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1.
Int J Mol Med ; 53(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426604

RESUMO

The effects of adipocyte­rich microenvironment (ARM) on chemoresistance have garnered increasing interest. Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is a representative adipocyte­rich associated cancer. In the present study, epithelial OVCA (EOC) was used to investigate the influence of ARM on chemoresistance with the aim of identifying novel targets and developing novel strategies to reduce chemoresistance. Bioinformatics analysis was used to explore the effects of ARM­associated mechanisms contributing to chemoresistance and treated EOC cells, primarily OVCAR3 cells, with human adipose tissue extracts (HATES) from the peritumoral adipose tissue of patients were used to mimic ARM in vitro. Specifically, the peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor Î³ (PPARγ) antagonist GW9662 and the ABC transporter G family member 2 (ABCG2) inhibitor KO143, were used to determine the underlying mechanisms. Next, the effect of HATES on the expression of PPARγ and ABCG2 in OVCAR3 cells treated with cisplatin (DDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) was determined. Additionally, the association between PPARγ, ABCG2 and chemoresistance in EOC specimens was assessed. To evaluate the effect of inhibiting PPARγ, using DDP, a nude mouse model injected with OVCAR3­shPPARγ cells and a C57BL/6 model injected with ID8 cells treated with GW9662 were established. Finally, the factors within ARM that contributed to the mechanism were determined. It was found that HATES promoted chemoresistance by increasing ABCG2 expression via PPARγ. Expression of PPARγ/ABCG2 was related to chemoresistance in EOC clinical specimens. GW9662 or knockdown of PPARγ improved the efficacy of chemotherapy in mice. Finally, angiogenin and oleic acid played key roles in HATES in the upregulation of PPARγ. The present study showed that the introduction of ARM­educated PPARγ attenuated chemoresistance in EOC, highlighting a potentially novel therapeutic adjuvant to chemotherapy and shedding light on a means of improving the efficacy of chemotherapy from the perspective of ARM.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202400562, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382041

RESUMO

Halide solid electrolytes, known for their high ionic conductivity at room temperature and good oxidative stability, face notable challenges in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries (ASSBs), especially with unstable cathode/solid electrolyte (SE) interface and increasing interfacial resistance during cycling. In this work, we have developed an Al3+-doped, cation-disordered epitaxial nanolayer on the LiCoO2 surface by reacting it with an artificially constructed AlPO4 nanoshell; this lithium-deficient layer featuring a rock-salt-like phase effectively suppresses oxidative decomposition of Li3InCl6 electrolyte and stabilizes the cathode/SE interface at 4.5 V. The ASSBs with the halide electrolyte Li3InCl6 and a high-loading LiCoO2 cathode demonstrated high discharge capacity and long cycling life from 3 to 4.5 V. Our findings emphasize the importance of specialized cathode surface modification in preventing SE degradation and achieving stable cycling of halide-based ASSBs at high voltages.

3.
Environ Res ; : 118252, 2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320716

RESUMO

To effectively remove tannic acid (TA) from wastewater, using green and natural materials has attracted increasing attention. Inspired by Galla Chinensis (GC) with high content of TA, this study synthesized a biomimetic porous adsorbent to mimic the GC structure using dialdehyde tapioca starch (DTS) and gelatin (GL). The TA adsorption performance and mechanism of synthetic porous material were investigated. Results revealed that the porous material exhibited a maximum TA adsorption capacity of 1072.01 mg/g, along with a high removal rate of 95.16% under the conditions of a DTS-GL mass ratio of 1:1, DTS aldehyde content of 48.16%, a solid content of 5%, and a pH of 2 at 25 °C. The adsorption of TA by DTS was not affected by water-soluble cationic and anion. The adsorption kinetics of TA on the porous material followed the pseudo-second-order model, and this Langmuir adsorption model (R2 = 0.9954) which were well described the adsorption of TA by the material, indicating that the adsorption primarily occurred in a monolayer. FTIR, XRD, DSC, TG, XPS, and SEM-EDS were employed to characterize the structure characteristics of the porous material. The cross-linking between DTS and GL by Schiff base reaction imparted a chemical structure could absorb TA by hydrogen bonding. The TA desorption rates of in 30% acetone and 40% ethanol solutions were 88.76% and 91.03%, respectively. The porous material prepared by the GC-inspired approach holds promise as an ideal choice for loading polyphenolic compounds and provides a new perspective for the design and application of bioinspired engineering materials.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(6): 7141-7151, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305178

RESUMO

Developing highly efficient and low-cost bifunctional electrocatalysts for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in water splitting poses significant challenges. In this study, a novel bifunctional electrocatalyst, Irn-CoMoPOx, was achieved via incorporating low-loading Ir single atoms and clusters with the high-valence Mo6+ modified CoPOx nanosheets. The Irn-CoMoPOx catalyst demonstrates remarkable low overpotentials of 222 mV and 36 mV for the OER and HER, respectively, in delivering a current density of 10 mA cm-2. When employed as both the anode and cathode catalyst in overall water splitting, the Irn-CoMoPOx∥Irn-CoMoPOx configuration exhibits a superior cell voltage of 1.53 V, outperforming the benchmark Pt/C∥IrO2 electrolytic cell (1.60 V) for achieving the current density of 10 mA cm-2. Benefiting from the high-valence of Mo species, the metal-support interaction of Irn-CoMoPOx was greatly strengthened, resulting in an order of magnitude increase in the mass activity of Ir for the HER. The high valence of non-noble metals plays a crucial role in tuning the local electronic configurations and optimizing the adsorption energies of the intermediates, which synergistically improves the overall performance of Ir in water splitting. The study provides valuable insights for future research in the utilization of Ir-based bifunctional catalysts for overall water electrocatalysis applications.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(5): e37136, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306557

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Bilateral thalamic glioma is extremely rare and characterized by strictly limited involvement of bilateral thalami. To investigate its clinical and neuroimaging features, we herein reported a rare case of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) involving both thalami and the brainstem and reviewed the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: A-33-year-old Chinese woman was referred to our department owing to persistent headache and nausea and vomiting. Neurological examination showed mild cognitive impairment and positive Kernig sign. DIAGNOSIS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated asymmetrical and swollen lesions involving both thalami, midbrain and pontine tegmentum, without restricted diffusion or enhancement. On day 7 after admission, she was transferred to the department of neurosurgery and underwent a stereotactic brain biopsy of the right thalamic lesion. Histopathological features and immunohistochemistry were consistent with AA, IDH wild-type, World Health Organization grade III. INTERVENTIONS: She was administrated with mannitol and glycerin fructose for decreasing intracranial pressure. OUTCOMES: In spite of receiving chemotherapy, she died on 2-month after her initial diagnosis. LESSONS: AA involving in both thalami and brainstem is a rare entity with poor prognosis. The clinicians and radiologists should deepen their awareness of the specific MRI feature of bilateral thalamic involvement. When MRI alone is insufficient, the utility of stereotactic biopsy is essential for making a definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico , Glioma , Humanos , Feminino , Astrocitoma/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mesencéfalo/patologia
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0234223, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391229

RESUMO

Seed metabolites are the combination of essential compounds required by an organism across various potential environmental conditions. The seed metabolites screening framework based on the network topology approach can capture important biological information of species. This study aims to identify comprehensively the relationship between seed metabolites and pathogenic bacteria. A large-scale data set was compiled, describing the seed metabolite sets and metabolite sets of 124,192 pathogenic strains from 34 genera, by constructing genome-scale metabolic models. The enrichment analysis method was used to screen the specific seed metabolites of each species/genus of pathogenic bacteria. The metabolites of pathogenic microorganisms database (MPMdb) (http://qyzhanglab.hzau.edu.cn/MPMdb/) was established for browsing, searching, predicting, or downloading metabolites and seed metabolites of pathogenic microorganisms. Based on the MPMdb, taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses of pathogenic bacteria were performed according to the function of seed metabolites and metabolites. The results showed that the seed metabolites could be used as a feature for microorganism chemotaxonomy, and they could mirror the phylogeny of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, our screened specific seed metabolites of pathogenic bacteria can be used not only for further tapping the nutritional resources and identifying auxotrophies of pathogenic bacteria but also for designing targeted bactericidal compounds by combining with existing antimicrobial agents.IMPORTANCEMetabolites serve as key communication links between pathogenic microorganisms and hosts, with seed metabolites being crucial for microbial growth, reproduction, external communication, and host infection. However, the large-scale screening of metabolites and the identification of seed metabolites have always been the main technical bottleneck due to the low throughput and costly analysis. Genome-scale metabolic models have become a recognized research paradigm to investigate the metabolic characteristics of species. The developed metabolites of pathogenic microorganisms database in this study is committed to systematically predicting and identifying the metabolites and seed metabolites of pathogenic microorganisms, which could provide a powerful resource platform for pathogenic bacteria research.

7.
Heliyon ; 10(4): e25912, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384554

RESUMO

Objective: This work focused on investigating if robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery improved middle term vital outcome for primary brainstem hemorrhage (PBSH). Methods: This work obtained clinical data from patients with PBSH admitted from July 2019 to August 2021. All cases were classified as surgical or conservative treatment group. The general information, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, Glasgow outcome score (GOS), along with survival time in patients 60 days after robot-assisted surgery were recorded and analyzed. Results: A prospective analysis was performed on 82 cases meeting eligibility criteria, including 36 from surgical group whereas 46 from the conservative group. Sixty days after onset, the death rate was found to be 19.44% and 50.00% of surgical and conservative groups, separately (cases versus controls, P < 0.05). Furthermore, postoperative GOS and GCS scores of surgical group were significantly higher, and hydrocephalus was lower compared with conservative group. Central fever incidence did not exhibit any significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: Robot-assisted PBSH drainage may improve survivorship and reduce the occurrence of hydrocephalus.

8.
Front Pediatr ; 12: 1321447, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384659

RESUMO

Background: Initial choices of antimicrobial therapy for most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under 5 years of age are typically based on local epidemiology, risk factors assessment, and subsequent clinical parameters and positive cultures, which can lead to the underdiagnosis and underestimation of lung infections caused by uncommon pathogens. Contezolid, an orally administered oxazolidinone antibiotic, gained approval from the National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) of China in June 2021 for managing complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI) caused by staphylococcus aureus (SA), streptococcus pyogenes, or streptococcus agalactis. Owing to its enhanced safety profile and ongoing clinical progress, the scope of contezolid's clinical application continues to expand, benefiting a growing number of patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections. Case summary: In this report, we present the first use of contezolid in a toddler with severe CAP caused by SA, aiming to avoid potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with vancomycin and linezolid. Conclusion: Although contezolid has not been officially indicated for CAP, it has been shown to be effective and safe in the management of SA-induced severe CAP in this toddler, suggesting its potential as an alternative option in the dilemma, especially for patients who are susceptible or intolerant to ADRs associated with first-line anti-methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) antimicrobial agents.

9.
Adv Mater ; : e2312985, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373270

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections pose a significant public health threat. The lack of precise and timely diagnosis is a primary factor contributing to the significant increase in patient mortality rates. Here, an interface-modulated biosensor utilizing an optical fiber for quantitative analysis of fungal biomarkers at the early stage of point-of-care testing (POCT), is reported. By integrating surface refractive index (RI) modulation and plasmon enhancement, the sensor to achieve high sensitivity in a directional response to the target analytes, is successfully optimized. As a result, a compact fiber-optic sensor with rapid response time, cost-effectiveness, exceptional sensitivity, stability, and specificity, is developed. This sensor can successfully identify the biomarkers of specific pathogens from blood or other tissue specimens in animal models. It quantifies clinical blood samples with precision and effectively discriminates between negative and positive cases, thereby providing timely alerts to potential patients. It significantly reduces the detection time of fungal infection to only 30 min. Additionally, this approach exhibits remarkable stability and achieves a limit of detection (LOD) three orders of magnitude lower than existing methods. It overcomes the limitations of existing detection methods, including a high rate of misdiagnosis, prolonged detection time, elevated costs, and the requirement for stringent laboratory conditions.

10.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 91(2): e13818, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414308

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Immune factors are crucial in the development of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). This study aimed to investigate whether kisspeptin regulates immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface and whether G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) is involved in this process, through which it contributes to the pathogenesis of RSA. METHOD OF STUDY: Normal pregnancy (NP) (CBA/J × BALB/c) and RSA (CBA/J × DBA/2) mouse models were established. NP mice received tail vein injections of PBS and KP234 (blocker of kisspeptin receptor), whereas RSA mice received PBS and KP10 (active fragment of kisspeptin). The changes in immune cells in mouse spleen and uterus were assessed using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The expression of critical cytokines was examined by flow cytometry, ELISA, Western blotting, and qPCR. Immunofluorescence was employed to detect the coexpression of FOXP3 and GPR54. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the proportion of Treg cells, MDSCs, and M2 macrophages in RSA mice was lower than that in NP mice, but it increased following the tail vein injection of KP10. Conversely, the proportion of these cells was reduced in NP mice after the injection of KP234. However, the trend of γδT cell proportion change is contrary to these cells. Furthermore, FOXP3 and GPR54 were coexpressed in mouse spleen and uterus Treg cells as well as in the human decidua samples. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that kisspeptin potentially participates in the pathogenesis of RSA by influencing immune cell subsets at the maternal-fetal interface, including Treg cells, MDSC cells, γδT cells, and M2 macrophages.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Kisspeptinas/genética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Aborto Habitual/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Decídua
11.
J Nat Prod ; 87(2): 297-303, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308643

RESUMO

Three nor-sesquiterpenes, phellinharts A-C (1-3), isolated from Phellinus hartigii, exhibited unprecedented protoilludane and cerapicane-type structures. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis, quantum chemical calculations, and X-ray diffraction. Potential biogenic pathways involving demethylation, ring cleavage, and rearrangement were proposed. Compounds 1-3 displayed potent anti-hypertrophic activities with low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 50 µM) in rat cardiomyocytes, underscoring their therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Phellinus , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos , Animais , Ratos , Estrutura Molecular , Sesquiterpenos/química
12.
Cell Signal ; : 111115, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395183

RESUMO

Cisplatin resistance remains a persistent challenge in cervical cancer (CC) treatment. Molecular biomarkers have garnered attention for their association with cisplatin resistance in various diseases. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert significant influence on CC development. This study explores the role of LOC644656 in regulating cisplatin resistance in CC. Parental and cisplatin-resistant CC cells underwent cisplatin treatment. Functional assays assessed cell proliferation and apoptosis under different conditions. RNA pull-down with mass spectrometry, along with literature review, elucidated the interaction between LOC644656, ZNF143, and E6-AP. Mechanistic assays analyzed the relationship between different factors. RT-qPCR and western blot quantified RNA and protein levels, respectively. In vivo models validated E6-AP's function. Results revealed LOC644656 overexpression in cisplatin-resistant CC cells, exacerbating cell growth. LOC644656 recruited ZNF143 to activate E6-AP transcription, promoting cisplatin resistance in CC. In conclusion, LOC644656 positively modulates E6-AP expression via ZNF143-mediated transcriptional activation, contributing to cisplatin resistance in CC.

13.
Food Chem ; 445: 138802, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401314

RESUMO

Bisphenols (BPs) can migrate from packaging materials into foods, resulting in potentially harmful residues. For example, accumulation of BPs is associated with endocrine disorders. Owing to matrix effects, development of an effective and eco-friendly sample pretreatment would be helpful for BPs detection in beverages packed in plastic containers. In this work, an extraction bar, composed of hollow fiber (HF) functionalized with covalent organic frameworks (COF@Tp-NDA) and 1-ocanol, was prepared for extraction of five BPs simultaneously. The synergistic effect of COF@Tp-NDA and 1-octanol improved the extraction efficiency of BPs from milk-based beverage, juice, and tea beverage. Under optimal conditions, limits of detection ranged from 0.10 to 2.00 ng mL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.9974) and recoveries ranged from 70.1 % to 106.8 %. This method has the potential to enrich BPs, supporting their accurate determination in complex beverages.

14.
Heliyon ; 10(3): e25522, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327418

RESUMO

Despite extensive investigations, urosepsis remains a life-threatening and high-mortality illness. The absence of widely acknowledged animal models for urosepsis prompted this investigation with the objective of formulating a replicable murine model. Eighty-four adult male C57BL/6J mice were arbitrarily distributed into three cohorts based on the concentration of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) solution administered into the renal pelvis: Sham, Low-grade sepsis (1.0 × 108 cfu/mL), and High-grade sepsis (1.0 × 109 cfu/mL). By fabricating a glass needle with a 100 µm outer diameter, bacterial leakage during renal pelvic injection was minimized. After the ureteral ligation, the mice were injected with this needle into the right renal pelvis (normal saline or E. coli solution, 1 ml/kg). Ten days post after E. coli injection, the mortality rates for the Low-grade sepsis and High-grade sepsis groups stood at 30 % and 100 %, respectively. Post-successful modeling, mice in the urosepsis cohort exhibited a noteworthy reduction in activity, body temperature, and white blood cell count within a 2-h timeframe. At the 24-h mark post-modeling, mice afflicted with urosepsis displayed compromised coagulation functionality. Concurrently, multiple organ dysfunction was confirmed as evidenced by markedly elevated levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in four distinct organs (heart, lung, liver, and kidney). This study confirmed the feasibility of establishing a standardized mouse model of urosepsis by ureteral ligation and E. coli injection into the renal pelvis. A primary drawback of this model resides in the mice's diminished blood volume, rendering continuous blood extraction at multiple intervals challenging.

15.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-7, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Isolated spinal aneurysms (ISAs) are rare causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which encompass a highly heterogeneous group of clinical entities with multifarious pathogeneses, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies. Therefore, knowledge about the ISAs remains inadequate. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive analysis of clinical data associated with ISAs at their institutions to enhance the understanding of this disease. METHODS: Patients with ISAs confirmed by spinal angiography or surgery at the authors' institutions between 2015 and 2022 were included. Data regarding clinical presentation, lesion location, aneurysm morphology, comorbidities, treatment results, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: Seven patients with ISAs were included in the study. Among them, 4 patients (57.1%) experienced severe headache, and 3 patients (42.9%) reported sudden-onset back pain. Additionally, lower-extremity weakness and urinary retention were observed in 2 of these patients (28.6%). Four of the aneurysms exhibited fusiform morphology, whereas the remaining were saccular. All saccular aneurysms in this series were attributed to hemodynamic factors. Conservative treatment was administered to 3 patients, 2 of whom underwent follow-up digital subtraction angiography, which showed spontaneous occlusion of both aneurysms. Four patients ultimately underwent invasive treatments, including 2 who underwent microsurgery and 2 who received endovascular embolization. One patient died of recurrent SAH, while the remaining 6 patients had a favorable prognosis at the latest follow-up assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology of aneurysms may be associated with their etiology. Saccular ISAs are usually caused by pressure due to abnormally increased blood flow, whereas fusiform lesions may be more likely to be secondary to vessel wall damage. The authors found that a saccular spinal aneurysm in young patients with a significant dilated parent artery may be a vestige of spinal cord arteriovenous shunts. ISAs can be managed by surgical, endovascular, or conservative procedures, and the clinical outcome is generally favorable. However, the heterogeneous nature of the disease necessitates personalized treatment decision-making based on specific clinical features of each patient.

16.
Talanta ; 272: 125768, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340394

RESUMO

In this work, a rapid extraction method of methanol/water (95:5 v/v) with 0.1% formic acid was developed for extraction of amino acids from dried blood spots (DBS) for inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs). The combination of this extraction procedure with nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nESI-MS) was used for the rapid analysis of amino acids. This approach with eliminating the chromatographic separation required only 2 min for the extraction of amino acids from DBS, which simplified the configuration and improved the timeliness. Dependence of the sensitivity on the operating parameters was systematically investigated. The LOD of 91.2-262.5 nmol/L and LOQ of 304-875 nmol/L which were lower than the cut-off values were obtained for amino acids within DBS. The accuracy was determined to be 93.82%-103.07% and the precision was determined to be less than 8.30%. The effectiveness of this method was also compared with the gold standard method (e.g., LC-MS/MS). The desalination mechanism was explored with interference mainly originated from the blood. These findings indicated that the rapid extraction procedure coupled with nESI-MS is capable of screening indicators for IMDs in complex biological samples.

17.
Neural Netw ; 173: 106152, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359640

RESUMO

We introduce the Discrete-Temporal Sobolev Network (DTSN), a neural network loss function that assists dynamical system forecasting by minimizing variational differences between the network output and the training data via a temporal Sobolev norm. This approach is entirely data-driven, architecture agnostic, and does not require derivative information from the estimated system. The DTSN is particularly well suited to chaotic dynamical systems as it minimizes noise in the network output which is crucial for such sensitive systems. For our test cases we consider discrete approximations of the Lorenz-63 system and the Chua circuit. For the network architectures we use the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and the Transformer. The performance of the DTSN is compared with the standard MSE loss for both architectures, as well as with the Physics Informed Neural Network (PINN) loss for the LSTM. The DTSN loss is shown to substantially improve accuracy for both architectures, while requiring less information than the PINN and without noticeably increasing computational time, thereby demonstrating its potential to improve neural network forecasting of dynamical systems.

18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance, the efficacy of most Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies have progressively decreased to an unacceptable level. Rifasutenizol (TNP-2198) is a new molecular entity with a synergistic dual mechanism of action currently under clinical development for the treatment of microaerophilic and anaerobic bacterial infections. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of rifasutenizol in healthy Chinese participants and patients with H pylori. METHODS: We conducted four clinical trials of rifasutenizol capsules in healthy participants (aged 18-55 years) and patients with asymptomatic H pylori infection (aged 18-65 years) in a clinical trial centre in Jilin province, China. Trial 1 was a phase 1, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study, in which participants were enrolled into one of seven rifasutenizol dose groups (50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg, 600 mg, 800 mg, or 1000 mg) and were randomly assigned in a 4:1 ratio to study drug or placebo. Trial 2 was a phase 1, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multiple ascending dose study, in which patients were enrolled into one of three rifasutenizol dose groups (200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg) and were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to study drug or placebo. Trial 3 was a phase 2a, open-label, randomised, multiple-dose, dose-finding study in which patients enrolled into one of four cohorts were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to a rifasutenizol dual or triple regimen. Trial 4 was a phase 2b, open-label, randomised, multiple-dose, regimen exploration study, in which patients enrolled into one of five cohorts were randomly assigned in a 2:2:1:1:2 ratio to a rifasutenizol dual therapy, triple therapy, or a control cohort. Block randomisation (block size 4 or 8) was used in all four trials. The key primary endpoints for trials 1, 2, and 3 were the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of rifasutenizol. For trial 4, the primary endpoint was the eradication rate of H pylori. These four trials were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT06081699, NCT06081712, NCT06076681, and NCT06076694) and chinadrugtrials.org.cn (CTR20190734, CTR20192553, CTR20212050, and CTR20220625) and are completed. FINDINGS: Between May 9, 2019, and Sept 14, 2022, 78 healthy participants (trial 1: n=10 per cohort in a 4:1 rifasutenizol:placebo ratio; and an additional eight for the food-effect cohort) and 168 patients with asymptomatic H pylori infection (trial 2: n=16 per cohort in a 3:1 rifasutenizol:placebo ratio; trial 3: n=10 per cohort; trial 4: n=10 or n=20 per cohort) were enrolled in the four clinical trials. Single doses of rifasutenizol (50-1000 mg) and multiple doses of rifasutenizol (200 mg to 600 mg, twice a day), either as monotherapy or co-administered with rabeprazole and amoxicillin, showed favourable safety and tolerability profiles. Most adverse events were mild, and no serious adverse events were reported. Rifasutenizol demonstrated a linear pharmacokinetic profile over the dose range of 50-800 mg, and there were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions between rifasutenizol and the co-administrated drugs. Food intake slightly elevated the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of rifasutenizol, and the geometric mean of AUC from time 0 to the last timepoint with a quantifiable concentration (AUC0-t) and AUC from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) in the fed state were 1·334 and 1·396 times of those in the fasted state, respectively. There was mild accumulation after continuous administration of rifasutenizol, and the Rac(AUC) of rifasutenizol 400 mg in the dual and triple regiments in trial 3 were 1·37 and 1·49, respectively. In trial 3, the eradication rates of H pylori with 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg of rifasutenizol in combination with rabeprazole, twice a day for 14 days, were 0% (95% CI 0-31), 30% (7-65), and 40% (12-74), respectively, identifying rifasutenizol 400 mg as the effective dose. In trial 4, H pylori eradication rates with the triple regimen in cohort A (400 mg rifasutenizol, 20 mg rabeprazole sodium, and 1 g amoxicillin) twice a day for 14 days was 95% (95% CI 74-100), and triple therapy (600 mg rifasutenizol, 20 mg rabeprazole sodium, and 1 g amoxicillin) three times a day for 7 days was 100% (69-100). INTERPRETATION: Rifasutenizol monotherapy and combination therapy was generally safe and well tolerated in healthy participants and patients with H pylori infection. A triple regimen of 400 mg rifasutenizol capsules, 20 mg rabeprazole sodium enteric-coated tablets, and 1 g amoxicillin capsules twice a day for 14 days showed promising efficacy as a new treatment regimen for H pylori infection. FUNDING: TenNor Therapeutics and National Natural Science Foundation of China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

19.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363049

RESUMO

N6 -methyladenonsine (m6 A) is the most prevalent internal modification of messenger RNA (mRNA) and plays critical roles in mRNA processing and metabolism. However, perturbation of individual m6 A modification to reveal its function and the phenotypic effects is still lacking in plants. Here, we describe the construction and characterization of programmable m6 A editing tools by fusing the m6 A writers, the core catalytic domain of the MTA and MTB complex, and the AlkB homologue 5 (ALKBH5) eraser, to catalytically dead Cas13a (dCas13a) to edit individual m6 A sites on mRNAs. We demonstrated that our m6 A editors could efficiently and specifically deposit and remove m6 A modifications on specific RNA transcripts in both Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, we found that targeting SHORT-ROOT (SHR) transcripts with a methylation editor could significantly increase its m6 A levels with limited off-target effects and promote its degradation. This leads to a boost in plant growth with enlarged leaves and roots, increased plant height, plant biomass, and total grain weight in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these findings suggest that our programmable m6 A editing tools can be applied to study the functions of individual m6 A modifications in plants, and may also have potential applications for future crop improvement.

20.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2310122, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345042

RESUMO

Hypertensive nephropathy continues to be a major cause of end-stage renal disease and poses a significant global health burden. Despite the staggering development of research in hypertensive nephropathy, scientists and clinicians can only seek out useful information through articles and reviews, it remains a hurdle for them to quickly track the trend in this field. This study uses the bibliometric method to identify the evolutionary development and recent hotspots of hypertensive nephropathy. The Web of Science Core Collection database was used to extract publications on hypertensive nephropathy from January 2000 to November 2023. CiteSpace was used to capture the patterns and trends from multi-perspectives, including countries/regions, institutions, keywords, and references. In total, 557 publications on hypertensive nephropathy were eligible for inclusion. China (n = 208, 37.34%) was the most influential contributor among all the countries. Veterans Health Administration (n = 19, 3.41%) was found to be the most productive institution. Keyword bursting till now are renal fibrosis, outcomes, and mechanisms which are predicted to be the potential frontiers and hotspots in the future. The top seven references were listed, and their burst strength was shown. A comprehensive overview of the current status and research frontiers of hypertensive nephropathy has been provided through the bibliometric perspective. Recent advancements and challenges in hypertensive nephropathy have been discussed. These findings can offer informative instructions for researchers and scholars.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Renal , Nefrite , Humanos , Bibliometria , China/epidemiologia
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