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1.
Neotrop Entomol ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942251

RESUMO

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a severe pest on agricultural crops occurring throughout the tropical Americas, has been reported to occur in China since 2019. To develop novel pest management practices, we studied the effect of delayed mating on the reproductive performance and longevity of S. frugiperda. Delayed mating, progressing from 0 to 7 days, was respectively imposed on both sexes simultaneously, female only, and male only. We demonstrated that delayed mating reduced mating success, number of eggs laid, egg hatch rate, and female oviposition period, while increased copulation duration and longevity. The correlations between the number of delayed days and mating success, number of eggs laid, hatch rate, and oviposition period were all significantly negative irrespective of the sex that was delayed. Meanwhile, there was a positive correlation between delayed days and copulation duration when both sexes were delayed simultaneously or males delayed only. Overall our results indicated that delayed mating in both males and females drastically reduced female reproductive output.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(5): 1315-1327, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867848

RESUMO

Although p21 activated kinase 5 (PAK5) is related to the progression of multiple cancers, its biological function in breast cancer remains unclear. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a vital apoptosis factor in mitochondria, which can be released from mitochondria and enter the nucleus, causing caspase-independent apoptosis. In this study, we reveal that PAK5 inhibits apoptosis by preventing the nuclear translocation of AIF. PAK5 inhibits the release of AIF from mitochondria in breast cancer cells by decreasing the mitochondria membrane permeability and increasing the membrane potential. Furthermore, PAK5 phosphorylates AIF at Thr281 site to inhibit the formation of AIF/importin α3 complex, leading to decrease AIF nuclear translocation. Functionally, we demonstrate that PAK5-mediated AIF phosphorylation promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells and accelerates the growth of breast cancer in vivo. Significantly, PAK5 and AIF expression in breast cancer are positively correlated with poor patient prognosis. PAK5 expression is negatively correlated with AIF nuclear translocation. These results suggest that PAK5-AIF signaling pathway may play an essential role in mammary tumorigenesis, providing a new therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

3.
Hum Cell ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821441

RESUMO

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a well-known tumor suppressor in various cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Circular RNA (circRNA) has recently been proven to be strongly linked with cancer progression. Here, we aimed to investigate the biological relevance and clinical significance of circRNA derived from PTEN in NSCLC. We found that circ-PTEN (hsa_circ_0094342) was significantly decreased in NSCLC tissues and serum, which was attributed to the upregulation of RNA-binding protein DHX9. Low circ-PTEN was linked with malignant clinical features and poor outcome. Exogenous expression of circ-PTEN markedly inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro as well as retarded tumor growth in vivo. Circ-PTEN increased the expression of its host gene PTEN via acting as a sponge for miR-155 and miR-330-3p, leading to the inactivation of the carcinogenic PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The xenograft tumor model also indicated the existence of circ-PTEN/miR-155/miR-330-3p/PTEN regulatory axis in vivo. Our data for the first time demonstrate that circ-PTEN functions as a tumor-inhibiting circRNA in NSCLC through post-transcriptionally regulating PTEN, hinting a promising diagnostic/prognostic biomarker as well as therapeutic target for NSCLC patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864560

RESUMO

This study explores the driving forces of natural capital demand to help solve the new problems faced by China's regional sustainable development and formulate relevant policies on resource utilization, ecological compensation, and energy structural adjustment. We find a significant and inverted U-shaped relationship between income and natural capital demand. Both economic development and environmental protection can only be improved beyond the inflection point. Energy efficiency is also closely related to natural capital demand, and its continuous improvement can slow down the rise in natural capital demand. This research provides important implications for the spread and allocation of natural capital regionally. It recommends the national allocation of natural capital, formulation of differentiated environmental policies, and improvement in energy efficiency by improving scale, technology, and structure.

5.
Water Res ; 197: 117094, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836297

RESUMO

To reveal the role of ferrate self-decomposition and the fates of intermediate iron species [Fe(V)/Fe(IV) species] during ferrate oxidation, the reaction between ferrate and methyl phenyl sulfoxide (PMSO) at pH 7.0 was investigated as a model system in this study. Interestingly, the apparent second-order rate constants (kapp) between ferrate and PMSO was found to increase with ferrate dosage in the condition of excess ferrate in borate buffer. This ferrate dosage effect was diminished greatly in the condition of excess PMSO where ferrate self-decomposition was lessened largely, or counterbalanced by adding a strong complexing ligand (e.g. pyrophosphate) to sequester Fe(V) oxidation, demonstrating that the Fe(V) species derived from ferrate self-decomposition plays an important role in PMSO oxidation. A mechanistic kinetics model involving the ferrate self-decomposition and PMSO oxidation by Fe(VI), Fe(V) and Fe(IV) species was then developed and validated. The modeling results show that up to 99% of the PMSO oxidation was contributed by the ferrate self-decomposition resultant Fe(V) species in borate buffer, revealing that ferrate self-decomposition is also a self-activation process. The direct Fe(VI) oxidation of PMSO was impervious to presence of phosphate or Fe(III), while the Fe(V) oxidation pathway was strongly inhibited by phosphate complexation or enhanced with Fe(III). Similar ferrate dosage effect and its counterbalance by pyrophosphate as well as the Fe(III) enhancement were also observed in ferrate oxidation of micropollutants like carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, implying the general role of Fe(V) and promising Fe(III) enhancement during ferrate oxidation of micropollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Cinética , Oxirredução , Sulfóxidos , Água
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734711

RESUMO

Horticultural food crops are important sources of nutrients for humans. With the increase of the global population, enhanced horticulture food crop production has become a new challenge, and enriching their nutritional content has also been required. Gene editing systems, such as zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9), have accelerated crop improvement through the modification of targeted genomes precisely. Here, we review the development of various gene editors and compare their advantages and shortcomings, especially the newly emerging CRISPR/Cas systems, such as base editing and prime editing. We also summarize their practical applications in crop trait improvement, including yield, nutritional quality, and other consumer traits.

7.
Food Chem ; 354: 129499, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752115

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are the main dietary source of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) with significant effects on consumer health. In this study, eleven main PMFs were evaluated in the fruit flavedo or leaves of 116 citrus accessions via UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS combined with HPLC-DAD analysis, which revealed significant species-specific and spatiotemporal characteristics. All Citrus reticulata and their natural or artificial hybrids were found to have detectable PMFs, especially in the fruit flavedo of the wild or early-cultivated mandarins at early fruit development stages. However, PMFs were not detected in citrons, pummelos, kumquats, trifoliata oranges, papedas, Chinese box oranges and 'Mangshanyegan'. The results enlightened that PMF accumulation only in mandarins and mandarin hybrids is a phenotype inherited from mandarin ancestors. This study provides a comprehensive PMF profile in various citrus germplasms and will benefit future functional citrus breeding practices aimed at designing plants rich in total or specific PMFs for health benefits.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Flavonas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citrus/metabolismo , Flavonas/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidroxilação , Cadeias de Markov , Metilação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 7430-7453, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686019

RESUMO

Glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1) is a key enzyme associated with glucose metabolism and uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis. Abnormal GNPNAT1 expression might be associated with carcinogenesis. We analyzed multiple lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) gene expression databases and verified GNPNAT1 higher expression in LUAD tumor tissues than in normal tissues. Moreover, we analyzed the survival relationship between LUAD patients' clinical status and GNPNAT1 expression, and found higher GNPNAT1 expression in LUAD patients with unfavorable prognosis. We built GNPNAT1 gene co-expression networks and further annotated the co-expressed genes' Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, and various associated regulatory factors. These co-expression genes' functional networks mainly participate in chromosome segregation, RNA metabolic process, and RNA transport. We analyzed GNPNAT1 genetic alterations and co-occurrence networks, and the functional networks of these genes showed that GNPNAT1 participates in multiple steps of cell cycle transition and in the development of some cancers. We assessed the correlation between GNPNAT1 expression and cancer immune infiltrates and showed that GNPNAT1 expression is correlated with several immune cells, chemokines, and immunomodulators in LUAD. We found that GNPNAT1 correlates with LUAD development and prognosis, laying a foundation for further research, especially in immunotherapy.

9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 415-424, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650350

RESUMO

We analyzed the impacts of climate change and human activities on the net primary productivity of grasslands in Inner Mongolia during 1982-2015. The results showed that the growth rates of actual net primary productivity (ANPP) were 1.08 and 1.36 g C · m-2 · a-1 in 1982-1998 and 1999-2015, respectively. Such changes were largely due to restoration, with restoration implementing in 81.6% and 76.3% of the total study area in 1982-1998 and 1999-2015, respectively. The area of degraded grasslands tends to increase. The effects of climate change and human activity varied across different types of grassland. Climate change was the main contributor to grassland restoration over the two periods, with the contribution rates being 79.3% and 94.1%, respectively. The ANPP was positively correlated with precipitation but not with temperature, indicating that precipitation was the main climate factor influencing grassland restoration. Human activities contributed most to grassland degradation over the two periods, with the contribute rate being 83.3% and 87.8%, respectively. Our results suggested that the climate change was the dominant contributor to grassland restoration, while human activities, such as increase in livestock numbers, cultivation and afforestation, accelerated grassland degradation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pradaria , China , Ecossistema , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Temperatura
10.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673653

RESUMO

Wuzhi capsule (WZC) is commonly prescribed with tacrolimus in China to ease drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Two abundant active ingredients, schisantherin A (STA) and schisandrin A (SIA) are known to inhibit CYP3A enzymes and increase tacrolimus's exposure. Our previous study has quantitatively demonstrated the contribution of STA and SIA to tacrolimus pharmacokinetics based on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. In the current work, we performed reversible inhibition (RI) and time-dependent inhibition (TDI) assays with CYP3A5 genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs), and further integrated the acquired parameters into the PBPK model to predict the drug-drug interaction (DDI) in patients with different CYP3A5 alleles. The results indicated STA was a time-dependent and reversible inhibitor of CYP3A4 while only a reversible inhibitor of CYP3A5; SIA inhibited CYP3A4 and 3A5 in a time-dependent manner but also reversibly inhibited CYP3A5. The predicted fold-increases of tacrolimus exposure were 2.70 and 2.41, respectively, after the multidose simulations of STA. SIA also increased tacrolimus's exposure but to a smaller extent compared to STA. An optimized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model integrated with CYP3A5 polymorphism was successfully established, providing more insights regarding the long-term DDI between tacrolimus and Wuzhi capsules in patients with different CYP3A5 genotypes.

11.
Neuroreport ; 32(5): 399-406, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661806

RESUMO

Spinal ependymal cells are involved in proliferation, differentiation and migration after spinal cord injury (SCI) and represent an endogenous source of repair cells for treating SCI. However, 95% of activated ependymal cells eventually differentiate into astrocytes after SCI and ultimately contribute more than half of the new astrocytes that form glial scars in vivo. The factors that regulate the fate of ependymal cells after SCI remain unclear. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is regarded as an important proinflammatory factor in nerve injury, and recent studies have shown that HMGB1 can regulate the fate of stem cells after injury. In this study, we investigated whether HMGB1 released from reactive astrocytes after SCI regulates the proliferation and differentiation of ependymal cells in vitro. Ependymal cells extracted and cultured from the spinal cord of mice were separately treated with astrocyte culture medium (ACM), IL-1ß, ACM (IL-1ß) and the HMGB1 protein, and the proliferation and differentiation of ependymal cells were detected. Additionally, an HMGB1-neutralizing antibody (anti-HMGB1) was added to further verify the regulatory effect of HMGB1 on ependymal cells. The results showed that HMGB1 released from reactive astrocytes promoted ependymal cell differentiation into astrocytes and inhibited ependymal cell differentiation into neurons in vitro; however, the effect disappeared after the addition of anti-HMGB1. HMGB1 had no significant effect on ependymal cell proliferation. Our findings demonstrate that HMGB1 can regulate the differentiation of ependymal cells after SCI. These results provide a new strategy for the treatment of SCI.

12.
Med Image Anal ; 69: 101958, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550009

RESUMO

Accurate segmentation of the pancreas from abdomen scans is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic diseases. However, the pancreas is a small, soft and elastic abdominal organ with high anatomical variability and has a low tissue contrast in computed tomography (CT) scans, which makes segmentation tasks challenging. To address this challenge, we propose a dual-input v-mesh fully convolutional network (FCN) to segment the pancreas in abdominal CT images. Specifically, dual inputs, i.e., original CT scans and images processed by a contrast-specific graph-based visual saliency (GBVS) algorithm, are simultaneously sent to the network to improve the contrast of the pancreas and other soft tissues. To further enhance the ability to learn context information and extract distinct features, a v-mesh FCN with an attention mechanism is initially utilized. In addition, we propose a spatial transformation and fusion (SF) module to better capture the geometric information of the pancreas and facilitate feature map fusion. We compare the performance of our method with several baseline and state-of-the-art methods on the publicly available NIH dataset. The comparison results show that our proposed dual-input v-mesh FCN model outperforms previous methods in terms of the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity (SEN), average surface distance (ASD) and Hausdorff distance (HD). Moreover, ablation studies show that our proposed modules/structures are critical for effective pancreas segmentation.

13.
J Med Chem ; 64(5): 2534-2575, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596065

RESUMO

The biological and medicinal impacts of proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) and related chimeric molecules that effect intracellular degradation of target proteins via ubiquitin ligase-mediated ubiquitination continue to grow. However, these chimeric entities are relatively large compounds that often possess molecular characteristics, which may compromise oral bioavailability, solubility, and/or in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. We therefore explored the conjugation of such molecules to monoclonal antibodies using technologies originally developed for cytotoxic payloads so as to provide alternate delivery options for these novel agents. In this report, we describe the first phase of our systematic development of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) derived from bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4)-targeting chimeric degrader entities. We demonstrate the antigen-dependent delivery of the degrader payloads to PC3-S1 prostate cancer cells along with related impacts on MYC transcription and intracellular BRD4 levels. These experiments culminate with the identification of one degrader conjugate, which exhibits antigen-dependent antiproliferation effects in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

14.
J Med Chem ; 64(5): 2576-2607, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596073

RESUMO

Heterobifunctional compounds that direct the ubiquitination of intracellular proteins in a targeted manner via co-opted ubiquitin ligases have enormous potential to transform the field of medicinal chemistry. These chimeric molecules, often termed proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) in the chemical literature, enable the controlled degradation of specific proteins via their direction to the cellular proteasome. In this report, we describe the second phase of our research focused on exploring antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), which incorporate BRD4-targeting chimeric degrader entities. We employ a new BRD4-binding fragment in the construction of the chimeric ADC payloads that is significantly more potent than the corresponding entity utilized in our initial studies. The resulting BRD4-degrader antibody conjugates exhibit potent and antigen-dependent BRD4 degradation and antiproliferation activities in cell-based experiments. Multiple ADCs bearing chimeric BRD4-degrader payloads also exhibit strong, antigen-dependent antitumor efficacy in mouse xenograft assessments that employ several different tumor models.

15.
J Fluoresc ; 31(3): 659-666, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534115

RESUMO

Accurate and efficient detection of ClO- was extremely important due to the harm of ROS in the environment and organism. In this paper, yellow fluorescent N,O-CDs were successfully prepared by the solvothermal method. The microscopic size of the N,O-CDs was approximately spherical with an average particle size of 4.8 ± 0.8 nm. The fluorescence quantum yield in ethanol solution was calculated as 10.5 % using fluorescein as the standard reference. The as-fabricated N,O-CDs had high sensitivity and low detection limit (7.5 µM) for quantitatively detecting ClO- with a linear range from 0.07 mM to 0.16 mM. The probe not only shows good selectivity and anti-interference to metal ions, anions and amino acids but also has excellent light stability and thermal stability. Also, a wide selection range for pH was demonstrated.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145615, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582344

RESUMO

Pesticides are often applied multiple times during cucumber cultivation in China. In order to obtain the residue concentrations and subsequently human health risk assessment after pesticide multiple applications, plenty of field trials have been conducted, consuming a lot of labor force and funds. The application of kinetic models can address this problem to some extent by predicting the residue values of pesticides in cucumber. In this study, a dynamic model (dynamiCROP) was applied in combination with field experiments to investigate the distribution, translocation, and dissipation after the one-time application of seven pesticides in a cucumber-soil environment. Moreover, the residue concentrations after the second and third applications of the seven pesticides were estimated through a "simple superposition method", i.e., superimposing the output results of dynamiCROP after each single pesticide application. The estimated residue concentrations show good agreement with that measured through field experiments with R2 = 0.865 and relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) = 13.2%. Meanwhile, the short- and long-term risks of each pesticide were assessed according to the concentrations estimated by the "simple superposition method" with the dynamiCROP model. It shows that the seven pesticides, applied multiple times during cucumber cultivation, pose a very low dietary risk to human health through cucumber intake. Our study presents a cost- and time-efficient way to investigate the dissipation of pesticides in the cucumber-soil environment, predicate the residue concentrations of pesticides after multiple applications and assess the dietary risk of pesticides to human health through cucumber intake.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , China , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
17.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616790

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inadequate decompressions can lead to poor improvement of symptoms in patients with Chiari I malformation (CMI). In this study, the "all-factors-surgery" that including all levels decompressions was performed on symptomatic CMI patients for the snake of eliminating all possible pathogenic factors and reducing the chance of reoperation. METHODS: The "all-factors-surgery" combined operations of posterior fossa decompression, enlarged cranioplasty, duraplasty, cerebellar tonsil partial resection and adhesion release. Total 194 patients from January 2010 to December 2015. The outcome measures included improvement rate of symptoms, patients self-evaluation (improved, unchanged, worsened), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale (CCOS) score, the diameter of the syrinx and complications. RESULTS: Postoperative data were collected from the three stages: at discharge, the short-term follow-up (average, 9.39 months), and the long-term follow-up (average, 54.44 months). Patients self-evaluation improvement rate in the three follow-up stages was 92.27%, 90.07% and 85.93%. The VAS scores (mean, 1.49, 1.21, 1.47 vs 3.76) and JOA scores (mean, 15.66, 15.99, 16.10 vs 14.84) were significant difference between the follow-up and pre-operation (P < .05). The CCOS scores of short-term and long-term follow-up were significantly better than that at discharge (mean, 14.75, 14.87 vs 13.68) (P < .05). The diameter of syrinx in each follow-up stage was significantly less than that in pre-operation (mean, 3.39, 1.95, 1.87 vs 5.09) (P < .05). There were no serious complications, and no one asked for reoperation during the follow up. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic CMI patients undergoing "all-factors-surgery" had persistently high rates of symptom relief and rarely needed reoperation.

18.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 33(3): 209-219, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504425

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that progesterone (P4) can promote prostaglandin (PG) E2 production; however, how P4 mediates the synthesis of PGE2 remains unclear. In this study, cervical epithelial cells from mice during the follicular phase were cultured invitro and treated with different concentrations of P4 (5, 10, and 20nM). The results of the present study suggest that treatment of murine cervical epithelial cells with 10nM P4 for 24h contributed to: (1) significantly increased expression of protein kinase A (PKA), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and PGE synthase (PGES)-1; (2) higher phosphorylated (p-) to total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) ratios; (3) a significant decrease in the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and fatty acid content within LDs in epithelial cells; and (4) enhanced arachidonic acid and PGE2 levels in cells compared with the control (0nM P4) group (P<0.01 for all findings). In contrast, the PKA inhibitor H89 contributed to significantly decreased cPLA2, PGES-1 and HSL expression, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and arachidonic acid and PGE2 levels, even in the presence of P4. These data show that P4 can act via the PKA/ERK1/2 pathway to stimulate lipolysis of triacylglycerol in the LD core and degradation of phospholipid in the LD membrane to promote PGE2 synthesis in murine cervical epithelial cells.

19.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416821

RESUMO

The exploration of advanced electrode materials with outstanding electrochemical properties is of considerable importance for hybrid supercapacitors but challenging. In this paper, an effective two-step solvothermal route is demonstrated to synthesize nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) decorated cobalt-doped nickel sulfide (Co-NiS) flower-like hierarchitectures. Because of the modification with NCDs and doping by cobalt atoms, the resulting Co-NiS/NCDs hierarchitectures exhibit an ultrahigh specific capacity up to 1240 C g-1 (2480 F g-1) at 1 A g-1 and a remarkable rate capability of 790.8 C g-1 (1581.6 F g-1) even at 20 A g-1 when used as advanced electrodes for supercapacitors. More significantly, coupling with ap-phenylenediamine (PPD) modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) anode, a hybrid supercapacitor device is successfully constructed, which possesses an impressive energy density of 71.6 W h kg-1 at 712.0 W kg-1 and a decent cyclic stability with 78.3% retention after 12 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. The dual improvement strategy may provide insight to rational engineering of novel electrode materials with multi-components for high-performance hybrid supercapacitors.

20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 29, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotenoids and flavonoids are important secondary metabolites in plants, which exert multiple bioactivities and benefits to human health. Although the genes that encode carotenogenesis and flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes are well characterized, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that are related to the pathway genes remain to be investigated. In this study, 'Cara cara' navel orange (CNO) fruit at four development stages were used to identify the key genes and TFs for carotenoids and flavonoids accumulation. RESULTS: In this study, CNO was used to investigate the profiles of carotenoids and flavonoids by a combination of metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses. The important stage for the accumulation of the major carotenoid, lycopene was found to be at 120 days after florescence (DAF). The transcripts of five carotenogenesis genes were highly correlated with lycopene contents, and 16, 40, 48, 24 and 18 transcription factors (TFs) were predicted to potentially bind 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS1), deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS2), phytoene synthase (PSY1) and lycopene ß-cyclase (LCYB) promoters, respectively. Narirutin was the most abundant flavonoid in the flesh at the early stages, 60 DAF was the most important stage for the accumulation of flavonoids, and 17, 22, 14, 25, 24 and 16 TFs could potentially bind phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL-1 and PAL-4), 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL-2 and 4CL-5), chalcone synthase (CHS-1) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) promoters, respectively. Furthermore, both sets of 15 candidate TFs might regulate at least three key genes and contribute to carotenoids/flavonoids accumulation in CNO fruit. Finally, a hierarchical model for the regulatory network among the pathway genes and TFs was proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest that DXS1, DXR, GGPPS2, PSY1 and LCYB genes were the most important genes for carotenoids accumulation, while PAL-1, PAL-4, 4CL-2, 4CL-5, CHS-1 and CHI for flavonoids biosynthesis. A total of 24 TFs were postulated as co-regulators in both pathways directly, which might play important roles in carotenoids and flavonoids accumulation in CNO fruit.

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