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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002358

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) with the general formula ABX3 hold phenomenal research interest for their great scientific and technological potential in photovoltaic, piezoelectric, and electroluminescent devices. It is their considerable structural diversity that offers a good opportunity to build a variety of HOIP structures with various functionalities. However, no organometallic-based HOIP piezoelectrics have yet been found, despite the structural diversity and functional richness of organometallic compounds such as the ferrocene-based family. Here, for the first time, we report an organometallic-based HOIP piezoelectric, [(ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium]PbI3. Benefitting from the stability of ferrocene-based cations, excellent piezoelectric performance, comparable to that of LiNbO3, can be obtained and optimized by tuning the anionic framework. The involvement of organometallic cations enables a narrow band gap of 2.37 eV, much lower than those of most HOIPs and some inorganic semiconductors. This work provides a new future direction for the study of perovskites and will inspire intriguing research on organometallic-based HOIP piezoelectrics.

2.
Neurol Sci ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out a systematic review to help resolve the controversy of ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). METHODS: A database search of PubMed and Ovid Embase was conducted for epidemiologic studies published up to December 17, 2019. The effective size was estimated by pooled prevalence, annualized incidence/risk, relative risk (RR), and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The systematic review included 14 eligible studies from 11 publications. The pooled annualized cumulative incidence was 0.15% (95% CI, 0.03-0.26%) per person-years. And the pooled annualized cumulative risk of IS/TIA of ITP was 0.86% (95% CI, 0.33-1.39%) per year based on 3 population-based cohort studies. There was a higher risk of incident IS/TIA in ITP patients than ITP-free subjects (pooled unadjusted or adjusted RR with 95% CI, 1.46 [1.22-1.74] or 1.50 [1.29-1.73]). CONCLUSIONS: IS/TIA was not uncommon in patients with primary ITP. ITP patients have a higher risk of IS/TIA compared with the reference cohorts. Healthcare professionals should take into account the risk of IS/TIA when treating ITP patients with or without a history of IS/TIA.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16106, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999395

RESUMO

Common bunt of wheat caused by Tilletia laevis and/or T. caries (syn. T. tritici), is a major disease in wheat-growing regions worldwide that could lead to 80% or even total loss of production. Even though T. laevis can be distinguished from T. caries on the bases of morphology of teliospores using microscopy technique. However, molecular methods could serve as an additional method to quantify the pathogen. To develop a rapid diagnostic and quantify method, we employed the ISSR molecular marker for T. laevis in this study. The primer ISSR857 generated a polymorphic pattern displaying a 1385 bp T. laevis-specific DNA fragment. A pair of specific primers (L57F/L57R) was designed to amplify a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) (763 bp) for the PCR detection assay. The primers amplified the DNA fragment in the tested isolates of T. laevis but failed in the related species, including T. caries. The detection limit of the primer set (L57F/L57R) was 5 ng/µl of DNA extracted from T. laevis teliospores. A SYBR Green I real-time PCR method for detecting T. laevis with a 100 fg/µl detection limit and droplet digital PCR with a high sensitivity (30 fg/µl detection limit) were developed; this technique showed the most sensitive detection compared to the SCAR marker and SYBR Green I real-time PCR. Additionally, this is the first study related the detection of T. laevis with the droplet digital PCR method.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017141

RESUMO

Industrial production, environmental monitoring, and clinical medicine put forward urgent demands for high-performance gas sensors. Two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as promising gas-sensing materials owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio, high surface activity, and abundant surface-active sites. However, it is still challenging to achieve facilely prepared materials with high sensitivity, fast response, full recovery, and robustness in harsh environments for gas sensing. Here, a combination of experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations is performed to explore the application of tellurene in gas sensors. The prepared tellurene nanoflakes via facile liquid-phase exfoliation show an excellent response to NO2 (25 ppb, 201.8% and 150 ppb, 264.3%) and an ultralow theory detection limit (DL) of 0.214 ppb at room temperature, which is excellent compared to that of most reported 2D materials. Furthermore, tellurene sensors present a fast response (25 ppb, 83 s and 100 ppb, 26 s) and recovery (25 ppb, 458 s and 100 ppb, 290 s). The DFT calculations further clarify the reasons for enhanced electrical conductivity after NO2 adsorption because of the interfacial electron transfer from tellurene to NO2, revealing an underlying explanation for tellurene-based gas sensors. These results indicate that tellurene is eminently promising for detecting NO2 with superior sensitivity, favorable selectivity, an ultralow DL, fast response-recovery, and high stability.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22532, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019458

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes, which can be detected in patients with developmental retardation, infertile problems, and prenatal fetus. We report 3 adult female with fertility problems carrying sSMC(14/22) and aim to explore the correlation between sSMC(14/22) and fertility problems in women. PATIENT CONCERNS: Three Chinese female patients were referred for infertility consultation in our hospital. DIAGNOSES: The karyotype of these 3 patients were 47, XX, +mar. The chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected various chromosomal duplications and deletions in the 3 cases: a 0.49Mb gain of 5q32 for case 1; a 0.54Mb gain of 14q32.33 and a 1.83Mb gain of 16p11.2 for case 2; a 0.37Mb loss of 13q21.2q21.31 and a 0.12Mb gain of Xp11.2 for case 3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the specific probes for chromosomes 13/21, 14/22, and 15 was applied to identify the origination of these sSMC, which were all finally identified as sSMC(14/22). INTERVENTIONS: Case 1 underwent the artificial reproductive technology to get her offspring and finally delivered a healthy male infant at 39 weeks. Case 2 did not plan to choose in vitro fertilization (IVF) to get offspring. Case 3 refused to do assisted reproductive technology. OUTCOMES: The genotype-phenotype correlation of sSMC(14/22) remain unclear. However, the existence of sSMC(14/22) might negatively affect the fertility ability in sSMC female carriers. LESSONS: The combined application of traditional banding technique and molecular cytogenetic techniques can better identify more details of sSMC. For sSMC carriers with fertility problems, they could get their offsprings through assisted reproductive technologies after comprehensive fertility assessment.

7.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054238

RESUMO

Probing and understanding the intrinsic active sites of electrocatalysts is crucial to unravel the underlying mechanism of CO2 electroreduction and provide a prospective for the rational design of high-performance electrocatalysts. However, their structure-activity relationships are not straightforward because electrocatalysts might reconstruct under realistic working conditions. Herein, we employ in-situ measurements to unveil the intrinsic origin of the InN nanosheets which served as an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction with a high faradaic efficiency of 95% for carbonaceous product. During the CO2 electroreduction, InN nanosheets reconstructed to form the In-rich surface. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the reconstruction of InN led to the redistribution of surface charge that significantly promoted the adsorption of HCOO* intermediates and thus benefited the formation of formate toward CO2 electroreduction. This work establishes a fundamental understanding on the mechanism associated with self-reconstruction of heterogeneous catalysts toward CO2 electroreduction.

8.
Drug Discov Today ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065292

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel that is involved in diverse biological functions as a cellular sensor for oxidative stress and temperature. It has been considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Development of highly potent and selective TRPM2 inhibitors and validation of their use in relevant disease models will advance drug discovery. In this review, we describe the molecular structures and gating mechanism of the TRPM2 channel, and offer a comprehensive review of advances in the discovery of TRPM2 inhibitors. Furthermore, we analyze the properties of reported TRPM2 inhibitors with an emphasis on how specific inhibitors targeting this channel could be better developed.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068435

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas is an anti-viral mechanism of prokaryotes that has been widely adopted for genome editing. To make CRISPR-Cas genome editing more controllable and safer to use, anti-CRISPR proteins have been recently exploited to prevent excessive/prolonged Cas nuclease cleavage. Anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins are encoded by (pro)phages/(pro)viruses, and have the ability to inhibit their host's CRISPR-Cas systems. We have built an online database AcrDB (http://bcb.unl.edu/AcrDB) by scanning ∼19 000 genomes of prokaryotes and viruses with AcrFinder, a recently developed Acr-Aca (Acr-associated regulator) operon prediction program. Proteins in Acr-Aca operons were further processed by two machine learning-based programs (AcRanker and PaCRISPR) to obtain numerical scores/ranks. Compared to other anti-CRISPR databases, AcrDB has the following unique features: (i) It is a genome-scale database with the largest collection of data (39 799 Acr-Aca operons containing Aca or Acr homologs); (ii) It offers a user-friendly web interface with various functions for browsing, graphically viewing, searching, and batch downloading Acr-Aca operons; (iii) It focuses on the genomic context of Acr and Aca candidates instead of individual Acr protein family and (iv) It collects data with three independent programs each having a unique data mining algorithm for cross validation. AcrDB will be a valuable resource to the anti-CRISPR research community.

10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064332

RESUMO

Antisocial behavior (ASB) is believed to have neural substrates; however, the association between ASB and functional brain networks remains unclear. The temporal variability of the functional connectivity (or dynamic FC) derived from resting-state functional MRI has been suggested as a useful metric for studying abnormal behaviors including ASB. This is the first study using low-frequency fluctuations of the dynamic FC to unravel potential system-level neural correlates with ASB. Specifically, we individually associated the dynamic FC patterns with the ASB scores (measured by Antisocial Process Screening Device) of the male offenders (age: 23.29 ± 3.36 years) based on machine learning. Results showed that the dynamic FCs were associated with individual ASB scores. Moreover, we found that it was mainly the inter-network dynamic FCs that were negatively associated with the ASB severity. Three major high-order cognitive functional networks and the sensorimotor network were found to be more associated with ASB. We further found that impaired behavior in the ASB subjects was mainly associated with decreased FC dynamics in these networks, which may explain why ASB subjects usually have impaired executive control and emotional processing functions. Our study shows that temporal variation of the FC could be a promising tool for ASB assessment, treatment, and prevention.

11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030795

RESUMO

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a high-risk yet less understood status before developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This work included 76 SCD individuals with two (baseline and 7 years later) neuropsychological evaluations and a baseline T1-weighted structural MRI. A machine learning-based model was trained based on 198 baseline neuroimaging (morphometric) features and a battery of 25 clinical measurements to discriminate 24 progressive SCDs who converted to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at follow-up from 52 stable SCDs. The SCD progression was satisfactorily predicted with the combined features. A history of stroke, a low education level, a low baseline MoCA score, a shrunk left amygdala, and enlarged white matter at the banks of the right superior temporal sulcus were found to favor the progression. This is to date the largest retrospective study of SCD-to-MCI conversion with the longest follow-up, suggesting predictable far-future cognitive decline for the risky populations with baseline measures only. These findings provide valuable knowledge to the future neuropathological studies of AD in its prodromal phase.

12.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057985

RESUMO

The emerging discipline of oncofertility advocates for the timely provision of fertility preservation (FP) to all cancer patients of childbearing age by healthcare providers. A lack of practice due to limited FP-related knowledge was found among healthcare providers. A systematic review was undertaken on the educational programs on FP for healthcare providers. An initial search was performed in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases in October 2019. This review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Among the 160 articles that were identified, five relevant articles published between 2009 and 2019 were reviewed. Of the five studies, three were quantitative nonrandomized studies, one was a randomized controlled trial, and one was a qualitative study. Three programs were relevant to oncology nurses, one was relevant to social workers as well as nurses, and one was relevant to oncology fellows and residents. The four programs significantly increased healthcare providers' knowledge about FP, but clinical practice was only improved in the Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare program (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, most of the studies used a self-made questionnaire or tool to assess the effects of the training programs. The educational programs improved the FP-related knowledge of healthcare providers but lacked the high-quality randomized controlled trials needed to provide robust evidence on the effectiveness of training programs using standard tools. More training projects should be developed based on learning theories or models to improve oncofertility care in clinical practice.

13.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 272, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The longer upper airway is more collapsible during sleep. This study aims to reveal relationships among upper airway length, weight, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), particularly to answer why the upper airway of OSA patients is longer than that of healthy people and why some obese people suffer from OSA while others do not. METHODS: We perform head and neck MRI on male patients and controls, and measure > 20 morphological parameters, including several never before investigated, to quantify the effect of weight change on upper airway length. RESULTS: The upper airway length is longer in patients and correlates strongly to body weight. Weight increase leads to significant fat infiltration in the tongue, causing the hyoid to move downward and lengthen the airway in patients. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) strongly correlates to airway length and tongue size. Surprisingly, a distance parameter h and angle ß near the occipital bone both show significant differences between healthy males and patients due to their different head backward tilt angle, and strongly correlates with AHI. The contributions of downward hyoid movement and head tilt on airway lengthening are 67.4-80.5% and19.5-32.6%, respectively, in patients. The parapharyngeal fat pad also correlates strongly with AHI. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study reveal that the amount of body weight and distribution of deposited fat both affect airway length, and therefore OSA. Fat distribution plays a larger impact than the amount of weight, and is a better predictor of who among obese people are more prone to OSA.

14.
Neurosci Bull ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078374

RESUMO

Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a physiologically inert gas. However, during the last 10 years, increasing evidence has revealed its biological functions under pathological conditions. More specifically, H2 has protective effects against a variety of diseases, particularly nervous system disorders, which include ischemia/reperfusion injury, traumatic injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive dysfunction induced by surgery and anesthesia, anxiety, and depression. In addition, H2 plays protective roles mainly through anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, the regulation of autophagy, and preservation of mitochondrial function and the blood-brain barrier. Further, H2 is easy to use and has neuroprotective effects with no major side-effects, indicating that H2 administration is a potential therapeutic strategy in clinical settings. Here we summarize the H2 donors and their pharmacokinetics. Meanwhile, we review the effectiveness and safety of H2 in the treatment of various nervous system diseases based on preclinical and clinical studies, leading to the conclusion that H2 can be a simple and effective clinical therapy for CNS diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, Parkinson's disease, and diseases characterized by cognitive dysfunction. The potential mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of H2 are also analyzed.

15.
Neuroimage ; 224: 117426, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035668

RESUMO

Evidence from neuroimaging and genetic studies supports the concept that brain aging mirrors development. However, it is unclear whether mechanisms linking brain development and aging provide new insights to delay aging and potentially reverse it. This study determined biological mechanisms and phenotypic traits underpinning brain alterations across the lifespan and in aging by examining spatio-temporal correlations between gene expression and cortical volumes using datasets d with the age range from 2 to 82 years. We revealed that a large proportion of genes whose expression was associated with cortical volumes across the lifespan were in astrocytes. These genes, which showed up-regulation during development and down-regulation during aging, contributed to fundamental homeostatic functions of astrocytes. Included among these genes were those encoding components of cAMP, Ras, and retrograde endocannabinoid signaling pathways. Genes associated with cortical volumes in the same data aged above 55 years were also enriched for the sphingolipid, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), proteasome, and TGF-ß signaling pathway, which is linked to senescence-associated secretory phenotypes. Neuroticism, drinking, and smoking were the common phenotypic traits in the lifespan and aging, while memory was the unique phenotype associated with aging. These findings provide biological mechanisms mirroring development and aging as well as unique to aging.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16959, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046787

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the intravitreal injection of conbercept in the treatment of macular neovascularization (MNV) secondary to high myopia and to observe the application of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in the treatment follow-up. We reviewed the medical records of 20 patients (21 eyes) with MNV secondary to high myopia who were enrolled in the Department of Ophthalmology of the First Hospital of China Medical University between May 2018 and January 2020. Each patient received one or more intravitreal injections of conbercept (0.5 mg/0.05 mL). The treatment was conducted according to a 1 + PRN (pro re nata) regimen. The changes of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and selected MNV and flow areas measured by OCTA were observed over a 6-month follow-up period. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA was 1.03 ± 0.61 before treatment and improved to 0.83 ± 0.59 (P = 0.007), 0.78 ± 0.62 (P = 0.001), 0.81 ± 0.73 (P = 0.027), and 0.79 ± 0.72 (P = 0.023) at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment, respectively. The mean CMT was 358.16 ± 206.11 µm before treatment and decreased to 295.38 ± 178.70 µm (P = 0.003), 288.34 ± 165.60 µm (P = 0.004), 284.36 ± 163.07 µm (P = 0.005), and 283.00 ± 160.32 µm (P = 0.004) at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment, respectively. Nineteen eyes (90.5%) had stable or improved vision at 6 months of follow-up. One month after conbercept injection, in OCTA images, the small-diameter blood vessels of the MNV decreased, the intertwined small blood vessels decreased or even disappeared, and the main or larger-diameter blood vessels were still present. The mean selected MNV and blood flow areas were 0.62 ± 0.81 and 0.22 ± 0.27 mm2, respectively, before treatment and decreased to 0.23 ± 0.33 and 0.07 ± 0.08 mm2 (P = 0.04 for both), respectively, 1 month after treatment. No drug-related systemic or ocular adverse effects were observed. Our results suggest that conbercept can effectively and safely improve BCVA and reduce CMT in patients with myopic MVN (mMNV). OCTA can be used to observe MNV area, blood flow area, and MNV morphological changes after treatment with conbercept, thus providing a reference for treatment follow-up.

17.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of maternal zinc deficiency on learning and memory in offspring and the changes in DNA methylation patterns. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into zinc adequate (ZA), zinc deficient (ZD), and paired fed (PF) groups. Serum zinc contents and AKP activity in mother rats and offspring at P21 (end of lactation) and P60 (weaned, adult) were detected. Cognitive ability of offspring at P21 and P60 were determined by Morris water maze. The expression of proteins including DNMT3a, DNMT1, GADD45ß, MeCP2 and BDNF in the offspring hippocampus were detected by Western-blot. The methylation status of BDNF promoter region in hippocampus of offspring rats was detected by MS-qPCR. RESULTS: Compared with the ZA and PF groups, pups in the ZD group had lower zinc levels and AKP activity in the serum, spent more time finding the platform and spent less time going through the platform area. Protein expression of DNMT1 and GADD45b were downregulated in the ZD group during P0 and P21 but not P60 compared with the ZA and PF group, these results were consistent with a reduction in BDNF protein at P0 (neonate), P21. However, when pups of rats in the ZD group were supplemented with zinc ion from P21 to P60, MeCP2 and GADD45b expression were significantly downregulated compared with the ZA and PF group. CONCLUSION: Post-weaning zinc supplementation may improve cognitive impairment induced by early life zinc deficiency, whereas it may not completely reverse the abnormal expression of particular genes that are involved in DNA methylation, binding to methylated DNA and neurogenesis.

18.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23514, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare karyotype and chromosomal microarray (CMA) analysis of aneuploid chromosome mosaicism in amniocentesis samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2091 amniocentesis samples from pregnant women were collected from March 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020. Karyotype analysis was performed using G-banding and CMA analysis used the Affymetrix CytoScan 750K SNP microarray. RESULT: Thirteen cases with aneuploid chromosome mosaicism were detected and compared between the karyotype and CMA methods. Seven of these cases were trisomic mosaicism, and the levels of mosaicism calculated from CMA were higher than those detected from karyotype analysis; noting three cases of trisomy mosaicism were not detected by karyotype analysis. Four cases exhibited monomeric mosaicism, and the levels of mosaicism detected in three of these cases were higher in karyotype compared with CMA analysis; one case had equivalent levels of monomeric mosaicism from both karyotype and CMA analysis. Two other cases from karyotype analysis were a mix of monosomic and trisomic mosaicism, whereas the CMA result was restricted to monosomic mosaicism for these cases. CONCLUSION: Both karyotype and CMA analysis can be used to detect aneuploid chromosome mosaicism. However, the two methods produced different results. CMA and karyotype analysis have their own advantages in detecting aneuploid mosaicism, and the combination of these methods provides a more rigorous diagnosis.

19.
Food Chem ; 339: 127955, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919344

RESUMO

Lateral flow assay (LFA), performed with simple devices and short detection time, is popular in field applications. Herein, a novel sandwich type-based LFA was constructed for high sensitivity and selectivity detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Vancomycin-immobilized gold nanoparticles (VAN-Au NPs) were utilized as the first identifier to capture S. aureus and the specificity was guaranteed by the second recognition agent of pig immunoglobulin G (IgG). In addition, gold growth was adopted for signal amplification to further improve the detection sensitivity. S. aureus could be directly assayed by this LFA within the concentration range of 1.0 × 103-1.0 × 108 cfu mL-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 103 cfu mL-1. Furthermore, the novel sandwich LFA realized S. aureus detection in food samples with admissible recoveries and established a rapid, simple, cost-effective and sensitive platform, could meet the demand for on-site testing of S. aureus.

20.
Rep Prog Phys ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998129

RESUMO

Mode-locking lasers have not only produced huge economic benefits in industrial fields and scientific researches, but also provided an excellent platform to study diverse soliton phenomena. However, the real-time characterization of the ultrafast soliton dynamics remains challenging for the traditional electronic instruments due to their relatively little response bandwidth and slow scan rate. Consequently, it is urgent for researchers to directly observe these ultrafast evolution processes, not just indirectly understanding them from numerical simulations or averaged measurement data. Fortunately, dispersive Fourier transformation (DFT) provides a powerful real-time measurement technique to overcome the speed limitations of traditional electronic measurement devices by mapping the frequency spectrum onto the temporal waveform. In the review, the operation principle of DFT is discussed and the recent progress in characterizing the ultrafast transient soliton dynamics of mode-locking lasers is summarized, including soliton explosions, soliton molecules, noise-like pulses, rogue waves, and mode-locking buildup process.

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