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1.
Food Chem ; 400: 134012, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055143

RESUMO

Exploring a novel strategy for strengthening the catalytic activity of enzyme facilitates the development of a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Herein, a chemical staining (CS) strategy was firstly discovered to possess the ability to directly improve the catalytic activity of horseradish peroxidase. Based on this discovery, coomassie brilliant blue was introduced into ELISA to establish a CS enhanced ELISA (CS-ELISA) to detect clenbuterol (CL) by simply staining monoclonal antibodies. Satisfactorily, the most important analytical parameters of CS-ELISA, including sensitivity (0.074 ng mL-1) and linear range (0.2-2 ng mL-1) were all improving 2-folds compared with conventional ELISA. Moreover, the CS-ELISA shows good applicability in the detection of CL in pork tenderloin samples. The proposed CS-ELISA shows various advantages, such as cost-effective, easily accessible, enhanced catalytic activity of enzyme, higher sensitivity, and broader linear range, providing a new insight into enhanced ELISA for food safety.


Assuntos
Clembuterol , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Clembuterol/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Coloração e Rotulagem
2.
Korean J Radiol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether metabolic redistribution occurs in patients with white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unknown. This study aimed 1) to propose a measure of the brain metabolic network for an individual patient and preliminarily apply it to identify impaired metabolic networks in patients with WMHs, and 2) to explore the clinical and imaging features of metabolic redistribution in patients with WMHs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 50 patients with WMHs and 70 healthy controls (HCs) who underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/MRI. Various global property parameters according to graph theory and an individual parameter of brain metabolic network called "individual contribution index" were obtained. Parameter values were compared between the WMH and HC groups. The performance of the parameters in discriminating between the two groups was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The correlation between the individual contribution index and Fazekas score was assessed, and the interaction between age and individual contribution index was determined. A generalized linear model was fitted with the individual contribution index as the dependent variable and the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of nodes in the whole-brain network or seven classic functional networks as independent variables to determine their association. RESULTS: The means ± standard deviations of the individual contribution index were (0.697 ± 10.9) × 10-3 and (0.0967 ± 0.0545) × 10-3 in the WMH and HC groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The AUC of the individual contribution index was 0.864 (95% confidence interval, 0.785-0.943). A positive correlation was identified between the individual contribution index and the Fazekas scores in patients with WMHs (r = 0.57, p < 0.001). Age and individual contribution index demonstrated a significant interaction effect on the Fazekas score. A significant direct association was observed between the individual contribution index and the SUVmean of the limbic network (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The individual contribution index may demonstrate the redistribution of the brain metabolic network in patients with WMHs.

3.
J Phys Chem B ; 2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117287

RESUMO

Implicit solvent models are widely used because they are advantageous to speed up simulations by drastically decreasing the number of solvent degrees of freedom, which allows one to achieve long simulation time scales for large system sizes. CHARMM-GUI, a web-based platform, has been developed to support the setup of complex multicomponent molecular systems and prepare input files. This study describes an Implicit Solvent Modeler (ISM) in CHARMM-GUI for various generalized Born (GB) implicit solvent simulations in different molecular dynamics programs such as AMBER, CHARMM, GENESIS, NAMD, OpenMM, and Tinker. The GB models available in ISM include GB-HCT, GB-OBC, GB-neck, GBMV, and GBSW with the CHARMM and Amber force fields for protein, DNA, RNA, glycan, and ligand systems. Using the system and input files generated by ISM, implicit solvent simulations of protein, DNA, and RNA systems produce similar results for different simulation packages with the same input information. Protein-ligand systems are also considered to further validate the systems and input files generated by ISM. Simple ligand root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) and molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations show that the performance of implicit simulations is better than docking and can be used for early stage ligand screening. These reasonable results indicate that ISM is a useful and reliable tool to provide various implicit solvent simulation applications.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 115700, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126782

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Obesity is a critical threat to global health, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential target for the treatment of obesity and comorbidities. Xuezhikang Capsule (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has remarkable clinical efficacy and is widely used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease. However, its modulatory effect on BAT remains unknown. AIM OF THIS STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of XZK in the obese spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model by evaluating the regulatory effect of XZK on the BAT gene profile through transcriptome sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SHRs were randomly divided into four groups: the standard chow diet (STD) group, the STD supplemented with 126 mg/kg of XZK group, the high-fat diet (HFD) group, and the HFD supplemented with 126 mg/kg of XZK group. All SHRs were fed for 18 weeks. The metabolic phenotypes, including body weight, fat mass, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and serum glucose and lipid levels, was evaluated, and hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) staining was performed to evaluate the adipose tissue histopathological phenotype. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to determine the mechanism by which XZK improves the metabolic phenotype and the expression of key differential expression genes was verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: XZK inhibited HFD-induced weight gain and adipose tissue remodeling in SHRs and prevented hypertrophy of epididymal adipocytes and maintained the brown fat phenotype. XZK intervention also improved glucose and lipid metabolism in SHRs, as suggested by a reduction in serum triglyceride (TG), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels as well as increasing in serum high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Transcriptome sequencing analysis confirmed the regulatory effect of XZK on the gene expression profile of BAT, and the expression patterns of 45 genes were reversed by the XZK intervention. Additionally, the results of the transcriptome analysis of 10 genes that are important for brown fat function were in line with the results of qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: XZK protected SHRs from HFD-induced obesity, inhibited fat accumulation and improved glucolipid metabolism. Additionally, the protective effect of XZK on the overall metabolism of obese SHRs might partly be related to its regulatory effect on the BAT gene expression profile. These findings might provide novel therapeutic strategies for obesity-related metabolic diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

5.
RSC Adv ; 12(38): 24839-24848, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128390

RESUMO

Water flooding increases the recovery factor of crude oil and has been proven to be an economical and viable technique for enhancing the oil recovery of oil fields. The process has been systematically studied previously, in which the oil was considered a substance of constant composition. However, the molecular selectivity during the water flooding process has rarely been addressed, especially for heavy oil. Herein, the properties and compositional changes of heavy oil have been investigated in a simulated water flooding process at 60 °C and 85 °C. The crude oil and produced oils from different water flooding stages were characterized by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results show that with the increase in temperature, the content of resins in the produced oils from different water flooding stages decreases, and the content of asphaltenes increases slightly. The viscosity of the produced oils increases at low temperatures and decreases at high temperatures as the water cut increases. The composition of the produced oils from different water flooding stages is different. Compared with the no water cut and high water cut stages, the changes in the produced oils of the low water cut stages are significant at different temperatures. The molecular selectivity of heteroatoms is higher than that of hydrocarbons in the water flooding process. Water flooding preferentially extracts small-molecule low-carbon hydrocarbons and small-molecule heteroatoms with low condensation degrees. The compositional differences between the produced oils were characterized by the double bond equivalent versus carbon number distribution of the S, N, and O-containing compounds. This study can not only provide some explanations on the viscosity-forming mechanism of heavy oil but also explains the watered-out phenomena in the development of oilfields.

7.
Water Res ; 224: 119111, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122447

RESUMO

Effective water purification technologies are required to remove emerging contaminants (ECs) and prevent their extensive occurrence in rural areas. In this work, coupling gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration with biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) in the biofouling layer was utilized for treating water containing SMX. Comparisons between BioMnOx-GDM (with BioMnOx) and Control-GDM (without BioMnOx) indicated that BioMnOx could significantly promote the removal of DOC, NH4+-N, and fluorescent pollutants due to its strong oxidating capacity and high biological activity. The formation of BioMnOx increased the abundance of SMX-degrading bacteria, enriched the metabolic pathway and mineralization rate of SMX, and effectively promoted the remove of SMX. More importantly, BioMnOx facilitated the removal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the GDM, because it increased the link between microorganisms and reduced the concentration of SMX, thus reduced the expression of ARGs. LB-EPS played an important role in the membrane fouling. Compared with the Control-GDM, the concentration of LB-EPS in BioMnOx-GDM decreased, which was beneficial to alleviate membrane fouling. Although a thicker biofouling layer (1774.88 µm vs.775.54 µm) was formed in BioMnOx-GDM, the biofilm with higher porosity (64.93% vs. 41.24%) had a more positive effect on the flux. Overall, BioMnOx could improve the pollutant removal and stable flux level of the GDM system. BioMnOx-GDM effectively avoided the risks brought by ECs and ensured water safety in rural areas.

8.
Protein Sci ; : e4446, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124940

RESUMO

Enhanced sampling methodologies modifying underlying Hamiltonians can be used for the systems with a rugged potential energy surface that makes it hard to observe convergence using conventional unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We present CHARMM-GUI Enhanced Sampler, a web-based tool to prepare various enhanced sampling simulations inputs with user-selected collective variables. Enhanced Sampler provides inputs for the following 9 methods: accelerated MD (aMD), Gaussian accelerated MD (GaMD), conformational flooding (CF), metadynamics (MTD), adaptive biasing force (ABF), steered MD (SMD), temperature replica exchange MD (T-REMD), replica exchange solute tempering 2 (REST2), and replica exchange umbrella sampling (REUS) for the method-implemented MD packages including AMBER, CHARMM, GENESIS, GROMACS, NAMD, and OpenMM. Users only need to select a group of atoms via intuitive web-implementation in order to define commonly used 9 collective variables of interest: center of mass based distance, angle, dihedral, root-mean-square-distance, radius of gyration, distance projected on axis, two types of angles projected on axis, and coordination numbers. The enhanced sampling methods are tested with several biological systems to illustrate their efficiency over conventional MD. Enhanced Sampler with carefully optimized system-dependent parameters will help users to get meaningful results from their enhanced sampling simulations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103138

RESUMO

Organosilicons have been used extensively in aerospace, electronics, food, medicine and other fields, due to their low viscosity, hydrophobicity, corrosion resistance, non-toxic, and physiologically inert features. Despite extensive interest, however, organosilicon ferroelectric crystals have never been found. Here, by using the chemical design strategy, we successfully obtained a molecular ferroelectric D-chiro-inositol-SiMe3 with polar P43 symmetry, whose spontaneous polarization can be electrically switchable on thin film. The introduction of organosilicon groups endows the thin films with excellent softness, ductility and flexibility (extremely low hardness of 72.8 MPa and small elastic modulus of 5.04 GPa) that are desirable for biomedical and human-compatible applications. As the first case of organosilicon ferroelectric crystal to date, this work offers a new structural paradigm for molecular ferroelectrics, and highlights their potential for flexible bio-electronic applications.

10.
Opt Lett ; 47(18): 4628-4631, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107049

RESUMO

We propose a system to eliminate the graininess of an integral imaging 3D display by using a transmissive mirror device (TMD). The proposed system consists of a 2D display, a micro-lens array (MLA), and a TMD. The TMD comprises square apertures with mirror-reflective inner wall. The light rays pass through the square aperture to form a diffraction spot, and the diffraction light intensity has a Sinc-function distribution. Therefore, the TMD can be used as an optical low-pass filter. In a certain imaging range, the mainlobe of the Sinc-function distribution is almost unchanged. The TMD has the property of a volumetric optical low-pass filter. It can interpolate the interval between discrete 3D pixels. Therefore, the TMD can be used to eliminate the graininess. The resolution of the 3D image is improved by 2.12 times. The experimental results verify the feasibility of the proposed system.

11.
Anal Chem ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108268

RESUMO

Microbial interactions within a natural or engineered consortium of microbes play an important role in the functions of the consortium. Better understanding these interactions is also important for engineering microbial consortia for specific applications. As such, tools that can enable investigating microbial interactions are highly valuable. One aspect of microbial interactions that impacts community formation is how the spatial organization of individual microbes impacts interactions leading to community formation. Here, we report the development of a tool that can manipulate the spatial organization of microorganisms to investigate the role of these interactions in community formation. Our developed microfluidic platform utilizes dielectrophoretic (DEP) force to perform on-demand spatial arrangement of microorganism-encapsulated agarose gel microparticles. To demonstrate this concept, three gel microparticle manipulators composed of three independently controllable DEP electrodes were utilized for the on-demand spatial arrangement of a specific combination of microparticles, each containing Escherichia coli cells expressing red fluorescence protein, green fluorescent protein, or blank content. The spatially arranged microparticles suspended in carrier oil were first trapped in a downstream particle trapping structure to form a defined microparticle array, followed by the application of an electric field to disrupt the carrier oil barrier so that all gel microparticles were within the same aqueous solution while the individual gel microparticles remain intact, thereby maintaining their spatial arrangements. We demonstrated that this method can be utilized to generate various arrays with differing number of "spacer microparticles", which were blank microparticles, between the two different E. coli-containing microparticles, enabling precise control over spatial distances between the two different cell populations. This method paves the way for more easily investigating bacterial interactions, especially those that depend on their spatial arrangement such as where cell-cell communication plays a major role.

12.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111431

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a common process of tissue repair response to multiple injuries in all chronic progressive diseases, which featured with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Actually fibrosis can occur in all organs and tends to be nonreversible with the progress of the diseases. Different cells types in different organs are involved in the occurrence and development of fibrosis, i.e. hepatic stellate cell, pancreatic stellate cell, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts. Variety programmed cell deaths including apoptosis, autophagy, ferroptosis, and necroptosis were closely related to organ fibrosis. Among these programmed cell death types, necroptosis, an emerging regulated cell death type was regarded as a huge potential target to ameliorate organ fibrosis. In this review, we summarized the role of necroptosis signaling in organ fibrosis, and collected the present small molecule compounds targeting necroptosis. In addition, we discussed the potential challenges, opportunities and open questions in using necroptosis signaling as a potential target for antifibrotic therapies.

13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 943325, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059453

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is one of the leading causes of blindness among DM patients. However, the molecular mechanism involving DR remains unclear. Methods: A case-control study with age-, sex-, and duration-matched diabetic patients and controls was conducted, which included 15 type 2 DM (T2DM) patients with DR and 15 T2DM patients without DR. Shotgun sequencing and non-targeted metabolomic profiling analyses of fecal samples were performed, and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were conducted. Results: Using metagenomic analyses, we identified 293,460 unique genes in the non-DR group, while that in the DR group was 283,235, and the number of overlapping genes was 1,237,914. Regarding phylum levels, Actinobacteria decreased but Bacteroidetes increased in the DR group when compared with those in the control group. Regarding genus levels, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus decreased. Cellular processes, environmental information processes, and metabolism-related pathways were found at higher levels in the gut microbiome of DR patients. Using metabolomic analyses, we found 116 differentially expressed metabolites with a positive ion model and 168 differentially expressed metabolites with a negative ion model between the two groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotation revealed six pathways with different levels between DR and diabetic controls, namely, cellular processes, environmental information processing, genetic information processing, human diseases, organismal systems and metabolism. Moreover, lysine biosynthesis and lysine degradation were enriched using a positive model, but histidine metabolism and ß-alanine metabolism were enriched using a negative model. Conclusions: Together, the metagenomic profiles of DR patients indicated different gut microbiota compositions and characteristic fecal metabolic phenotypes in DR patients. Our findings of microbial pathways therefore provided potential etiological and therapeutic targets for DR patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lisina
14.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of published meta-analyses (MAs) in four major gastrointestinal endoscopic journals, and identify the predicted factors for high quality. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in PubMed to identify MAs from 1, January, 2016 to 31, December, 2020 in four major gastrointestinal endoscopic journals (including Digestive Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Surgical Endoscopy, and Endoscopy). We collected the characteristics of MAs after filtering unqualified articles, and assessed methodological and reporting qualities for eligible articles by AMSTAR tool and PRISMA checklist, respectively. Logistic regression was used for identifying predictive factors for high quality. RESULTS: A total of 289 MAs were identified after screening by predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The scores (mean ± SD) of AMSTAR and PRISMA were 7.73 ± 1.11 and 22.90 ± 1.85, respectively. In PRISMA checklist, some items had less than 50% complete adherence, including item 2 (structured summary), items 5 (protocol and registration), items 12 and 19 (risk of bias in studies), item 27 (funding support). Item 1 (a priori design), item 4 (gray literature research), item 5 (list of included and excluded) were inferior to 50% adherence in AMSTAR tool. We found the predictive factors for high quality through logistic regression analysis: a priori design and funding support were associated with methodological quality. Protocol and registration influenced the methodological and reporting quality closely. CONCLUSION: In general, qualities on the methodology and the reporting of MAs published in the gastrointestinal endoscopic journals are good, but both of which still potentially need further improvement.

15.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080331

RESUMO

Endophytes and their elicitors can all be utilized in regulating crop biochemical qualities. However, living endophytes and their derived elicitors are always applied separately; little is known about the similarities and differences of their effects. To increase the efficiency of this system when applied in practice, the present work profiled simultaneously the metabolomes in grape cells exposed to endophytic fungi (EF) and their corresponding fungal extracts (CFE). As expected, grape cells exposed separately to different fungi, or to different fungi derived extracts, each exhibited different modifications of metabolite patterns. The metabolic profiles of certain EF- and CFE-exposed grape cells were also differently influenced to certain degrees, owing to the presence of differentially responding metabolites (DRMs). However, the detected majority proportions of coordinately responding metabolites (CRMs) in both the EF- and the CFE-exposed grape cells, as well as the significantly influenced metabolites (SIMs) which are specific to certain fungal strains, clearly indicate coordinative changes in metabolites in grape cells exposed to EF and CFEs. The coordinative changes in metabolites in EF- and CFE-treated grape cells appeared to be fungal strain-dependent. Notably, several of those fungal strain-specific CRMs and DRMs are metabolites and belong to amino acids, lipids, organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and others, which are major contributors to the biochemistry and sensory qualities of grapes and wines. This research clarifies the detailed responses of metabolites in grape cells exposed to EF and CFEs. It also demonstrates how endophytes can be selectively used in the form of extracts to produce functions as CRMs of the living fungus with increased eco-safety, or separately applied to the living microbes or elicitors to emphasize those effects related to their specifically initiated SIMs and DRMs.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Vitis/metabolismo
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 2302-2305, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086224

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a neurological disease caused by ab-normal neural electrical discharges. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful tool to measure the brain electrical activity and has been widely used for seizure detection. Manual EEG analysis is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Automatic seizure detection is urgently demanded for long-time seizure monitoring. Many methods have been proposed for automatic seizure detection based on EEG signals. However, most of the existing methods are patient-specific with limited generaliz-ability. Few studies investigate inter-patient seizure detection, which remains challenging. The aim of the present study is therefore to develop advanced algorithms for efficient inter-patient seizure detection using EEG. To this end, dynamic brain network is employed to capture the spatiotemporal dynamics of the connectivity among brain regions. A novel graph neural network referred to as graph isomorphic network is proposed for effective local-global spatiotemporal feature extraction and seizure classification. The proposed method is evaluated with the CHB-MIT open dataset with a ten-fold cross-validation. The results reveal excellent performance for the proposed method, with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 96.2%, 95.4%, and 97.0% respectively, significantly higher than the results reported in the literature. Our results provide useful information for inter-patient seizure detection, particularly for long-time ambulatory seizure monitoring.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Convulsões , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Convulsões/diagnóstico
17.
Chaos ; 32(8): 083136, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049953

RESUMO

A model-free approach is proposed for anticipating the occurrence of measure synchronization in coupled Hamiltonian systems. Specifically, by the technique of parameter-aware reservoir computing in machine learning, we demonstrate that the machine trained by the time series of coupled Hamiltonian systems at a handful of coupling parameters is able to predict accurately not only the critical coupling for the occurrence of measure synchronization, but also the variation of the system order parameters around the transition point. The capability of the model-free technique in anticipating measure synchronization is exemplified in Hamiltonian systems of two coupled oscillators and also in a Hamiltonian system of three globally coupled oscillators where partial synchronization arises. The studies pave a way to the model-free, data-driven analysis of measure synchronization in large-size Hamiltonian systems.

18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1919-1926, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052796

RESUMO

The application of straw biochar in farmland in Dongting Lake area can realize the resource utilization of straw and reduce environmental risk. In 2020, a rice pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different biochar application levels on ammonia volatilization rate, cumulative ammonia volatilization, pH value, and NH4+-N concentration in surface water. Six levels of reed (Miscanthus lutarioriparius) biochar amount, i.e., 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of soil weight of the 0-20 cm column, were applied in two typical paddy soils in sou-thern China, i.e., reddish clayey soil derived from quaternary red soil and granitic sandy soil derived from granite. Compound fertilizer was applied at a rate of 200 kg N·hm-2. The results showed that biochar application resulted in significant differences in the rate and cumulative amount of ammonia volatilization between the two soils and among different biochar treatments. For the granitic sandy soil, peak ammonia volatilization under different biochar treatments appeared at the second day after fertilization, which was decreased by 23.6%-53.4%. For the reddish clayey soil, peak ammonia volatilization appeared between the 7th to 13th day after fertilization, which increased with biochar addition level. The rate of ammonia volatilization from the granitic sandy soil was generally higher than that from the reddish clayey soil. For the granitic sandy soil, addition of <4% biochar could inhibit the ammonia volatilization and cumulative volatilization amount, with the greatest reduction (46.9%) at the treatment with 2% biochar addition. The addition of biochar did not affect the pH value of surface water at the early stage of rice growth. For the reddish clayey soil, the pH value and NH4+-N concentration in the surface water increased with biochar addition level, resulting in the increases of ammonia volatilization rate and cumulative volatilization amount by 1.3-10.5 times. Biochar addition level was the key factor affecting ammonia volatilization from the two soils. Elovich equation could well fit the variation trend of cumulative ammonia volatilization with time for the two soils, with the correlation reaching extremely significant level for each treatment. Overall, the application of reed biochar could suppress ammonia volatilization from the granitic sandy soil which was nearly neutral in acidity, while would promote ammonia volatilization via increasing pH value and NH4+-N concentration of surface water for the acidic reddish clayey soil. Therefore, appropriate dosages of reed biochar should be selected for different types of soil in order to reduce nitrogen loss.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Amônia/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , Volatilização , Água
19.
J Inorg Biochem ; 237: 111997, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137402

RESUMO

As growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER) are scarce in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), it is a great challenge to combat TNBC with high tumor specificity and therapeutic efficacy. Most traditional treatments including surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy would more or less cause serious side effects and drug resistance. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has huge potential in the treatment of TNBC for minimal invasiveness, low toxicity, less drug resistance and high spatiotemporal selectivity. Inspired by the advantages of small-molecule-targeted PDT and the sensitization effect of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) inhibitor, a novel photosensitizer BC-Pc was designed by conjugating MCL-1 inhibitor with zinc phthalocyanines. Owning to 3-chloro-6-methyl-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid (BC) moiety, BC-Pc exhibits the high affinity towards MCL-1 and reduce its self-aggregation in TNBC cells. Therefore, MCL-1 targeted BC-Pc showed remarkable intracellular fluorescence and ROS generation in TNBC cells. Additionally, BC-Pc can selectively sensitize TNBC cells to ROS-induced damage, resulting in improved therapeutic effect to TNBC cells and negligible toxicity to normal cells. More importantly, BC-Pc can effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of TNBC cells, and enhance immune response, all of which will be beneficial to eradicate TNBC. To the best of our knowledge, BC-Pc is the novel MCL-targeted photosensitizer, which owns the amplified ROS-induced lethality and anticancer immune response for TNBC. Overall, our study provides a promising strategy to achieve targeting and highly efficient therapy of TNBC.

20.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(9)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145722

RESUMO

With rapid and non-invasive characteristics, the respiratory route of administration has drawn significant attention compared with the limitations of conventional routes. Respiratory delivery can bypass the physiological barrier to achieve local and systemic disease treatment. A scientometric analysis and review were used to analyze how respiratory delivery can contribute to local and systemic therapy. The literature data obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection database showed an increasing worldwide tendency toward respiratory delivery from 1998 to 2020. Keywords analysis suggested that nasal and pulmonary drug delivery are the leading research topics in respiratory delivery. Based on the results of scientometric analysis, the research hotspots mainly included therapy for central nervous systems (CNS) disorders (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, glioblastoma, and epilepsy), tracheal and bronchial or lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, acute lung injury or respiratory distress syndrome, lung cancer, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), and systemic diseases (diabetes and COVID-19). The study of advanced preparations contained nano drug delivery systems of the respiratory route, drug delivery barriers investigation (blood-brain barrier, BBB), and chitosan-based biomaterials for respiratory delivery. These results provided researchers with future research directions related to respiratory delivery.

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