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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959736

RESUMO

Male late-onset hypogonadism is an age-related disease, the core mechanism of which is dysfunction of senescent Leydig cells. Recent studies have shown that elimination of senescent cells can restore proper homeostasis to aging tissue. In the present study, we found that the fork head box O (FOXO) transcription factor FOXO4 was specially expressed in human Leydig cells and that its translocation to the nucleus in the elderly was related to decreased testosterone synthesis. Using hydrogen peroxide-induced senescent TM3 Leydig cells as an in vitro model, we observed that FOXO4 maintains the viability of senescent Leydig cells and suppresses their apoptosis. By disrupting the FOXO4-p53 interaction, FOXO4-DRI, a specific FOXO4 blocker, selectively induced p53 nuclear exclusion and apoptosis in senescent Leydig cells. In naturally aged mice, FOXO4-DRI improved the testicular microenvironment and alleviated age-related testosterone secretion insufficiency. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of FOXO4-DRI for the treatment of male late-onset hypogonadism.

2.
J Neurooncol ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While the current standard of care after maximal safe resection for glioblastoma (GBM) is concomitant radiation and chemotherapy, the ideal therapy for patients with poor performance status remains in question due to concerns about treatment tolerance. We sought to evaluate an alternative regimen, sequential radiation and chemotherapy, to assess its efficacy as a treatment option for poorly performing patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the 2015 National Cancer Database in which the survival of patients with a KPS ≤ 70 who received sequential radiation and chemotherapy were compared to those who received radiation therapy alone. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves with log rank testing and Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: There were 84 patients analyzed in this study, all of whom had a KPS between 10 and 70. Of those analyzed, 73.8% received radiation therapy alone, and 26.2% received sequential radiation and chemotherapy. There was no difference in survival between the two treatment groups (p = 0.84). Patient age of 70 years or older (n = 31) was associated with decreased survival (HR 1.06 per year, p < 0.0001), regardless of KPS and a KPS of < 70 correlated with a near-significant trend toward worse survival (HR 1.63, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sequential radiation and chemotherapy in poorly performing patients is not associated with an advantage in survival outcome when compared to radiation alone in GBM patients with poor performance status.

3.
J Periodontol ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-22 (IL-22) exerts extensive biological effects, playing both protective and pathological roles in autoimmune and infectious diseases. However, the specific role and mechanism of IL-22 in the pathogenesis of periodontitis have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible roles of IL-22 in the osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis of periodontitis. METHODS: Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) were treated with IL-22 and/or lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS), and the mRNA and protein expression of RANKL and OPG were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Western blotting was also used to examine the phosphorylated and total protein expression of MAPK signaling molecules. The role of the MAPK pathway in osteoclastogenesis marker expression was further confirmed by inhibition assays. For osteogenic assays, the mRNA expression of osteoblastic markers was quantified by qRT-PCR, the ALP activity of hPDLFs was measured by an ALP assay, and the mineralized nodules formed by hPDLFs were determined by Alizarin Red S staining. RESULTS: IL-22 promoted the expression of RANKL in hPDLFs via the MAPK signaling pathway and further upregulated RANKL expression together with Pg-LPS via the p38 MAPK pathway. IL-22 could enhance the ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation of hPDLFs in the early period of osteogenic induction, while exhibiting no profound effect on the expression of osteoblastic markers. CONCLUSION: IL-22 plays regulatory roles in bone homeostasis, and it is likely to contribute to osteoclastogenesis as a proinflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 28, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964888

RESUMO

The Schizothoracinae fishes, endemic species in the Tibetan Plateau, are considered as ideal models for highland adaptation and speciation investigation. Despite several transcriptome studies for highland fishes have been reported before, the transcriptome information of Schizothoracinae is still lacking. To obtain comprehensive transcriptome data for Schizothoracinae, the transcriptome of a total of 183 samples from 14 representative Schizothoracinae species, were sequenced and de novo assembled. As a result, about 1,363 Gb transcriptome clean data was obtained. After the assembly, we obtain 76,602-154,860 unigenes for each species with sequence N50 length of 1,564-2,143 bp. More than half of the unigenes were functionally annotated by public databases. The Schizothoracinae fishes in this work exhibited diversified ecological distributions, phenotype characters and feeding habits; therefore, the comprehensive transcriptome data of those species provided valuable information for the environmental adaptation and speciation of Schizothoracinae in the Tibetan Plateau.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967773

RESUMO

The composition of p-n junction is required by application requires efficacious charge separation. A vertical heterostructure (HS) between tin sulfide (SnS) and molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) is synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, basing on the preferential adsorption of sulfur on MoS2. Most of the SnS grains nucleate on MoS2 nanosheets, formatting partially stacked HS with large overlapping regions. Photoluminescence quenching of MoS2 is observed, and illustrates effective charge separation in HS. The HS shows increased reverse saturable absorption relative to MoS2 and SnS. The preferential adsorption of sulfur powders on MoS2 and HS growth reported herein will provide a promising approach to the synthesis of other two-dimensional HS.

6.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 237-247, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914589

RESUMO

Metal clusters are exploited by numerous metalloenzymes for catalysis, but it is not common to utilize a metal cluster for substrate transport across membrane. The recent crystal structure of a prototypic Zrt-/Irt-like protein (ZIP) metal transporter from Bordetella bronchiseptica (BbZIP) revealed an unprecedented binuclear metal center (BMC) within the transport pathway. Here, through a combination of bioinformatics, biochemical and structural approaches, we concluded that the two physically associated metal-binding sites in the BMC of human ZIP4 (hZIP4) zinc transporter exert different functions: one conserved transition metal-binding site acts as the transport site essential for activity, whereas the variable metal-binding site is required for hZIP4's optimal activity presumably by serving as a secondary transport site and modulating the properties of the primary transport site. Sequential soaking experiments on BbZIP crystals clarified the process of metal release from the BMC to the bulky solvent. This work provides important insights into the transport mechanism of the ZIPs broadly involved in transition metal homeostasis and signaling, and also a paradigm on a novel function of metal cluster in metalloproteins.

7.
Gene ; : 144365, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been inconsistently associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. This meta-analysis aimed to synthesize relevant data on SNPs associated with HCC in the Asian population. METHODS: Databases were searched to identify association studies of SNPs and HCC in Asians published through January 2019. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on 41 studies (13,167 patients with HCC and 15,886 noncancer controls). Network meta-analysis and Thakkinstian's algorithm were used to select the most appropriate genetic model, along with false positive report probability (FPRP) for noteworthy associations. RESULTS: Eleven SNPs meeting the inclusion criteria were tested for association with HCC, including CCND1 rs9344, PTGS2 rs689466, IL18 rs187238 and rs1946518, KIF1B rs17401966, MDM2 rs2279744, MIR146A rs2910164, MIR149 rs2292832, MIR196A2 rs11614913, MIR499A rs3746444, and TGFB1 rs1800469. A significant increase for HCC risk was observed for MDM2 rs2279744, and the dominant (pooled OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.26 - 2.00) and codominant (pooled OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.18 - 1.60) models were determined to be the most appropriate models. MIR499A rs3746444 also showed a significant association with HCC risk under the allele contrast model (pooled OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05 - 1.77). Only the significance of MDM2 rs2279744 was noteworthy (FPRP < 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: MDM2 rs2279744 is associated with HCC susceptibility in Asians, and the dominant and codominant models are likely the most appropriate models to estimate HCC risk.

8.
Neuron ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974009

RESUMO

LRRTM4 is a transsynaptic adhesion protein regulating glutamatergic synapse assembly on dendrites of central neurons. In the mouse retina, we find that LRRTM4 is enriched at GABAergic synapses on axon terminals of rod bipolar cells (RBCs). Knockout of LRRTM4 reduces RBC axonal GABAA and GABAC receptor clustering and disrupts presynaptic inhibition onto RBC terminals. LRRTM4 removal also perturbs the stereotyped output synapse arrangement at RBC terminals. Synaptic ribbons are normally apposed to two distinct postsynaptic "dyad" partners, but in the absence of LRRTM4, "monad" and "triad" arrangements are also formed. RBCs from retinas deficient in GABA release also demonstrate dyad mis-arrangements but maintain LRRTM4 expression, suggesting that defects in dyad organization in the LRRTM4 knockout could originate from reduced GABA receptor function. LRRTM4 is thus a key synapse organizing molecule at RBC terminals, where it regulates function of GABAergic synapses and assembly of RBC synaptic dyads.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897982

RESUMO

With the frequent occurrence of oil spill accidents and the continuous discharge of oily water during oil production and transportation, effective oil removal from environmental water by adsorption still faces severe challenges. Here, a novel absorbent hydroxofluorographene-coated melamine foam, namely G(OH)F@MF, with high affinity to oils was fabricated via stepwise assembly. The G(OH)F@MF absorbent achieved effective removal of various oils within 1 min with relatively high adsorption capacities for petrol (89.34 g/g), lubricating oil (89.60 g/g), and peanut oil (104.79 g/g). Furthermore, it could be regenerated by simply squeezing and reused for more than 10 times with an adsorption capacity exceeding 37.12 g/g. In addition, the results indicated that the G(OH)F@MF absorbent was suitable for oil cleanup at a wide range of pH values (4-12) and temperatures (5-45 °C). The adsorption performance of the material was stable in the presence of natural organic matter and even in different water environments. This study can provide a novel sorbent and method for the green, rapid, recyclable, and stable removal of oils from environmental water.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The continuous emergence of ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains threatens the effectiveness of current treatment regimens for gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to characterize three ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains with a novel mosaic penA allele isolated in China. METHODS: Three ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains (GC150, GC161 and GC208) isolated in 2017 were characterized by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), MLST and N. gonorrhoeae sequence typing for antimicrobial resistance (NG-STAR). Recombination analyses were performed using the SimPlot software. RESULTS: Three strains had the same antibiotic resistance profiles, with resistance to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.5 mg/L), ciprofloxacin (MIC 8.0 mg/L), penicillin (MIC 2.0 mg/L) and tetracycline (MIC 2.0-8.0 mg/L). STs were assigned as MLST7360, NG-MAST14292 and NG-STAR1611/NG-STAR1612. The penA gene of these three strains differed from previous ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal strains and harboured a novel mosaic allele (penA-121.001). Like N. gonorrhoeae FC428, a widely disseminated ceftriaxone-resistant strain that was initially described in Japan in 2015, all strains also possessed substitutions A311V and T483S in PBP2, which are associated with resistance to ceftriaxone. Potential recombination events were detected in penA between N. gonorrhoeae strain FC428 and commensal Neisseria species. Our results provide further evidence that the commensal Neisseria species (Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava) can serve as a reservoir of ceftriaxone resistance-mediating penA sequences in clinical gonococcal strains. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of such strains may be the result of the interspecies recombination of penA genes between N. gonorrhoeae strain FC428 and commensal Neisseria species.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 58, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896757

RESUMO

Here we demonstrate a magnetic resonance coupling based wireless triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and fully self-powered wireless sensors. By integrating a microswitch and an inductor with the TENG, the pulsed voltage output is converted into a sinusoidal voltage signal with a fixed frequency. This can be transmitted wirelessly from the transmit coil to the resonant-coupled receiver coil with an efficiency of 73% for a 5 cm distance between the two coils (10 cm diameter). Analytic models of the oscillating and coupled voltage signals for the wireless energy transfer are developed, showing excellent agreement with the experimental results. A TENG of 40 × 50 mm2 can wirelessly light up 70 LEDs or charge up a 15 µF capacitor to 12.5 V in ~90 s. The system is further utilized for two types of fully self-powered wireless chipless sensors with no microelectronic components. The technologies demonstrate an innovative strategy for a wireless 'green' power source and sensing.

12.
Trials ; 21(1): 48, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No treatment has convincingly been proven to be beneficial for microvascular obstruction (MVO) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Several studies have described the effects of Danhong Injection. However, evidence of a rigorously designed verification study is still lacking, and the intervention timing of Danhong Injection is uncertain. METHODS: The DIRECTION study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, evaluator-blind study. A total of 336 patients with STEMI receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) will be randomly assigned to conventional treatment, the preoperative Danhong Injection, or the postoperative Danhong Injection. The primary outcome is rate of ST-segment resolution (STR) ≥ 70% at 90 min after PCI. The secondary outcomes are the degree of STR, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade, TIMI myocardial perfusion grade, left ventricular ejection fraction, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and infarct size expressed as area under the curve for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and for creatine kinase MB. The major adverse cardiovascular events and hospital readmission events will be recorded. Health quality will be assessed with the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. The safety outcomes include bleeding events, adverse events, and abnormal changes in routine blood tests. Psychological status and dietary patterns will be evaluated using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Food Frequency Questionnaire as the relevant indicators. DISCUSSION: This trial will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Danhong Injection, as well as its optimal timing of intervention to prevent MVO in patients with STEMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900021440. Registered on February 21, 2019.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(1): 017201, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976706

RESUMO

We lay the foundation for determining the microscopic spin interactions in two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnets by combining angle-dependent ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments on high quality CrI_{3} single crystals with theoretical modeling based on symmetries. We discover that the Kitaev interaction is the strongest in this material with K∼-5.2 meV, 25 times larger than the Heisenberg exchange J∼-0.2 meV, and responsible for opening the ∼5 meV gap at the Dirac points in the spin-wave dispersion. Furthermore, we find that the symmetric off-diagonal anisotropy Γ∼-67.5 µeV, though small, is crucial for opening a ∼0.3 meV gap in the magnon spectrum at the zone center and stabilizing ferromagnetism in the 2D limit. The high resolution of the FMR data further reveals a µeV-scale quadrupolar contribution to the S=3/2 magnetism. Our identification of the underlying exchange anisotropies opens paths toward 2D ferromagnets with higher T_{C} as well as magnetically frustrated quantum spin liquids based on Kitaev physics.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1475-1481, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870151

RESUMO

Herein, we report machine learning algorithms by training data sets from a set of both successful and failed experiments for studying the crystallization propensity of metal-organic nanocapsules (MONCs). Among a variety of studied machine learning algorithms, XGBoost affords the highest prediction accuracy of >90%. The derived chemical feature scores that determine importance of reaction parameters from the XGBoost model assist to identify synthesis parameters for successfully synthesizing new hierarchical structures of MONCs, showing superior performance to a well-trained chemist. This work demonstrates that the machine learning algorithms can assist the chemists to faster search for the optimal reaction parameters from many experimental variables, whose features are usually hidden in the high-dimensional space.

16.
Brain Topogr ; 33(1): 37-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879854

RESUMO

The waveform in the time domain, spectrum in the frequency domain, and topography in the space domain of component(s) of interest are the fundamental indices in neuroscience research. Despite the application of time-frequency analysis (TFA) to extract the temporal and spectral characteristics of non-phase-locked component (NPLC) of interest simultaneously, the statistical results are not always expectedly satisfying, in that the spatial information is not considered. Complex Morlet wavelet transform is widely applied to TFA of event-related-potential (ERP) data, and mother wavelet (which should be firstly defined by center frequency and bandwidth (CFBW) before using the method to TFA of ERP data) influences the time-frequency results. In this study, an optimal set of CFBW was firstly selected from the number sets of CFBW, to further analyze for TFA of the ERP data in a cognitive experiment paradigm of emotion (Anger and Neutral) and task (Go and Nogo). Then tensor decomposition algorithm was introduced to investigate the NPLC of interest from the fourth-order tensor. Compared with the TFA results which only revealed a significant difference between Go and Nogo task condition, the tensor-based analysis showed significant interaction effect between emotion and task. Moreover, significant differences were found in both emotion and task conditions through tensor decomposition. In addition, the statistical results of TFA would be affected by the selected region of interest (ROI), whereas those of the proposed method were not subject to ROI. Hence, this study demonstrated that tensor decomposition method was effective in extracting NPLC, by considering spatial information simultaneously as the potential to explore the brain mechanisms related to experimental design.

17.
Immunity ; 52(1): 109-122.e6, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882361

RESUMO

Recent work suggests that cholesterol metabolism impacts innate immune responses against infection. However, the key enzymes or the natural products and mechanisms involved are not well elucidated. Here, we have shown that upon DNA and RNA viral infection, macrophages reduced 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) expression. DHCR7 deficiency or treatment with the natural product 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) could specifically promote phosphorylation of IRF3 (not TBK1) and enhance type I interferon (IFN-I) production in macrophages. We further elucidated that viral infection or 7-DHC treatment enhanced AKT3 expression and activation. AKT3 directly bound and phosphorylated IRF3 at Ser385, together with TBK1-induced phosphorylation of IRF3 Ser386, to achieve IRF3 dimerization. Deletion of DHCR7 and the DHCR7 inhibitors including AY9944 and the chemotherapy drug tamoxifen promoted clearance of Zika virus and multiple viruses in vitro or in vivo. Taken together, we propose that the DHCR7 inhibitors and 7-DHC are potential therapeutics against emerging or highly pathogenic viruses.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880460

RESUMO

Cytochrome c, an essential protein of the electron transport chain, is known to be capable of amplifying the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials via free-radical generation. To understand their interaction, as well as the more general protein-nanoparticle interaction at molecular levels, we investigate the adsorptions between cytochrome c and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in dynamic and thermodynamic ways using molecular dynamics simulations. The results reveal a well-defined three-phase process separated by two transition points: the diffusion phase where the protein diffuses in the water box, the lockdown phase I where the protein inserts into the surface-bound water layers and rearranges its conformation to fit to the surface of the CNT, and the lockdown phase II where cytochrome c repels the water molecules standing in its way to the surface of CNT and reaches stable adsorption states. The structured water layers affect the movement of atoms by electrostatic forces. In lockdown phase I, the conformation adjustment of the protein dominates the adsorption process. The most thermally favorable adsorption conformation is determined. It shows that except for the deformation of short ß sheets and some portions of α helixes, most of the secondary structures of cytochrome c remain unchanged, implying that most of the functions of cytochrome c are preserved. During these processes, the energy contributions of the hydrophilic residues of cytochrome c are much larger than those of hydrophobic residues. Interestingly, the structured water layers at the CNT surface allow more hydrophilic residues such as Lys to get into close contact with the CNT, which plays a significant role during the anchoring process of adsorption. Our results demonstrate that the heme group is in close contact with the CNT in some of the adsorbed states, which hence provides a way for electron transfer from cytochrome c to the CNT surface.

19.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 93-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081181

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis, as a major pathogen of periodontitis, could rapidly adhere to and invade host gingival epithelial cells (GECs) for the induction of infection. One ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene was found to be upregulated during this infection process, however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we systemically investigated the messenger RNA level changes of all ABC transporter family genes in P. gingivalis while being internalized within GECs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We identified that two ABC transporter genes, PG_RS04465 (PG1010) and PG_RS07320 (PG1665), were significantly increased in P. gingivalis after coculturing with GECs. Mutant strains with knockout (KO) of these two genes were generated by homogenous recombination. PG_RS04465 and PG_RS07320 KO mutants showed no change in the growth of bacteria per se. Knockdown of PG_RS07320, but not PG_RS04465, caused decreased endotoxin level in the bacteria. In contrast, both mutant strains showed decreased Arg- and Lys-gingipains activities, with significantly reduced adhesion and invasion capabilities. Secreted interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-6 levels in GECs cocultured with PG_RS04465 or PG_RS07320 KO mutants were also decreased, whereas, only the cells cocultured with PG_RS07320 KO mutants showed significant decrease. In addition, virulence study using mouse revealed that both KO mutant strains infection caused less mouse death than wild-type strains, showing reduced virulence of two KO strains. These results indicated that ABC transporter genes PG_RS04465 and PG_RS07320 are positive regulators of the virulence of P. gingivalis.

20.
Nature ; 577(7788): 79-84, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853069

RESUMO

Water lilies belong to the angiosperm order Nymphaeales. Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales together form the so-called ANA-grade of angiosperms, which are extant representatives of lineages that diverged the earliest from the lineage leading to the extant mesangiosperms1-3. Here we report the 409-megabase genome sequence of the blue-petal water lily (Nymphaea colorata). Our phylogenomic analyses support Amborellales and Nymphaeales as successive sister lineages to all other extant angiosperms. The N. colorata genome and 19 other water lily transcriptomes reveal a Nymphaealean whole-genome duplication event, which is shared by Nymphaeaceae and possibly Cabombaceae. Among the genes retained from this whole-genome duplication are homologues of genes that regulate flowering transition and flower development. The broad expression of homologues of floral ABCE genes in N. colorata might support a similarly broadly active ancestral ABCE model of floral organ determination in early angiosperms. Water lilies have evolved attractive floral scents and colours, which are features shared with mesangiosperms, and we identified their putative biosynthetic genes in N. colorata. The chemical compounds and biosynthetic genes behind floral scents suggest that they have evolved in parallel to those in mesangiosperms. Because of its unique phylogenetic position, the N. colorata genome sheds light on the early evolution of angiosperms.

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