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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13670, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211099

RESUMO

Early postoperative injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) can reduce surgical scar hypertrophy. BTxA injection at different time points is associated with different levels of efficacy, but the efficacy of different doses of BTxA for scar management has not investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of BTxA administered early after surgery on scar improvement through a split-scar experiment. The study included 22 patients who underwent surgery between September 2019 and October 2020. High- and low-dose BTxA was randomly administered into each half of the surgical wound closure immediately after surgery. One half of the incision was injected with a low dose (4 U) of BTxA, and the other half was injected with a high dose (8 U). The scars were then evaluated at postoperative 6 months using the modified Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (mSBSES), and patient satisfaction was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The occurrence of complications or adverse events was also recorded. Twenty patients completed the study and were analyzed. Compared with the low-dose sides, the high-dose sides had significantly better mSBSES scores and significantly higher VAS scores (p < 0.01, respectively). No serious adverse reactions or post-injection complications were observed. Immediately after the operation, high-dose BTxA (that is within the therapeutic range) injection improved the appearance of postoperative scar more than low-dose injection.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3304-3315, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212656

RESUMO

Urban surface runoff is an important non-point pollution source, and research on contamination characteristics of runoff is urgent for improving urban aquatic environment quality. Typical cities along the downstream Yangtze River, Wuxi and Nanjing, were selected in this study, and runoff samples from various underlying surfaces were collected to investigate contamination characteristics of heavy metals and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals have exceed water quality standards in underlying surfaces partly, the decreasing order of metal contaminations was Zn > Cu > Pb > Sb > Cd. Contamination characteristics of surface runoff were found to exhibit significant differences, and arterial traffic exhibited the severe contamination of both heavy metals and DOM. Spectral characteristics indicated that the structure of DOM exhibited significant differences in various underlying surfaces, and DOM humification levels in Wuxi showed the following decreasing order:roof covering > sidewalk > parking area > grassy area > arterial traffic, aromaticity indexes exhibited order as:arterial traffic > grassy area > sidewalk > roof covering > parking area. Differential absorption spectroscopy (DAS) and FT-IR analyses indicated that DOM exhibited strong combination effects with cationic metal pollutants (Cu), which mainly occur with C=C structure and carboxylic and phenolic groups; DOM presented weak combination with anion metal pollutant (Sb), indicating that Sb likely exists as a free anion in runoff. The annual total loadings of metal contaminations in the study area were as follows:Zn > Cu > Pb > Sb > Cd. The loadings of Zn were 4.83 kg·a-1 and 3.21 kg·a-1 in Wuxi and Nanjing, respectively. Annual loadings of DOM reached 0.93 g·(m2·a)-1 and 8.72 g·(m2·a)-1. The results indicated that corresponding pollution reduction measures should be implemented for different underlying surfaces to reduce contaminant concentrations; our findings may provide essential information for improving the aquatic environment quality in downstream Yangtze River.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Cell Res ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239074

RESUMO

Whereas the critical roles of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in adult are increasingly appreciated, their developmental hierarchy in early human fetus remains largely elusive. In this study, we sorted human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, lymphoid progenitors, putative ILC progenitor/precursors and mature ILCs in the fetal hematopoietic, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, from 8 to 12 post-conception weeks, for single-cell RNA-sequencing, followed by computational analysis and functional validation at bulk and single-cell levels. We delineated the early phase of ILC lineage commitment from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which mainly occurred in fetal liver and intestine. We further unveiled interleukin-3 receptor as a surface marker for the lymphoid progenitors in fetal liver with T, B, ILC and myeloid potentials, while IL-3RA- lymphoid progenitors were predominantly B-lineage committed. Notably, we determined the heterogeneity and tissue distribution of each ILC subpopulation, revealing the proliferating characteristics shared by the precursors of each ILC subtype. Additionally, a novel unconventional ILC2 subpopulation (CRTH2- CCR9+ ILC2) was identified in fetal thymus. Taken together, our study illuminates the precise cellular and molecular features underlying the stepwise formation of human fetal ILC hierarchy with remarkable spatiotemporal heterogeneity.

4.
Chaos ; 31(6): 063122, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241314

RESUMO

As a universal phenomenon in nonlinear optical systems, the soliton pulsating behavior is useful to achieve high pulse energy and can further enrich the complex soliton dynamics. To the best of our knowledge, herein we have demonstrated the observation of multiple-soliton pulsations in an L-band mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror with anomalous dispersion for the first time. Based on the dispersive Fourier transform method, we find that the pulsations in the multi-soliton regime are accompanied with the pulse width breathing and spectrum oscillation. In addition, the corresponding number of pulsating solitons increases linearly from 8 to 16 with the pump power. Our findings can facilitate a better understanding of the complex mechanism of soliton pulsations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236163

RESUMO

Ultrathin lamellar SnSe is highly attractive for applications in areas such as photonics, photodetectors, photovoltaic devices, and photocatalysis, owing to its suitable band gap, exceptional light absorption capabilities, and considerable carrier mobility. On the other hand, SnSe nanosheets (NSs) still face challenges of being difficult to prepare and their devices having low photoelectric conversion efficiencies. Herein, ultrathin SnSe NSs with controlled Se defects were synthesized with high yield by a facial Li intercalation-assisted liquid exfoliation method. The loss of Se, a narrowing of the band gap, and an increase in lattice disorders involving vacancies, distortions, and phase transition were observed in SnSe NSs prepared with a long lithiation process. Comparing between the 24 and 72 h lithiation samples, the ones processed for a longer time displayed a faster recombination time due to more defect-induced mid-states. Inspiringly, enhancements of 4-10 times were observed for photodetector device parameters such as photocurrent, photoresponsivity, photoresponse speed, and specific detectivity of the 72 h lithiation SnSe NSs. Additionally, these devices show good stability and a broad detection range, from ultraviolet to the near infrared region. Our results provide a promising avenue for the mass production of SnSe NSs with high photoelectric performance and open up opportunities for applications in photonics, optoelectronics, and photocatalysis.

6.
J Cancer Educ ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260015

RESUMO

This study investigated the knowledge, thoughts, and attitudes of oncology nurses in China regarding fertility preservation for male cancer patients of childbearing age, and for offering counseling or oncofertility services for the men in their care. Data was collected from 18 oncology nurses in Southwest China through voluntary self-report and in-depth interviews. The qualitative interview data were analyzed using a descriptive phenomenology method based on the lived experience of the nurses. The interviewees commonly reported 6 main concerns regarding fertility preservation (FP): their insufficient knowledge and inadequate nursing education; the importance of offering such services to cancer patients; legal vulnerability if FP information is withheld from patients; the role of the nurse in counseling; and barriers to discussing FP in practice. Nurses had a positive attitude toward FP, but most had no practical role in routinely informing male patients of their options, and the nurses believed that discussion of FP was outside their scope of practice. This study offers insight into the perceptions of oncology nurses in a developing country regarding the provision of FP services for adult male cancer patients. These results lead us to recommend that local fertility nurses should be given new training regarding FP. Furthermore, nurse-led clinics are desirable. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of nurse participation in FP counseling and referral, and how to improve the professional confidence of oncology nurses for addressing FP issues.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009769, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265026

RESUMO

The virulence evolution of multiple infections of parasites from the same species has been modeled widely in evolution theory. However, experimental studies on this topic remain scarce, particularly regarding multiple infections by different parasite species. Here, we characterized the virulence and community dynamics of fungal pathogens on the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora to verify the predictions made by the model. We observed that A. adenophora was highly susceptible to diverse foliar pathogens with mixed vertical and horizontal transmission within leaf spots. The transmission mode mainly determined the pathogen community structure at the leaf spot level. Over time, the pathogen community within a leaf spot showed decreased Shannon diversity; moreover, the vertically transmitted pathogens exhibited decreased virulence to the host A. adenophora, but the horizontally transmitted pathogens exhibited increased virulence to the host. Our results demonstrate that the predictions of classical models for the virulence evolution of multiple infections are still valid in a complex realistic environment and highlight the impact of transmission mode on disease epidemics of foliar fungal pathogens. We also propose that seedborne fungi play an important role in structuring the foliar pathogen community from multiple infections within a leaf spot.

8.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253046

RESUMO

Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro, the most widely cultivated bamboo species in southern China, has high ornamental value used in gardens, while culms are also used for buildings and as fibers and edibles (Gao et al. 2011). In June 2020, brown culm rot of bamboo was observed in Yibin city, Sichuan Province, in an area of approximately 1000 hectares. Disease incidence was approximately 60%, of which 30% of the plants had died. At the end of June, the lesions expanded but did not surround the base of the culm. From the end of June to the beginning of September, the lesions expanded upward and formed a streak, of which the color gradually deepened to purple-brown and black-brown. At the same time, the disease spots at the base of the culm also expanded horizontally. After the spots surrounded the base of the culm, the diseased bamboo died. Ten culms showing typical symptoms were collected and cut into 5×5 mm pieces at the junction of infected and healthy tissues. The tissues were sterilized for 1 to 2 min in 3% sodium hypochlorite, decontaminated in 75% alcohol for 3 to 5 min, placed on modified potato glucose agar (PDA) with streptomycin sulfate (50 µg/ml), and incubated at 26°C. Two isolates were obtained by the single-spore method (Sivan et al. 1992). The isolates both produced white round colonies similar to Diaporthe guangxiensis and two types of conidia: one was α type (5.5 to 8.2×1.0 to 2.8 µm, n=30), colourless, single-celled, undivided, and oval, containing two oil droplets; and ß type (21.1 to 30.2×0.8 to 1.4 µm, n=30), colourless, single celled and hook shaped. Genomic DNA was extracted from the two isolates by using a fungal genomic DNA extraction kit (Solarbio, Beijing). The products were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers for the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS) region (White et al. 1990), calmodulin (CAL) gene (Carbone and Kohn 1999), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene (Glass and Donaldson 1995) and beta-tubulin (TUB) gene (Soares et al. 2018). The amplified products were sequenced and blasted in GenBank (accession numbers MW380383, MW431318, MW431317 and MW431316 for ITS, CAL, TEF, and TUB, respectively). The ITS, CAL, TEF, and TUB sequences showed 100%, 99.33%, 100%, and 99.80% identity to D. guangxiensis JZB320094 (accession numbers MK335772.1, MK736727.1, MK523566.1, MK500168.1 in GenBank), respectively. To evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolates, five plants were each inoculated with two isolates. The cortex of potted bamboo were injured locally with sterilized needle, and the bamboo culms were inoculated with 100 µl of conidial suspension (105 cfu/ml). The surface of the inoculation wound was covered with gauze soaked with sterilized water. Five plants inoculated with sterile water were used as controls. The treated plants were maintained in a greenhouse at a temperature of 22 to 29°C and relative humidity of 70 to 80%. One month later, of all inoculated plants showed similar symptoms as those observed in the field. D. guangxiensis was re-isolated from all inoculated plants. The pathogenicity test was repeated three times with similar results. This is the first report of D. guangxiensis causing brown culm rot of D. latiflorus in China. These results will facilitate an enhanced understanding of factors affecting bamboo and the design of effective management strategies of the pathogenic species on bamboo and thus to develop corresponding control measures.

9.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 6498-6511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236963

RESUMO

Aerial scene recognition is challenging due to the complicated object distribution and spatial arrangement in a large-scale aerial image. Recent studies attempt to explore the local semantic representation capability of deep learning models, but how to exactly perceive the key local regions remains to be handled. In this paper, we present a local semantic enhanced ConvNet (LSE-Net) for aerial scene recognition, which mimics the human visual perception of key local regions in aerial scenes, in the hope of building a discriminative local semantic representation. Our LSE-Net consists of a context enhanced convolutional feature extractor, a local semantic perception module and a classification layer. Firstly, we design a multi-scale dilated convolution operators to fuse multi-level and multi-scale convolutional features in a trainable manner in order to fully receive the local feature responses in an aerial scene. Then, these features are fed into our two-branch local semantic perception module. In this module, we design a context-aware class peak response (CACPR) measurement to precisely depict the visual impulse of key local regions and the corresponding context information. Also, a spatial attention weight matrix is extracted to describe the importance of each key local region for the aerial scene. Finally, the refined class confidence maps are fed into the classification layer. Exhaustive experiments on three aerial scene classification benchmarks indicate that our LSE-Net achieves the state-of-the-art performance, which validates the effectiveness of our local semantic perception module and CACPR measurement.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203142

RESUMO

Acute rhinosinusitis is a common infectious disease, which, in more than 90% of cases, is caused by viruses rather than by bacteria. Even so, antibiotics are often unnecessarily prescribed, and in the long run this contributes to the alarming level of antibiotics resistance. The reason is that there are no good guiding tools for defining the background reason of the infection. One main factor for the clearance of the infection is if there is non-obstructed ventilation from the sinus to the nasal cavity. Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) has potential for diagnosing this. We have performed a study of frontal sinuses of volunteers with a focus on signal stability and reproducibility over time, accurate oxygen concentration determination, and assessment of gas transport through passages, naturally and after decongestant spray administration. Different from earlier studies on frontal sinuses, water vapor, serving the purpose of oxygen signal normalization, was measured at 818 nm rather than earlier at 937 nm, now closer to the 760 nm oxygen absorption band and thus resulting in more reliable results. In addition, the action of decongestants was objectively demonstrated for the first time. Evaluated oxygen concentration values for left- and right-hand side sinus cavities were found to agree within 0.3%, and a left-right geometrical asymmetry parameter related to anatomical differences was stable within 10%.


Assuntos
Seios Paranasais , Sinusite , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espectral , Vapor
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206936

RESUMO

The cascaded dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) is presented for efficient generation of few-cycle infrared (IR) laser pulses. The input pulses are strategically chirped to optimize the phase-matching bandwidth in each nonlinear crystal, and four regions of the signal spectrum are amplified in cascaded crystals with different cutting angles, enabling flexible manipulation of the output spectrum. Broadband gain and high conversion efficiency are simultaneously achieved owing to the cascaded-crystal arrangement, the signal pulse duration of 4.2 cycles is obtained with 11.7-mJ pulse energy, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 39.0%. The proposed scheme offers a robust and simple approach to pushing the phase-matching bandwidth limits introduced by the nonlinear crystal, which manifests great prospect in various researches involving ultrafast optics and strong-field physics.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Lasers , Cristalização , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos
12.
Neuropharmacology ; : 108694, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245775

RESUMO

Phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7), one of the 11 phosphodiesterase (PDE) families, specifically hydrolyzes cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). PDE7 is involved in many important functional processes in physiology and pathology by regulating intracellular cAMP signaling. Studies have demonstrated that PDE7 is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and potentially related to pathogenesis of many CNS diseases. Here, we summarized the classification and distribution of PDE7 in the brain and its functional roles in the mediation of CNS diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and schizophrenia. It is expected that the findings collected here will not only lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which PDE7 mediates CNS function and diseases, but also aid in the development of novel drugs targeting PDE7 for treatment of CNS diseases.

13.
Stem Cells ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269496

RESUMO

As a master regulator of the dynamic process of adult neurogenesis, timely expression and regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor Tailless (Tlx) is essential. However, there is no study yet to directly investigate the essential role of precise spatiotemporal expressed Tlx. Here, we generated a conditional gain of Tlx expression transgenic mouse model, which allowed the extended Tlx expression in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny by mating with a TlxCreERT2 mouse line. We demonstrate that extended expression of Tlx induced the impaired generation of mature neurons in adult subventricular zone and subgranular zone. Furthermore, we elucidated for the first time that this mutation decreased the endogenous expression of Sox2 by directly binding to its promoter. Restoration experiments further confirmed that Sox2 partially rescued these neuron maturation defects. Together, these findings not only highlight the importance of shutting-off Tlx on time in controlling NSC behavior, but also provide insights for further understanding adult neurogenesis and developing treatment strategies for neurological disorders.

14.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269776

RESUMO

A nanoprobe based on polydopamine-coated gold nanobipyramids surface modified with molecules of a phenylboronic acid-substituted distyryl boron dipyrromethene has been fabricated and characterised using various physical and spectroscopic methods. It serves as an ultrasensitive sensor for sialic acids on the surface of cancer cells based on its dual surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence response. This biomarker can also trigger the photodynamic activity of these nanobipyramids, effectively eradicating the cancer cells mainly through apoptosis as shown by various bioassays.

15.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223847

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been extensively investigated for decades for tumor treatment because of its non-invasiveness, spatiotemporal selectivity, lower side-effects, and immune activation ability. It can be a promising treatment modality in several medical fields, including oncology, immunology, urology, dermatology, ophthalmology, cardiology, pneumology, and dentistry. Nevertheless, the clinical application of PDT is largely restricted by the drawbacks of traditional photosensitizers, limited tissue penetrability of light, inefficient induction of tumor cell death, tumor resistance to the therapy, and the severe pain induced by the therapy. Recently, various photosensitizer formulations and therapy strategies have been developed to overcome these barriers. Significantly, the introduction of nanomaterials in PDT, as carriers or photosensitizers, may overcome the drawbacks of traditional photosensitizers. Based on this, nanocomposites excited by various light sources are applied in the PDT of deep-seated tumors. Modulation of cell death pathways with co-delivered reagents promotes PDT induced tumor cell death. Relief of tumor resistance to PDT with combined therapy strategies further promotes tumor inhibition. Also, the optimization of photosensitizer formulations and therapy procedures reduces pain in PDT. Here, a systematic summary of recent advances in the fabrication of photosensitizers and the design of therapy strategies to overcome barriers in PDT is presented. Several aspects important for the clinical application of PDT in cancer treatment are also discussed.

16.
Nano Today ; : 101243, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249143

RESUMO

The outbreak of SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has become a global health emergency. Although enormous efforts have been made, there is still no effective treatment against the new virus. Herein, a TiO2 supported single-atom nanozyme containing atomically dispersed Ag atoms (Ag-TiO2 SAN) is designed to serve as a highly efficient antiviral nanomaterial. Compared with troditional nano-TiO2 and Ag, Ag-TiO2 SAN exhibits higher adsorption (99.65%) of SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus. This adsorption ability is due to the interaction between SAN and receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike 1 protein of SARS-CoV2. Theoretical calculation and experimental evidience indicate that the Ag atoms of SAN strongly bind to cysteine and asparagine, which are the most abundant amino acids on the surface of spike 1 RBD. After binding to the virus, the SAN/virus complex is typically phagocytosed by macrophages and colocalized with lysosomes. Interestingly, Ag-TiO2 SAN possesses high peroxidase-like activity responsible for reactive oxygen species production under acid conditions. The highly acidic microenvironment of lysosomes could favor oxygen reduction reaction process to eliminate the virus. With hACE2 transgenic mice, Ag-TiO2 SAN showed efficient anti-SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus activity. In conclusion, Ag-TiO2 SAN is a promising nanomaterial to achieve effective antiviral effects for SARS-CoV2.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14668, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282271

RESUMO

The problems caused by the interaction between slopes and hydrologic environment in traffic civil engineering are very serious in the granite residual soil area of China, especially in Guangdong Province. Against the background of two heavy rainfall events occurring during a short period due to a typhoon making landfall twice or even two typhoons consecutively making landfall, laboratory model tests were carried out on the hydrological effects of the granite residual soil slope considering three vegetation types under artificial rainfall. The variation in slope surface runoff, soil moisture content and rain seepage over time was recorded during the tests. The results indicate that surface vegetation first effectively reduces the splash erosion impact of rainwater on slopes and then influences the slope hydrological effect through rainwater forms adjustment. (1) The exposed slope has weak resistance to two consecutive heavy rains, the degree of slope scouring and soil erosion damage will increase greatly during the second rainfall. (2) The multiple hindrances of the stem leaf of Zoysia japonica plays a leading role in regulating the hydrological effect of slope, the root system has little effect on the permeability and water storage capacity of slope soil, but improves the erosion resistance of it. (3) Both the stem leaf and root system of Nephrolepis cordifolia have important roles on the hydrological effect. The stem leaf can stabilize the infiltration of rainwater, and successfully inhibit the surface runoff under continuous secondary heavy rainfall. The root system significantly enhances the water storage capacity of the slope, and greatly increases the permeability of the slope soil in the second rainfall, which is totally different from that of the exposed and Zoysia japonica slopes. (4) Zoysia is a suitable vegetation species in terms of slope protection because of its comprehensive slope protection effect. Nephrolepis cordifolia should be cautiously planted as slope protection vegetation. Only on slopes with no stability issues should Nephrolepis cordifolia be considered to preserve soil and water.

18.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282890

RESUMO

The ability to noninvasively monitor stem cells' differentiation is important to stem cell studies. Raman spectroscopy is a non-harmful imaging approach that acquires the cellular biochemical signatures. Herein, we report the first use of label-free Raman spectroscopy to characterize the gradual change during the differentiation process of live human neural stem cells (NSCs) in the in vitro cultures. Raman spectra of 600-1800 cm-1 were measured with human NSC cultures from the undifferentiated stage (NSC-predominant) to the highly differentiated one (neuron-predominant) and subsequently analyzed using various mathematical methods. Hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two cell types (NSCs and neurons) through the spectra. The subsequently derived differentiation rate matched that measured by immunocytochemistry. The key spectral biomarkers were identified by time-dependent trend analysis and principal component analysis. Furthermore, through machine learning-based analysis, a set of eight spectral data points were found to be highly accurate in classifying cell types and predicting the differentiation rate. The predictive accuracy was the highest using the artificial neural network (ANN) and slightly lowered using the logistic regression model and linear discriminant analysis. In conclusion, label-free Raman spectroscopy with the aid of machine learning analysis can provide the noninvasive classification of cell types at the single-cell level and thus accurately track the human NSC differentiation. A set of eight spectral data points combined with the ANN method were found to be the most efficient and accurate. Establishing this non-harmful and efficient strategy will shed light on the in vivo and clinical studies of NSCs.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279902

RESUMO

Particulate matter of 0.3 µm in diameter (PM0.3) poses a serious threat to the environment and human beings. Ultrathin and -light nanofibrous filters with excellent filtration properties can significantly prevent the detrimental effects of these particles. Here, we develop free-standing polyamide PA-66 ultrafine nanofiber papers for PM0.3 filtration using effective and scalable blow and electro-blow spinning techniques. The smallest average fiber diameter is 61.7 nm, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of conventional textiles. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwovens are selected to fabricate free-standing nanofiber papers of various polymers, including polyamide, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinylpyrrolidone), and poly(ethylene oxide) owing to the smooth surfaces of the nonwovens. This underlying principle can be used to create similar free-standing nanofiber papers from other commodity polymers in the future. Mechanisms of capturing particulate matter with different nanofiber morphologies are discussed. Salt and oil particulates are used to characterize the filtration properties. PA-66 papers are promising reusable filters owing to their mechanical particle-capture mechanism. The blow-spun PA-66 papers show filtration performance of 98.75% efficiency and a pressure drop of 125.44 Pa owing to the "slip" effect caused by the ultrasmall diameter. In the electro-blow spinning process, a supplementary voltage supply is conducive to separating nanofiber bundles into random-oriented nanofibers. Electro-blown spun papers possess an ultrahigh efficiency of 99.99% with a reduced areal density of 0.9 g m-2. These PA-66 papers can be used in a variety of applications, such as reusable personal protective equipment, industrial waste gas treatment, and central ventilation purification systems.

20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102429, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237475

RESUMO

Black phosphorus quantum dots(BPQDs) have shown a good application prospect in the field of tumor therapy due to their photoelectric effect and good biodegradability. Due to the active endocytosis and fast metabolic efficiency of tumor cells, BPQDs are easy to be absorbed by tumor cells. However, this does not guarantee that BPQDs will be completely targeted to tumor cells, and normal cells will also absorb BPQDs. Because the cell membrane is negatively charged, BPQDs are also negatively charged and are not easily absorbed by cells under the action of electrostatic repulsion. Surface pegylation is the most common modification method of black phosphorus at present. However, surface pegylation can reduce the uptake of BPQDs by tumor cells. Positive PEG is also easy to be recognized and swallowed by the reticuloendothelial system. The inherent instability and poor tumor targeting of BPQDs under physiological conditions limit further research and clinical application. For this purpose, we selected cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) to modify BPQDs and then added RGD peptides targeting tumor cells. An outer layer of negatively charged PEG+DMMA makes the nanosystem more stable . In the acidic environment of the tumor, the PEG layer has a charge reversal, and the positively charged PEI and the RGD polypeptide BPQDs targeted by the tumor cells are released into the tumor cells. It provides a new method for efficiently and accurately transporting BPQDs, a novel photosensitive nanomaterial, into tumor cells for photodynamic therapy.

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