intake; and the retained N. This study indicated that increasing alfalfa input as a substitute for concentrate could significantly decrease the digestibility, CH4 emissions and urinary N and NH4 + -N outputs; and shift the N excretion from urine to faeces; and could sustain a similar DM intake.

18.
Waste Manag ; 101: 180-187, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622863

RESUMO

With the rapid development of photovoltaic industry, the recycling of waste solar photovoltaic (PV) panels is becoming a critical and global challenge. Considering PV panels recycling is significantly effective and worthwhile to save natural resources and reduce the cost of production, how to selectively recycle valuable components of PV panels is the hot and dominant topic. Different from current mechanical crushing, heat treatment and chemical operation processes, novel and environment-friendly recycling approaches by using high voltage pulse discharge in water, called high voltage fragmentation (HVF), was discussed under different discharge conditions. The results showed that discharging across surface and interior of PV panels produced ablation round holes, sputter metal particles and dendritic channels. The average particle size decreased with the ascent of pulse number and voltage amplitude. Considering the energy consumption, the optimal condition of HVF in this paper was 160 kV for 300 pulses with the energy consumption of 192.99 J/g, crushing the PV panels into particles of 4.1 mm in average (13.7% of the initial size). More particle was distributed among the 0.1-2 mm size fractions as the energy increased. Selective fragmented products, such as Cu, Al, Pb, Ag and Sn, are concentrated on the fractions under 1 mm. Finally, hybrid crushing energy consumption model combined with fractal theory was discussed, which presented close relationship between energy and average particle size. Walker's model (n = 2.047 determined by fractal theory) had the best fitting effect.

19.
Food Funct ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657414

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, which is accompanied by follicle growth arrest at the small antral stage, minimal granulosa cell proliferation, and chronic anovulation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are necessary for the body's metabolism, growth and development. Although PUFAs play an important role in the regulation of female reproduction, their role in ovarian development in PCOS is still unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different ratios of n-3/n-6 PUFAs (omega-3/omega-6) on ovary development in PCOS rats. Serum levels of reproductive hormones and enzymes related to steroidogenesis were assessed. The results indicated that PUFAs (n-3/n-6: 1/15) significantly increased ovarian weight and improved the ovarian structure although they had no significant effect on body weight in PCOS rats. Meanwhile, apoptosis was attenuated accompanied by increased cell proliferation by PUFAs (n-3/n-6: 1/15). Moreover, serum levels of hormones (FSH and E2) were also significantly increased by PUFAs (n-3/n-6: 1/15) accompanied by decreased T levels. To investigate whether PUFAs regulate the expression of enzymes related to hormone synthesis, western blotting was used to determine the protein levels of CYP51, CYP19, StAR and 3ß-HSD. The results showed that PUFAs significantly increased the protein levels of all of these enzymes. These results indicate that PUFAs enhance the reproductive performance of PCOS by increasing the expression of steroidogenesis enzymes, which are related to hormone secretion and ovarian functions. These findings provide evidence that a balanced n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio is beneficial for PCOS reproduction.

20.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640228

RESUMO

This study explored the chemical compositions of garlic essential oil, the inhibitory activity of garlic essential oil and diallyl disulfide (DADS) against Phytophthora nicotianae, and the effects on mycelial plasma membrane permeability and P. nicotianae inhibition. In total, 29 compounds were detected in garlic essential oil, of which 26 were detected by gas chromatography‒mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 21 by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS. DADS (60.12% and 19.09%) and trisulfide di-2-propenyl (14.18% and 17.98%) were the major components identified by HS-SPME GC-MS and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Half-inhibitory concentration (Ec50, antagonism) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, fumigation) of DADS against P. nicotianae were 150.83 µL/L and 20 µL/L, respectively, while Ec50 of garlic essential oil was 1108.25 µL/L. Mycelial membrane permeability gradually increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and cell death increased at 450 µL/L DADS. Furthermore, DADS treatment significantly reduced the incidence of tobacco black shank and the number of P. nicotianae pathogens in rhizosphere soil. DADS also promoted root development of tobacco seedlings at low concentrations, which was inhibited at high concentrations. Therefore, DADS may play an important role in the antifungal effect against P. nicotianae by destroying mycelial cell membrane integrity, causing an increase in cell membrane permeability, and leading to cell death.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA