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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130833, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425342

RESUMO

To investigate the influences of different subcritical water conditions on apple pomace pectic polysaccharides (APP) extraction, 20 samples were successfully prepared and systematically analyzed. At low temperature region (100-120 °C), extraction effect was predominant and extracted APP was high molecular weight, esterification degree and galacturonic acid content as well as light color. At middle temperature region (140 °C), the balance of extraction and degradation effects was reached and led to the highest APP yield (14.89%). At high temperature region (160-180 °C), degradation effect was predominant and led to serious degradation of APP and more extraction of co-extracts, which endowed the APP with low viscosity and good antioxidant activities in vitro. Overall, the relationship between different subcritical water conditions and APP properties are preliminarily illuminated, which not only provides a promising way for directed extraction of specific APP, but also promotes the potential application of subcritical water to commercial pectin.


Assuntos
Malus , Pectinas , Polissacarídeos , Viscosidade , Água
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130583, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303203

RESUMO

Terpenoid metabolism at different developmental stages of Carya cathayensis was elucidated based on LC-MS/MS analysis and multi-omics. Terpenoid metabolites 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphoquinone and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid reached the maximum at 105 days after pollination (DAP) (P2 stage). To reveal the complex mechanism of C. cathayensis embryogenesis in relation to terpenoid metabolites (90-165 DAP), a metabolomic and transcriptional co-expression analysis was conducted. Based on RNA-Seq analysis, 679 genes of 1144 terpenoid biosynthesis were differentially expressed. Six terpenoid metabolites and 86 differentially expressed genes related to terpenoquinone metabolism were identified. Comprehensive analysis of metabolome and transcriptional data revealed that terpenoquinone accumulated in the early phase was active in the later phase. Overall, we profiled the transcriptome and metabolome changes in C. cathayensis during the developmental phase to investigate the metabolic pathways and candidate genes underlying the changes at different growth stages.


Assuntos
Carya , Cromatografia Líquida , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Terpenos , Transcriptoma
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149889, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482131

RESUMO

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a global warming hotspot, however, the warming status at high elevation (>5000 m) is poorly understood due to very sparse observations. Here we analyze spatial patterns in TP warming rates based on a novel near-surface air temperature dataset of 1980-2014 recently developed by ingesting high-elevation observations and downscaled reanalysis datasets. We show that the high snow cover persistence at high elevation reduces strengthening of positive feedbacks responsible for elevation dependent warming at low-middle elevations, leading to reversed altitudinal patterns of TP warming above and below 5000 m. An important negative feedback is induced by the presence of snow and glaciers at elevations above 5000 m, due to their "buffering" effects by consuming or reflecting energy that would be used for warming in the absence of snow or ice. A further decrease in snow cover and glacier extent at high elevations may thus amplify the warming on the TP.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Neve , Camada de Gelo , Temperatura , Tibet
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113814, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601349

RESUMO

Ecosystem service flows are a research topic of significant interest, and exploring this topic may mitigate the shortcomings related to the spatial mismatches between supply and demand in the current ecosystem services studies. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) experiences a serious spatial mismatch in ecosystem services in particular the food supply, between the supply areas (hilly areas) and demand areas (central areas). Therefore, this study focused on the PRD as a case study to analyze change trends of food supply-demand ratio (FSDR) at city level, and depict the spatial flow path within and between cities from the perspective of ecosystem service flow with different threshold distance, using an enhanced two-step floating catchment area accessibility method. The results showed that the food demand significantly exceeded the supply, the budget was 3.58 million tons and FSDR was 0.49 in 2015. There were large discrepancies in the FSDR at the city level before and after when considering the ecosystem service flows. The FSDR of cities in the central areas increased 0.1%-30%, due to the ecosystem service flow from the low hilly areas. As delivery distances increased, the size of food flow decreased within cities and increased among cities. This led to a significant decline in the population living in severe undersupplied areas (FSDR<0.1) and oversupplied areas (FSDR>1), and an increase in undersupplied areas (0.1<FSDR<0.9). Our findings indicate that local governments would benefit from enhancing connections between supply and demand areas to meet the food demand of big cities. This study offers a comprehensive and realistic understanding of the physical situation of ecosystem service consumption by human beings, and provides decision-making information for optimize land use allocation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos , China , Cidades , Rios
5.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 103, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719679

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the genetic factors partly influence the development of same-sex sexual behavior, but most genetic studies have focused on people of primarily European ancestry, potentially missing important biological insights. Here, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a total sample of 1478 homosexual males and 3313 heterosexual males in Han Chinese populations and identified two genetic loci (rs17320865, Xq27.3, FMR1NB, Pmeta = 8.36 × 10-8, OR = 1.29; rs7259428, 19q12, ZNF536, Pmeta = 7.58 × 10-8, OR = 0.75) showing consistent association with male sexual orientation. A fixed-effect meta-analysis including individuals of Han Chinese (n = 4791) and European ancestries (n = 408,995) revealed 3 genome-wide significant loci of same-sex sexual behavior (rs9677294, 2p22.1, SLC8A1, Pmeta = 1.95 × 10-8; rs2414487, 15q21.3, LOC145783, Pmeta = 4.53 × 10-9; rs2106525, 7q31.1, MDFIC, Pmeta = 6.24 × 10-9). These findings may provide new insights into the genetic basis of male sexual orientation from a wider population scope. Furthermore, we defined the average ZNF536-immunoreactivity (ZNF536-ir) concentration in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as lower in homosexual individuals than in heterosexual individuals (0.011 ± 0.001 vs 0.021 ± 0.004, P = 0.013) in a postmortem study. In addition, compared with heterosexuals, the percentage of ZNF536 stained area in the SCN was also smaller in the homosexuals (0.075 ± 0.040 vs 0.137 ± 0.103, P = 0.043). More homosexual preference was observed in FMR1NB-knockout mice and we also found significant differences in the expression of serotonin, dopamine, and inflammation pathways that were reported to be related to sexual orientation when comparing CRISPR-mediated FMR1NB knockout mice to matched wild-type target C57 male mice.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 580, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759270

RESUMO

Deletions and duplications at the 22q11.2 locus are associated with significant neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity. Previous diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in 22q11.2 deletion carriers (22q-del) found nonspecific white matter (WM) abnormalities, characterized by higher fractional anisotropy. Here, utilizing novel imaging and processing methods that allow separation of signal contribution from different tissue properties, we investigate whether higher anisotropy is driven by (1) extracellular changes, (2) selective degeneration of secondary fibers, or (3) volumetric differences. We further, for the first time, investigate WM microstructure in 22q11.2 duplication carriers (22q-dup). Multi-shell diffusion-weighted images were acquired from 26 22q-del, 19 22q-dup, and 18 healthy individuals (HC). Images were fitted with the free-water model to estimate anisotropy following extracellular free-water elimination and with the novel BedpostX model to estimate fractional volumes of primary and secondary fiber populations. Outcome measures were compared between groups, with and without correction for WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. In 22q-del, anisotropy following free-water elimination remained significantly higher compared with controls. BedpostX did not identify selective secondary fiber degeneration. Higher anisotropy diminished when correcting for the higher CSF and lower WM volumes. In contrast, 22q-dup had lower anisotropy and greater extracellular space than HC, not influenced by macrostructural volumes. Our findings demonstrate opposing effects of reciprocal 22q11.2 copy-number variation on WM, which may arise from distinct pathologies. In 22q-del, microstructural abnormalities may be secondary to enlarged CSF space and more densely packed WM. In 22q-dup, we see evidence for demyelination similar to what is commonly observed in neuropsychiatric disorders.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 768767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777322

RESUMO

This experiment aims to explore the effects of compound enzyme preparation substituting chlortetracycline on growth performance, serum immune markers, and antioxidant capacity and intestinal health in weaned piglets. A total of twenty-four 28-day-old "Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire" weaned piglets with an average initial weight of 7.25 ± 0.25 kg were randomly divided into three groups according to their body weight, with eight replicates in each group and one pig in each replicate. The three dietary treatments were basal diet (CON), basal diet + 1,000 mg/kg compound enzyme preparation (cellulase 4,000 IU/g, α-amylase 1,000 IU/g, ß-glucanase 150 IU/g, and neutral protease 3,000 IU/g, CE), and basal diet + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline (CTC). The animal experiment lasted for 28 days and was divided into two stages: the early stage (0-14 days) and the late stage (15-28 days). The results showed that (1) compared with the CON, the CE and CTC significantly increased the ADG of weaned piglets during the early and whole period of experiment (p < 0.05), decreased the F:G in the whole experiment period (p < 0.05), and diarrhea rate in the early stage (p < 0.01). (2) Compared with the CON, the apparent total tract digestibility of ADF and NDF was significantly increased in pigs fed the CE diet in the early and late stages of experiment (p < 0.05) with no significant difference compared with the CTC. (3) Compared with the CON, the concentrations of serum IgA and SOD in weaned piglets were significantly increased in the CE group in the early stage of the experiment (p < 0.05). (4) Compared with the CON group, the acetic acid, propionic acid, and total VFA contents in cecum and colon segments were elevated in the CE group (p < 0.05) with no significant difference compared with the CTC. (5) Compared with the CON group, the villus height of duodenum and jejunum and the ratio of villus height to recess depth of ileum were increased in the CE and CTC group (p < 0.05). (6) Compared with the CON group, the abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased (p < 0.01) while the abundance of Escherichia coli decreased in the CE group and CTC group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, CE preparation instead of CTC can significantly improve the nutrient digestibility, the immunity, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal health of pigs, which may contribute to the improved growth performance of piglets.

9.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(6): 7619-7630, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814266

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening illness and ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death, driven by the accumulation of lipid peroxides to levels that are sufficient to trigger cell death. However, only few studies have examined PAH-associated ferroptosis. In the present study, lung samples mRNA expression profiles (derived from 15 patients with PAH and 11 normal controls) were downloaded from a public database, and 514 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and weighted gene correlation network analyses. These DEGs were screened for ferroptosis-associated genes using the FerrDb database: eight ferroptosis-associated genes were identified. Finally, the construction of gene-microRNA (miRNA) and gene-transcription factor (TF) networks, in conjunction with gene ontology and biological pathway enrichment analysis, were used to inform hypotheses regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying PAH-associated ferroptosis. Ferroptosis-associated genes were largely involved in oxidative stress responses and could be regulated by several identified miRNAs and TFs. This suggests the existence of modulatable pathways that are potentially involved in PAH-associated ferroptosis. Our findings provide novel directions for targeted therapy of PAH in regard to ferroptosis. These findings may ultimately help improve the therapeutic outcomes of PAH.

12.
iScience ; 24(11): 103352, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805800

RESUMO

Anthropology began in the late nineteenth century with an emphasis on kinship as a key factor in human evolution. From the 1960s, archaeologists attempted increasingly sophisticated ways of reconstructing prehistoric kinship but ancient DNA analysis has transformed the field, making it possible, to directly examine kin relations from human skeletal remains. Here, we retrieved genomic data from four Late Neolithic individuals in central China associated with the Late Neolithic Longshan culture. We provide direct evidence of consanguineous mating in ancient China, revealing inbreeding among the Longshan populations. By combining ancient genomic data with anthropological and archaeological evidence, we further show that Longshan society household was built based on the extended beyond the nuclear family, coinciding with intensified social complexity during the Longshan period, perhaps showing the transformation of large communities through a new role of genetic kinship-based extended family units.

13.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 773-786, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729247

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms and clinical significance of circ-NOL10, a highly repressed circRNA in breast cancer. Subsequently, we also identified RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that regulate circ-NOL10. Bioinformatics analysis was utilized to predict regulatory RBPs as well as circ-NOL10 downstream microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA targets. RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cell proliferation, wound healing, Matrigel invasion, cell apoptosis assays, and a xenograft model were used to investigate the function and mechanisms of circ-NOL10 in vitro and in vivo. The clinical value of circ-NOL10 was evaluated in a large cohort of breast cancer by quantitative real-time PCR. Circ-NOL10 is downregulated in breast cancer and associated with aggressive characteristics and shorter survival time. Upregulation of circ-NOL10 promotes apoptosis, decreases proliferation, and inhibits invasion and migration. Furthermore, circ-NOL10 binds multiple miRNAs to alleviate carcinogenesis by regulating PDCD4. CASC3 and metadherin (MTDH) can bind directly to circ-NOL10 with characterized motifs. Accordingly, ectopic expression or depletion of CASC3 or MTDH leads to circ-NOL10 expression changes, suggesting that these two RBPs modulate circ-NOL10 in cancer cells. circ-NOL10 is a novel biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of therapeutic targeting of the RBP-noncoding RNA (ncRNA) regulation network.

14.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748343

RESUMO

A new family of π-extended BODIPY derivatives were obtained through the condensation of aldehyde and pyrrole in aqueous solution in the presence of HCl. The new rigid π-framework extends beyond the dipyrromethene unit, which is significantly different from classical BODIPYs in the electronic configuration. Both π-extended BODIPYs displayed intense absorption and moderate emission with maxima around 565 and 620 nm, respectively, and showed interesting reactivity toward various nucleophiles. Moreover, these π-extended BODIPYs were developed as fluorescent probes for rapid and selective detection of GSH and were successfully applied for live-cell imaging.

16.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The GGC repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene has been identified as the genetic cause of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). Recently, this repeat expansion was also reported to be associated with essential tremor (ET). However, some patients with this repeat expansion, initially diagnosed with ET, were eventually diagnosed with NIID. Therefore, controversy remains regarding the clinical diagnosis of these expansion-positive patients presenting with tremor-dominant symptoms. This study aimed to clarify the clinical phenotype in tremor-dominant patients who have the GGC repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene. METHODS: We screened for pathogenic GGC repeat expansions in 602 patients initially diagnosed with ET and systematically re-evaluated the clinical features of the expansion-positive probands and their family members. RESULTS: Pathogenic GGC repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene was detected in 10 probands (1.66%). Seven of these probands were re-evaluated and found to have systemic areflexia, cognitive impairment, and abnormal nerve conduction, which prompted a change of diagnosis from ET to NIID. Three of the probands had typical hyperintensity in the corticomedullary junction on diffusion-weighted imaging. Intranuclear inclusions were detected in all four probands who underwent skin biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: The NIID tremor-dominant subtype can be easily misdiagnosed as ET. We should take NIID into account for differential diagnosis of ET. Systemic areflexia could be an important clinical clue suggesting that cranial magnetic resonance imaging examination, or even further genetic testing and skin biopsy examination, should be used to confirm the diagnosis of NIID.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6770, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799585

RESUMO

Accurately evaluating minimal residual disease (MRD) could facilitate early intervention and personalized adjuvant therapies. Here, using ultradeep targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS), we evaluate the clinical utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for dynamic recurrence risk and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) benefit prediction in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Both postsurgical and post-ACT ctDNA positivity are significantly associated with worse recurrence-free survival. In stage II-III patients, the postsurgical ctDNA positive group benefit from ACT, while ctDNA negative patients have a low risk of relapse regardless of whether or not ACT is administered. During disease surveillance, ctDNA positivity precedes radiological recurrence by a median of 88 days. Using joint modeling of longitudinal ctDNA analysis and time-to-recurrence, we accurately predict patients' postsurgical 12-month and 15-month recurrence status. Our findings reveal longitudinal ctDNA analysis as a promising tool to detect MRD in NSCLC, and we show pioneering work of using postsurgical ctDNA status to guide ACT and applying joint modeling to dynamically predict recurrence risk, although the results need to be further confirmed in future studies.

18.
Analyst ; 146(23): 7257-7264, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734932

RESUMO

Here, an Au-Cu dual-electrode tip was designed to monitor the effect of Cu2+ on the membrane permeability of a single living cell in situ using scanning electrochemical microscopy. The probe approach curves (PACs) were obtained using potassium ferricyanide as a redox mediator. Meanwhile, according to the simulation, theoretical PACs could be acquired. Thus, the cell membrane permeability coefficient (Pm) values were obtained by overlapping the experimental PACs with the theoretical values. Cu2+ was directly generated by electrolyzing the Cu electrode of the dual-electrode tip to investigate its effect on the cell membrane permeability in situ. This work has potential value to improve the understanding of the mechanism of acute heavy metal damage on the cell membrane and will also help clarify the role of heavy metal ions in physiological or pathological processes.

19.
Langmuir ; 37(46): 13778-13786, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756049

RESUMO

A novel micronano wire channels Janus membrane (WCJM) was fabricated by a convenience spraying method. We prepared a series of samples with different (super)hydrophobic energy barriers and studied the effects of WCJMs on one-way transportation and fog collection. The droplets can be one-way transported from the (super)hydrophobic side to the superhydrophilic side, forming a transport channel when they contact the superhydrophilic micronano wire under hydrostatic pressure. In the experiment, when droplets touch the exposed micronano wires, they will be rapidly absorbed by the superhydrophilic side. However, when the superhydrophobic energy barrier is thick and the superhydrophobic layer completely covers the micronano wires on the substrate surface, the droplets cannot achieve one way transport behavior. Besides, we observed three different fog collection modes. They have a significant difference in fog collection efficiency. In WCJM-3, the superhydrophobic side collects fog in a dropwise condensation mode, and then transported to the superhydrophilic side through the micronano wire channels for storage, with the highest fog collection efficiency (1.1 g/cm2·h). The results show that the WCJM surface not only makes full use of the difference in wettability and micronano wire structure to promote the droplets one-way transportation, but also improves the fog collection performance by accelerating surface regeneration, which has potential application value in fog collection, droplet treatment and related engineering.

20.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211049056, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806436

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) XIST on postoperative pain and inflammation of plantar incision pain (PIP) in rats and its underlying mechanisms.PIP rat models were established by plantar incision. Rats in the sham group were subjected to povidone-iodine scrubbing, and no incision was made. To explore the role of XIST/miR-340-5p/RAB1A in postoperative pain and inflammation, PIP rats were separately or simultaneously injected with lentivirus containing sh-NC, sh-XIST, mimic NC, miR-340-5p mimic, inhibitor NC, miR-340-5p inhibitor, pcDNA3.1, or pcDNA3.1-RAB1A through an intrathecal catheter. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) values of rats in each group were assessed to evaluate the pain behavior. RT-qPCR and Western blot were utilized to determine the levels of XIST, miR-340-5p, RAB1A, and NF-κB pathway-related proteins (p-IκBα, IκBα, p-p65, and p65). The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) in rat spinal dorsal horn tissues were inspected by ELISA. H and E staining was applied to observe the pathological changes of neurons in the spinal dorsal horn, TUNEL staining to detect neuronal apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to measure RAB1A level.Plantar incision surgery caused decreased PWT and PWL values, enhanced levels of XIST, RAB1A, and inflammatory cytokines, along with an increased proportion of apoptotic neurons. The pain sensitivity and inflammation of rats were motivated after plantar incision surgery. Intrathecal injection of sh-XIST or miR-340-5p mimic ameliorated the pain and inflammation of PIP rats, while silencing of miR-340-5p or overexpression of RAB1A partly reversed the effect of sh-XIST on PIP rats. XIST targeted miR-340-5p and miR-340-5p negatively regulated RAB1A. The XIST/miR-340-5p/RAB1A axis activated the NF-κB signaling pathway.LncRNA XIST aggravates inflammatory response and postoperative pain of PIP rats by activating the NF-κB pathway via the miR-340-5p/RAB1A axis.

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