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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17102, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567946

RESUMO

Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHCC) is a rare type of primary liver cancer (PLC). The aim of this study was to investigate the disease characteristics in CHCC patients and compare them with those in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).The perioperative and follow-up data of CHCC patients (n = 15), HCC patients (n = 577), and ICC patients (n = 61) were retrospectively analyzed, and the clinicopathological characteristics were compared among these 3 groups.In the CHCC group, the serum level of AFP was significantly higher than that of the ICC group (P = .002), and the CA19-9 level was higher than that of the HCC group (P = .011). The positive rates of CK7 and CK19 expression were higher in CHCC group than in HCC group (both P < .001), while the positive rates of Glypican-3 and Hepatocyte expression were higher in CHCC group than in ICC group (both P < .001). Meanwhile, the CHCC patients were likely to have undergone more MJH/LT than the HCC patients (P = .037) and the ICC patients (P = .011). Macrovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis in the CHCC group were significantly higher but satellite lesions were similar, compared to the HCC group. Both the 1-year disease-free survival (DFS) and the 1-year overall survival (OS) for the CHCC patients were worse than those for the HCC patients. AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml, tumor size ≥5 cm, tumor number ≥2, macro- and microvascular invasion, distant metastasis and positive margin were risk factors for both DFS and OS for the PLC patients. Multivariate analysis also confirmed that ICC and lymph node metastasis were risk factors for DFS and MJH/LT was risk factor for OS.CHCC patients appear to have intermediate clinical characteristics in comparison with the HCC and ICC patients, and the 1-year DFS and OS for the CHCC patients was worse than the HCC patients, but similar to the ICC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/mortalidade , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , China , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/cirurgia
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109482, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568990

RESUMO

Ferulic acid, a main ingredient of Ligusticum, exhibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation effects in heart diseases. Some studies indicate that gut microbiome is associated with the generation of ferulic acid. Whether the beneficial effect of ferulic is raised by the alteration of gut microbiota is still unknown. This study examined the effect of sodium ferulate on gut microbiome and cardiac function in TAC mice. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay verified that ferulic acid has low toxicity in vitro and that ferulic acid inhibited the up-regulation of ß-MHC and ANP induced by Angiotensin II. In addition, daily supplement of 50 mg/kg sodium ferulate improved the ejection fraction and changed the gut microbiota composition of TAC mice. Relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Parabacteroides are increased in TAC mice gavaged with sodium ferulate. In addition, Lactobacillus is negatively correlated with HW/BW and LW/BW ratio. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of ferulic in TAC mice is probably through the regulation of gut microbiota.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging-guided hepatectomy(FIGH) for liver tumors. METHODS: Clinical studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Medline and Web of Science electronic databases. Primary outcomes included operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, hospital stay, R0 resection, postoperative complications, postoperative mortality and 1-year recurrence rate. Study-specific effect sizes and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined to calculate the pooled value using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. RESULTS: Six studies comprising 587 patients were included. Major operative time (mean difference [MD] = -55.45; 95% CI = -78.85- -32.05), blood loss (MD = 12.99; 95% CI = 12.00-13.97), hospital stay (rate difference [RD] = -12.61; 95% CI = -15.06- -10.17), and postoperative complications (RD = -0.07; 95% CI = -0.12- -0.01) were all less in the FIGH group than in the traditional hepatectomy(TH) group. No differences were found in blood transfusion, R0 resection or 1-year recurrence rate. No perioperative mortality was observed in either group. CONCLUSION: Based on current evidence, applying indocyanine green fluorescence imaging technology to accurately diagnose and treat liver tumors can effectively reduce the operative time, blood loss, hospital stay and postoperative complications.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594309

RESUMO

New all-inorganic perovskites like Cs4PbBr6 provide rich luminescent tools and particularly novel physical insights, including their zero-dimensional structure and controversial emitting mechanism. The ensuring debate over the luminescence origin of Cs4PbBr6 inspires us to tackle the issue through fabricating high quality Cs4PbBr6 single crystal and employing ultrafast dynamic study. Upon photoexcitation, Cs4PbBr6 underwent distinct dynamic steps from that of CsPbBr3, including exciton migration to the defect level on several hundred of fs time scale, exciton relaxation within the defect states on the ps time scale, and exciton recombination from sub-ns to ns time scale. The observation disclosed crystal defects of Cs4PbBr6 induced green emission while CsPbBr3 mainly relied on quantum confinement to emit at room temperature. The study gives an in-depth understanding on the photoinduced multistep dynamic steps of Cs4PbBr6 associated with display and photovoltaic applications, spurring Cs4PbBr6 as new ammunition for the arsenal of perovskite family.

5.
Chem Rec ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584251

RESUMO

The development of two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing interest due to their unique structure and various potential applications such as opto-electronic devices and photocatalysis. Our group have contributed to this exciting field by creating novel preparation methods for a various of 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), carbon nitrides and single elemental 2D materials from Group 15. Particularly, employing powerful time-resolved spectroscopic techniques such as femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we elucidated the excited-state dynamics of 2D materials behind their outstanding performance in photocatalytic and photonic devices. Therefore in this account, we focus on the effective fabrication methods of 2D materials and their photoinduced excited-state dynamics. Following the introduction in Part 1, we will summarize our novel strategies for fabricating 2D materials (Part 2). Then in Part 3 we will introduce the instrumentation for exploring the photoinduced excited-state dynamics of the 2D materials spanning a wide time scale from ultrafast fs to slow ms. Part 4 details the applications of the 2D materials in photocatalysis and nonlinear optics determined by their excited-state physics and chemistry. Part 5 of perspectives summarizes a few future trends of 2D materials on a series of issues like fabrications, dynamic investigations and photonic optoelectronic applications. Collective efforts through researchers from interdisciplinary fields are expected to further push the exciting territory towards a new horizon.

6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(37): 5667-5675, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a syndrome with a high short-term mortality rate, and it is crucial to identify those patients at a high mortality risk clinically. AIM: To investigate the clinical value of soluble mannose receptor (sMR) in predicting the 90-day mortality of HBV-ACLF patients. METHODS: A total of 43 patients were diagnosed with HBV-ACLF between October 2017 and October 2018 at the Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University, and all of them were enrolled in this retrospective study. Their serum sMR levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Demographic and clinical data, including gender, age, albumin level, total bilirubin (TBIL) level, international normalized ratio, HBV-DNA level, HBV serological markers, procalcitonin level, interleukin-6 level, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were accessed at the time of diagnosis of HBV-ACLF. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Serum sMR level was significantly increased in HBV-ACLF patients compared with chronic hepatitis B patients and healthy controls (P < 0.01). When compared with surviving patients, it was higher in those patients who succumbed to HBV-ACLF (P < 0.05). Serum sMR level was positively correlated with MELD score (r s = 0.533, P = 0.001), HBV-DNA level (r s = 0.497, P = 0.022), and TBIL level (r s = 0.894, P < 0.001). Serum sMR level (odds ratio = 1.007, 95% confidence interval: 1.004-1.012, P = 0.001) was an independent risk factor for the 90-day mortality in the HBV-ACLF cases. The patients with HBV-ACLF were stratified into two groups in accordance with their serum sMR levels at the baseline (low risk: < 99.84 pg/mL and high risk: ≥ 99.84 pg/mL). The 90-day mortality rates were 27.3% in the low-risk group and 87.5% in the high-risk group. Furthermore, sMR level apparently improved the performance of MELD score for predicting the prognosis of patients with HBV-ACLF. CONCLUSION: Serum sMR level may be a predictor of the prognosis of HBV-ACLF patients.

7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 438, 2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to find out whether the shear wave elastography (SWE) findings of patients with unilateral lumbar disc herniation (LDH) were related to clinical characteristics. METHODS: For this purpose, the study group included patients (N = 20; 13 male, 7 female) with complaints of unilateral sciatica, with foraminal stenosis caused by one level of LDH (L4-L5 or L5-S1). An gender-and age-matched control group (N = 27; 16 male, 11 female) was included. All the patients were examined on both the axial and longitudinal planes bilaterally at the same level using a convex array probe (1- 6 MHz, Supersonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France). RESULTS: The sciatic nerve stiffness measured on longitudinal planes of the affected side was significantly higher than unaffected side (p < 0.001) and the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the symptom duration of unilateral LDH is positively correlated with the stiffness the sciatic nerve (r = 0.52, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: According to these findings, ultrasound imaging can be considered as a useful tool to detect changes in the sciatic nerve due to disc herniation. This technique will have a promising prospect for many patients with unilateral LDH in monitoring stiffness during rehabilitation and before or after surgery.

9.
Org Lett ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565948

RESUMO

The first examples of type B polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols with a bicyclo[5.3.1]hendecane core, hyperberins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Hypericum beanii, together with three biosynthetic congeners. Their structures were established by a combination of NMR, electric circular dichroism (ECD), and X-ray diffraction analyses. These isolates indicated divergent cationic cyclization as key steps in the biosynthesis of PPAPs with diverse architectures. Compounds 1 and 2 were moderately cytotoxic and exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(19)2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569410

RESUMO

Edible gelatin has been widely used as a food additive in the food industry, and illegal adulteration with industrial gelatin will cause serious harm to human health. The present work used laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with the partial least square-support vector machine (PLS-SVM) method for the fast and accurate estimation of edible gelatin adulteration. Gelatin samples with 11 different adulteration ratios were prepared by mixing pure edible gelatin with industrial gelatin, and the LIBS spectra were recorded to analyze their elemental composition differences. The PLS, SVM, and PLS-SVM models were separately built for the prediction of gelatin adulteration ratios, and the hybrid PLS-SVM model yielded a better performance than only the PLS and SVM models. Besides, four different variable selection methods, including competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), random frog (RF), and principal component analysis (PCA), were adopted to combine with the SVM model for comparative study; the results further demonstrated that the PLS-SVM model was superior to the other SVM models. This study reveals that the hybrid PLS-SVM model, with the advantages of low computational time and high prediction accuracy, can be employed as a preferred method for the accurate estimation of edible gelatin adulteration.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573137

RESUMO

We report a single step solution based strategy to obtain 2D janus like free standing ultrathin nanosheets build from two structurally unrelated species i.e. polyoxomolybdate (POM) and CoO. A controlled 2D-to-1D morphological transition was achieved by judiciously adjusting the solvent choices. These POM-CoO heterostructures can behave as an ideal catalyst for the epoxidation of styrene. Benefiting from their amphiphilic nature, these 2D POM-CoO nanosheets have also been used as surfactant to emulsify immiscible solvents. We anticipate that structurally diverse polyoxometalates will offer promise as design elements for variety of structurally and compositionally tunable van der Waals integrated heteromaterials having broad range applications.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591756

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes), which are a class of emerging nanomaterials with intriguing properties, have attracted significant attention in recent years. However, due to the highly hydrophilic nature of MXene nanosheets, assembly strategies of MXene at liquid-liquid interfaces have been very limited and challenging. Herein, via the cooperative assembly of MXene and amine-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane at the oil-water interface, we report the formation, assembly and jamming of a new type MXene-based Janus-like nanoparticle surfactants, termed MXene-surfactants (MXSs), which can significantly enhance the interfacial activity of MXene nanosheets. More importantly, this simple assembly strategy opens a new platform for the fabrication of functional MXene assemblies from mesoscale (e.g. structured liquids) to macroscale (e.g. aerogels), that can be used for a range of applications, including nanocomposites, electronic devices, and all-liquid microfluidic devices.

14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available research about the anatomic patterns of intertrochanteric fractures is lacking, and fracture mapping has not previously been performed on intertrochanteric fractures. This study aimed to determine the major trajectories of intertrochanteric fracture lines using computed tomography data from a series of surgically treated patients. METHODS: In this study, 504 patients with intertrochanteric fractures were retrospectively analyzed. Fracture patterns were graded according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification. Fracture lines were transcribed onto proximal femoral templates and graphically superimposed to create a compilation of fracture maps that were subsequently divided into anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial fracture maps to create a three-dimensional (3D) pattern by reducing fragments in the 3D models. The fracture maps were then converted into frequency spectra. The major fracture patterns were assessed by focusing on the lateral femoral wall, lesser trochanter, intertrochanteric crest, and inner cortical buttress. RESULTS: Anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial fracture maps were created. The majority of fracture lines (85.9%, 433/504) on the anterior maps were along the intertrochanteric line where the iliofemoral ligament was attached. In the medial plane, the majority of fracture lines (49.0%, 247/504) shown on the frequency spectrum included the turning point involving the third quadrant. In the posterior plane, the majority of fracture lines (52.0%, 262/504) involved the intertrochanteric crest from the greater to the lesser trochanter. In the lateral plane, the majority of fracture lines (62.7%, 316/504) involved the greater trochanter at the gluteus medius attachment. CONCLUSIONS: The fracture patterns observed in the present study might be used to describe morphologic characteristics and aid with management strategies. Further classifications or modifications that incorporate the fracture patterns identified in this study may be used in future research.

15.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588731

RESUMO

The metastasis of breast cancer mainly occurs through the axillary lymph node and blood circulation systems. It is extremely difficult to know when the cancer cells start to metastasize, however, early detection of breast cancer metastasis is crucial and challenging to enable surgically remove the primary tumor and perform systematic lymphadenectomy to eliminate invasion of the tumor. Herein, we report real-time tracking of the metastasis of orthotopic breast cancer with background-free near-infrared long persistent luminescence (NIR-PL) imaging, and its guidance for the surgical removal of lymph nodes. The NIR-PL imaging is based on Cr3+/Nd3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4 (A-ZGCN) nanoparticles with a super-long afterglow time of more than 15 days. We show that the detection sensitivity of metastasis of cancer cells with the NIR-PL imaging is higher than the classic bioluminescence imaging. We find that the metastasis of breast cancer cells to lymph nodes is occurred as early as on the 3rd day after orthotopic inoculation of breast cancer cells, and followed an order of the proper axillary lymph node (PALN, day 3) > accessory axillary lymph node (AALN, day 6) > accessory mandibular lymph node (AMLN, day 9) > mandibular lymph node (MLN, day 25). In addition, we show that the NIR-PL nanoprobes (i.e. A-ZGCN NPs) displayed 17% radioenhancement, which was used for radiotherapy of orthotopic breast cancer to further prevent and reduce its metastasis to other organs. The radiotherapy treatment is superior to surgery for removal of the tumor accompanied by NIR-PL imaging-guided lymphadenectomy. Our work demonstrates the great potential of NIR-PL imaging and the corresponding nanoprobes for tracking metastasis of cancer cells and for radiotherapy.

16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interactions between herbivorous insects and entomoviruses may depend on host plant, perhaps mediated through changes in herbivore innate immunity. RESULTS: Caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua) fed Glycine max had high viral loads and low melanization rates together with low melanization enzyme [PO, DDC, TH] activities and gene expressions. Caterpillars fed Ipomoea aquatica had low viral loads and high melanization, gene activities and gene expressions while those fed Brassica oleracea or artificial diet had intermediate levels of each. Melanization rates were negatively correlated with viral loads and positively correlated with activity and expression of each of the three enzymes. Some diet effects on enzymes were constitutive because the same diets led to low (G. max) or high (I. aquatica) melanization related gene activities and expressions without infection. CONCLUSION: Diet influences the interactions between insect herbivores and viruses by shaping the innate immune response both at the onset of infection and afterwards as viral loads accumulate over a period of days. In addition, diets that lead to low viral loads are associated with high activities and gene expressions of a variety of melanization related enzymes suggesting a common causative mechanism. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
Sleep Med Rev ; 48: 101207, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505369

RESUMO

This systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials aimed to clarify the efficacy of sleep and circadian interventions on preventing postoperative delirium. The search and screening identified 13 trials with great heterogeneity in interventions, surgery types as well as methods for evaluating delirium, sleep and circadian rhythms. Meta-analyses revealed that sleep and circadian interventions were associated with decreased incidences of postoperative delirium (pooled relative risk (RR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29 to 0.78) compared with control. The pooled incidences of delirium for patients receiving interventions and no intervention (control) were 8.6% and 20.7% respectively. Results of the trial sequential analysis supported the interpretation that sleep and circadian interventions significantly diminished delirium compared to control. Subgroup analysis found that interventions that showed positive efficacy on sleep and circadian outcomes (p < 0.001), but not those without improvements (p = 0.114) or without assessments (p = 0.858), were associated with decreased risk of delirium. Dexmedetomidine sedation (p < 0.001) and timed bright light exposure (p = 0.006) appeared to reduce postoperative delirium. In summary, currently only limited evidence suggests strategies targeted at sleep and circadian health as a useful way to prevent postoperative delirium.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480500

RESUMO

The gradual increase in the maturity of sensor electronics has resulted in the increasing demand for wireless sensor networks for many industrial applications. One of the industrial platforms for efficient usage and deployment of sensor networks is smart grids. The critical network traffic in smart grids includes both delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant data for real-time and non-real-time usage. To facilitate these traffic requirements, the asynchronous working-sleeping cycle of sensor nodes can be used as an opportunity to create a node connection. Efficient use of wireless sensor network in smart grids depends on various parameters like working-sleeping cycle, energy consumption, network lifetime, routing protocol, and delay constraints. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient multi-disjoint path opportunistic node connection routing protocol (abbreviated as EMOR) for sensor nodes deployed in neighborhood area network. EMOR utilizes residual energy, availability of sensor node's buffer size, working-sleeping cycle of the sensor node and link quality factor to calculate optimum path connectivity after opportunistic connection random graph and spanning tree formation. The multi-disjoint path selection in EMOR based on service differentiation of real-time and non-real-time traffic leads to an improvement in packet delivery rate, network lifetime, end-end delay and total energy consumption.

19.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482868

RESUMO

Chemotherapy is one of the most common and effective ways for the clinical treatment of tumors, but tumor cells develop resistance toward drugs after a long period of chemotherapy. Interestingly, the gene expression of resistant cells usually generates increased sialic acid and raises the negative potential of the cell membranes, which is potentially useful to design novel theranostic models. In this work, we demonstrate multidrug resistant tumors-aimed theranostics by the virtue of the strong electrostatic attraction between resistant cells and nanomaterials. Human oral epithelial carcinoma vincristine-resistant tumor (KBV) and human oral epithelial carcinoma tumor (KB) were employed and compared as the tumor models. Polyethylene glycol-coated and Cu(ii) and vincristine codoped polyaniline nanoshuttles (VCR-PEG-CuPani NSs), which possessed multifunctions, positive charges, and blood circulation half-life of 6.26 ± 0.16 h, were employed as the nanomaterials for performing the tumor theranostics. Because of the stronger electrostatic attraction with KBV than that with KB, VCR-PEG-CuPani NSs showed higher enrichment of 8.05 ± 0.39% ID g-1 for KBV and a lower value of 6.02 ± 0.22% ID g-1 for KB. The higher accumulation of VCR-PEG-CuPani NSs in KBV tumors further improved the efficacy of tumor theranostics, such as those using magnetic resonance imaging, chemotherapy, and photothermal therapy.

20.
Food Funct ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508643

RESUMO

Data indicate that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in newborns can be partly alleviated through the supply of l-arginine (Arg) and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG). The current work aimed to explore whether Arg and NCG promote intestinal function by regulating antioxidant capacity in suckling lambs with IUGR via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathway. Forty eight newly born Hu lambs with normal weights at birth (CON) or suffering from IUGR were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 12 per group), namely, the CON, IUGR, IUGR + 1% Arg, and IUGR + 0.1% NCG groups. The animals were used for experiments from the age of day 7 to 28. Compared with the lambs in the IUGR group, the lambs in the Arg or NCG group had higher (P < 0.05) final body weights. The plasma insulin, NO, and NO synthase (NOS) concentrations in the IUGR group were higher (P < 0.05) compared with those in IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG. The jejunal level of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the IUGR lambs was greater (P < 0.05) compared with that in IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG. The plasma and jejunal total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) values for the IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG group were greater (P < 0.05) compared with those for the IUGR group. Compared with the IUGR + 1% Arg or IUGR + 0.1% NCG lambs, the IUGR lambs had lower (P < 0.05) abundance of mRNA and protein abundance of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase (HO-1), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, inducible NOS (iNOS), and epithelial NOS (eNOS). Overall, the data suggest that the Arg or NCG supplementation to suckling lambs with IUGR enhances the intestinal function by regulating the oxidant status via the NO-dependent pathway.

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