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1.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577968

RESUMO

Two heterodimers including a clovane-phenylpropanoid hybrid (1) and a clovane-menthane hybrid (2), five linear sesquiterpenoids incorporating a tetrahydrofuran ring (3-6 & 8), and four steroids (7 & 9-11), were separated from the ethanolic extract of a well-known aromatic and medicinal herb Eupatorium fortunei. Their structures were characterised by detailed analyses of spectroscopic data and comparison with known analogues, with seven (1-7) of them being described for the first time. The hybrids 1 and 2 represent the first examples of clovane type sesquiterpenoids hybridising with other class of natural products, and compounds 3-6 and 8 are first linear sesquiterpenyl constituents reported from the title species. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the NO production induced by LPS in murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells, and 1, 7, 10 and 11 exhibited moderate activity with IC50 values in the range of 24.4-43.5 µM.

2.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(1): 90-96, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To observe the long-term clinical effect of implants retained complete overdentures with Locator attachments. METHODS: A total of 48 patients with edentulous jaws treated with implants retained complete overdentures with Locator attachments were selected from the Outpatient Department of Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from 2016 to 2017. Among them, 21 patients underwent double-maxillary complete overdentures restoration and 27 patients underwent single-maxillary restoration. A total of 230 implants were implanted. The clinical observation indicators included the implant survival rate, peri-implant mucosal bleeding on probing(BOP), the change in the vertical height of alveolar bone absorption around the implants, overdenture base fracture rate, artificial tooth fall off and fracture rate and other complications. The change of the locator attachment retention force of the implant-supported overdentures was evaluated. SPSS 13.0 software package was used for data analysis. RESULTS: During the five-years clinical observation period, 5 implants fell off, 1 narrow dimeter implant in the anterior zone was broken, and 12 implants were lost to follow-up. The implant survival rate was 97.25%. One year after the restoration therapy finished, peri-implant mucosal bleeding on probing (BOP+) was detected in 48 (21.4%) implants. The average BI was 0.21±0.42, which was higher in the anterior zone than that in the posterior zone. The vertical alveolar bone absorption height around the implants was (0.21±0.35) mm, 2 implants-supported complete overdenture bases were broken. After 5 years of restoration, 163(76.89%) implants had peri-implant mucosal bleeding on probing(BOP+). The average BI was 1.00±0.70, and the vertical alveolar bone absorption height around the implants was (0.58±0.85) mm. There was no significant difference between males and females. There was no significant difference in the peri-implant mucosal bleeding index and the alveolar bone vertical absorption height between the anterior zone and the posterior zone(P>0.05). The mean BI of peri-implant mucosa and the vertical absorption height of peri-implant alveolar bone were significantly different between the 1-year observation period and the 5-year observation period respectively(P<0.01). There were 17(26.15%) cases with overdenture bases fracture, and the fracture rate of artificial teeth was 16.92%. Most of them occurred in the midline area of the anterior zone and the location of the overdenture base on the locator attachments. The average first replacement time of the locator attachment nylon retainer washer was 34.2±10.3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Implants retained complete overdentures with Locator attachments are effective in long term clinical observation. Complications are mainly found in peri-implant mucosal bleeding on probing and vertical alveolar bone absorption, and tended to increase gradually over time. The fracture of the implant retains complete overdenture bases and the fall off or fracture of the artificial teeth are the second serious complications. Overdenture base with metal frame at the location of the Locator abutment and the midline of the anterior area should be strengthened, and narrow diameter implants should be avoided as far as possible in the anterior zone.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Arcada Edêntula , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Revestimento de Dentadura , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante/efeitos adversos , Retenção de Dentadura , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos
3.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 340, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580722

RESUMO

Despite the rapid advances in sequencing technology, limited genomic resources are currently available for phytophagous spider mites, which include many important agricultural pests. One of these pests is Tetranychus piercei (McGregor), a serious banana pest in East Asia exhibiting remarkable tolerance to high temperature. In this study, we assembled a high-quality genome of T. piercei using a combination of PacBio long reads and Illumina short reads sequencing. With the assistance of chromatin conformation capture technology, 99.9% of the contigs were anchored into three pseudochromosomes with a total size of 86.02 Mb. Repetitive elements, accounting for 14.16% of this genome (12.20 Mb), are predominantly composed of long-terminal repeats (30.7%). By combining evidence of ab initio prediction, transcripts, and homologous proteins, we annotated 11,881 protein-coding genes. Both the genome and proteins have high BUSCO completeness scores (>94%). This high-quality genome, along with reliable annotation, provides a valuable resource for investigating the high-temperature tolerance of this species and exploring the genomic basis that underlies the host range evolution of spider mites.


Assuntos
Tetranychidae , Animais , Cromossomos , Genoma , Genômica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Tetranychidae/genética
4.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2024: 9969628, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584962

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the feasibility of serum albumin (Alb) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in predicting all-cause death (ACD) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD). Methods: Patients with SCAD were divided into 4 groups according to their Alb and LVEF levels: Group A: Alb ≤4 g/dL and LVEF > 50%; Group B: Alb ≤4 g/dL and LVEF ≤50%; Group C: Alb >4 g/dL and LVEF ≤50%; Group D: Alb >4 g/dL and LVEF >50%. The K-M curve and log-rank test were used to compare ACD among the four groups over three years. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the efficacy of predicting ACD among the combination of Alb and LVEF and either Alb or LVEF alone. Cox regression analysis identified the influencing factors of ACD in patients with SCAD and detected the correlation between Alb and LVEF. Results: ACD occurred in 18 (8.9%) of 203 patients with SCAD, with an average follow-up of 26.53 ± 14.34 months. In the Kaplan‒Meier analysis, the risk of ACD in the four groups ranged from high to low: Group B (17.6%) > Group A (26.7%) > Group D (0.9%) > Group C (0%, P < 0.001). The ROC curve showed that the combination of Alb and LVEF (AUC = 0.888) had better predictive value for ACD than either Alb (AUC = 0.879) or LVEF alone (AUC = 0.651), P < 0.001. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Alb ≤4 g/dL predicted ACD events after adjusting for baseline (HR: 12.16, 95% CI: 1.57 to 94.41; P=0.017) and treatment (HR: 19.36, 95% CI: 2.53-147.78, P=0.004). Alb was positively correlated with LVEF (r = 0.22, P=0.002). Conclusions: Alb combined with LVEF is more effective than a single index in predicting ACD in SCAD and could be used as a new model to judge the prognosis of SCAD.

5.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; 33(6): 1273-1293, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585566

RESUMO

The harmful effects of trans and saturated fatty acids have attracted worldwide attention. Edible oleogels, which can structure liquid oils, are promising healthy alternatives to traditional fats. Active research on oleogels is focused on the interaction between unsaturated oils with different fatty acid compositions and low molecular weight or polymer oleogels. The unique network structure inside oleogels has facilitated their application in candies, spreads, meat, and other products. However, the micro- and macro-properties, as well as the functional properties of oleogels vary by preparation method and the system composition. This review discusses the characteristics of oleogels, serving as a reference for the application of oleogels in food products. Specifically, it (i) classifies oleogels and explains the influence of gelling factors on their gelation, (ii) describes the methods for measuring the physicochemical properties of oleogels, and (iii) discusses the current applications of oleogels in food products.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 957, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research has extensively explored the relationship between government trust and compliance behaviour, but significant controversies exist. Some studies suggest a strong positive correlation between the two. Other studies have found that government trust hinders compliance behaviour. However, during the pandemic, the effectiveness of public health policies largely depends on the public's compliance with these policies. To examine the aforementioned controversies, this study utilizes survey data on the Chinese population during the COVID-19 period to explore the relationship between compliance with public health policies and government trust. METHODS: The study conducted a questionnaire survey of 1,395 individuals from 25 provinces in China from mid-November to mid-December 2022. Firstly, we categorized the public's compliance behaviour with public health policies based on the results of factor analysis. Subsequently, we examined the impact of government trust and professional trust on compliance behaviour with public health policies by constructing a structural equation model. RESULTS: Based on the results of factor analysis, we classified public adherence to public health policies into protective compliance and restrictive compliance. Results from the structural equation model show a positive correlation between the public's trust in the government and both protective and restrictive compliance, with a stronger influence on protective compliance. Government trust also exerts a positive impact on restrictive compliance behaviour through professional trust. Additionally, the study indicates a significant positive correlation between the public's professional trust and restrictive compliance, while it does not significantly affect protective compliance. Moreover, the public from rural areas demonstrates a greater willingness to adhere to both types of public health policies. Married individuals exhibit a stronger inclination toward protective compliance, while females show a stronger tendency toward restrictive compliance. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a significant positive impact of government trust and professional trust on compliance behaviour with public health policies during the COVID-19 pandemic, refuting any negative correlation between government trust and compliance behaviour. Normative motivations for compliance behaviour had a substantial impact on adherence. These findings offer valuable insights for future public health crisis management and public policy formulation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Governo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Política Pública
7.
Anal Chem ; 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569073

RESUMO

Plastic pollution pervades natural environments and wildlife. Consequently, high-throughput detection methods for plastic debris are urgently needed. A novel method was developed to detect plastic debris larger than 0.5 mm, which integrated an extraction method with low organic loss and plastic damage alongside a classification method for fused images. This extraction method broadened the size range of the remaining plastic debris, while the fusion solved the low spatial resolution of hyperspectral images and the absence of spectral information in red-green-blue (RGB) images. This method was validated for plastic debris in digestate, compost, and sludge, with extraction demonstrating 100% recovery rates for all samples. After fusion, the spatial resolution of hyperspectral images was improved about five times. Classification recall for the fused hyperspectral images achieved 97 ± 8%, surpassing 83 ± 29% of the raw images. Application of this method to solid digestate detected 1030 ± 212 items/kg of plastic debris, comparable with the conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic result of 1100 ± 436 items/kg. This developed method can investigate plastic debris in complex matrices, simultaneously addressing a wide range of sizes and types. This capability helps acquire reliable data to predict secondary microplastic generation and conduct a risk assessment.

8.
Talanta ; 274: 126006, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569371

RESUMO

This study proposes an efficient method for monitoring the submerged fermentation process of Tremella fuciformis (T. fuciformis) by integrating electronic nose (e-nose), electronic tongue (e-tongue), and colorimeter sensors using a data fusion strategy. Chemometrics was employed to establish qualitative identification and quantitative prediction models. The Pearson correlation analysis was applied to extract features from the e-nose and tongue sensor arrays. The optimal sensor arrays for monitoring the submerged fermentation process of T. fuciformis were obtained, and four different data fusion methods were developed by incorporating the colorimeter data features. To achieve qualitative identification, the physicochemical data and principal component analysis (PCA) results were utilized to determine three stages of the fermentation process. The fusion signal based on full features proved to be the optimal data fusion method, exhibiting the highest accuracy across different models. Notably, random forest (RF) was shown to be the most accurate pattern recognition method in this paper. For quantitative prediction, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) were employed to predict the sugar content and dry cell weight during fermentation. The best respective predictive R2 values for reducing sugar, tremella polysaccharide and dry cell weight were found to be 0.965, 0.988, and 0.970. Furthermore, due to its ability to capture nonlinear data relationships, SVR had superior performance in prediction modeling than PLSR. The results demonstrated that the combination of electronic sensor fusion signals and chemometrics provided a promising method for effectively monitoring T. fuciformis fermentation.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; : 172145, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569974

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) has sparked widespread global concern as one of the most hazardous metals to aquatic animals. Ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) are expected to alter copper's bioavailability based on pH and temperature-sensitive effects; research on their effects on copper on marine organisms is still in its infancy. Therefore, under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5, we used the multiple linear regression-water quality criteria (MLR-WQC) method to assess the effects of OA and OW on the ecological risk posed by copper in the Ocean of East China (OEC), which includes the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between temperature and copper toxicity, while there was a negative correlation between pH and copper toxicity. The short-term water quality criteria (WQC) values were 1.53, 1.41, 1.30 and 1.13 µg·L-1, while the long-term WQC values were 0.58, 0.48, 0.40 and 0.29 µg·L-1 for 2020, 2099-RCP2.6, 2099-RCP4.5 and 2099-RCP8.5, respectively. Cu in the OEC poses a moderate ecological risk. Under the current copper exposure situation, strict intervention (RCP2.6) only increases the ecological risk of copper exposure by 20 %, and no intervention (RCP8.5) will increase the ecological risk of copper exposure by nearly double. The results indicate that intervention on carbon emissions can slow down the rate at which OA and OW worsen the damage copper poses to marine creatures. This study can provide valuable information for a comprehensive understanding of the combined impacts of climate change and copper on marine organisms.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 131315, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569985

RESUMO

Understanding the hierarchical structure and physicochemical properties of starch isolated from fermented dough with different times (0-120 min) is valuable for improving the quality of fermented dough-based products. The results indicate that fermentation disrupted the starch granule surface and decreased the average particle size from 19.72 µm to 18.45 µm. Short-term fermentation (< 60 min) disrupted the crystalline, lamellar, short-range ordered molecular and helical structures of starch, while long-term fermentation (60-120 min) elevated the ordered degree of these structures. For example, relative crystallinity and double helix contents increased from 23.7 % to 26.8 % and 34.4 % to 37.2 %, respectively. During short-term fermentation, the structural amorphization facilitated interactions between starch molecular chains and water molecules, which increased the peak viscosity from 275.4 to 320.6 mPa·s and the swelling power from 7.99 to 8.52 g/g. In contrast, starches extracted from long-term fermented dough displayed the opposite results. Interestingly, the hardness and springiness of starch gels gradually decreased as fermentation time increased. These findings extend our understanding of the starch structure-property relationship during varied fermentation stages, potentially benefiting the production of better-fermented foods.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557040

RESUMO

Revealing the role of functional redundancy is of great importance considering its key role in maintaining the stability of microbial ecosystems in response to various disturbances. However, experimental evidence on this point is still lacking due to the difficulty in "manipulating" and depicting the degree of redundancy. In this study, manipulative experiments of functional redundancy were conducted by adopting the mixed inoculation strategy to evaluate its role in engineered anaerobic digestion systems under ammonium inhibition conditions. The results indicated that the functional redundancy gradient was successfully constructed and confirmed by evidence from pathway levels. All mixed inoculation groups exhibited higher methane production regardless of the ammonium level, indicating that functional redundancy is crucial in maintaining the system's efficiency. Further analysis of the metagenome-assembled genomes within different functional guilds revealed that the extent of redundancy decreased along the direction of the anaerobic digestion flow, and the role of functional redundancy appeared to be related to the stress level. The study also found that microbial diversity of key functional populations might play a more important role than their abundance on the system's performance under stress. The findings provide direct evidence and highlight the critical role of functional redundancy in enhancing the efficiency and stability of anaerobic digestion.

12.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562817

RESUMO

Supercoiled flagellar filaments function as mechanical propellers within the bacterial flagellum complex, playing a crucial role in motility. Flagellin, the building block of the filament, features a conserved inner D0/D1 core domain across different bacterial species. In contrast, approximately half of the flagellins possess additional, highly divergent outer domain(s), suggesting varied functional potential. In this study, we elucidate atomic structures of flagellar filaments from three distinct bacterial species: Cupriavidus gilardii , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , and Geovibrio thiophilus . Our findings reveal that the flagella from the facultative anaerobic G. thiophilus possesses a significantly more negatively charged surface, potentially enabling adhesion to positively charged minerals. Furthermore, we analyzed all AlphaFold predicted structures for annotated bacterial flagellins, categorizing the flagellin outer domains into 682 structural clusters. This classification provides insights into the prevalence and experimental verification of these outer domains. Remarkably, two of the flagellar structures reported herein belong to a previously unexplored cluster, indicating new opportunities on the study of the functional diversity of flagellar outer domains. Our findings underscore the complexity of bacterial flagellins and open up possibilities for future studies into their varied roles beyond motility.

13.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 23: 1298-1310, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560280

RESUMO

In gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), adipose tissue undergoes metabolic disturbances and chronic low-grade inflammation. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a post-transcriptional modification mechanism that generates mRNA with variable lengths of 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR), and it is associated with inflammation and metabolism. However, the role of APA in GDM adipose tissue has not been well characterized. In this study, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing on subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues from both control and GDM patients. Using Dapars, a novel APA quantitative algorithm, we delineated the APA landscape of adipose tissue, revealing significant 3'UTR elongation of mRNAs in the GDM group. Omental adipose tissue exhibited a significant correlation between elongated 3'UTRs and reduced translation levels of genes related to metabolism and inflammation. Validation experiments in THP-1 derived macrophages (TDMs) demonstrated the impact of APA on translation levels by overexpressing long and short 3'UTR isoforms of a representative gene LRRC25. Additionally, LRRC25 was validated to suppress proinflammatory polarization in TDMs. Further exploration revealed two underexpressed APA trans-acting factors, CSTF3 and PPP1CB, in GDM omental adipose tissue. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary insights into the APA landscape of GDM adipose tissue. Reduced APA regulation in GDM omental adipose tissue may contribute to metabolic disorders and inflammation by downregulating gene translation levels. These findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying GDM-associated adipose tissue changes.

14.
Nat Mater ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589543

RESUMO

Unconventional 1T'-phase transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have aroused tremendous research interest due to their unique phase-dependent physicochemical properties and applications. However, due to the metastable nature of 1T'-TMDs, the controlled synthesis of 1T'-TMD monolayers (MLs) with high phase purity and stability still remains a challenge. Here we report that 4H-Au nanowires (NWs), when used as templates, can induce the quasi-epitaxial growth of high-phase-purity and stable 1T'-TMD MLs, including WS2, WSe2, MoS2 and MoSe2, via a facile and rapid wet-chemical method. The as-synthesized 4H-Au@1T'-TMD core-shell NWs can be used for ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. For instance, the 4H-Au@1T'-WS2 NWs have achieved attomole-level SERS detections of Rhodamine 6G and a variety of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike proteins. This work provides insights into the preparation of high-phase-purity and stable 1T'-TMD MLs on metal substrates or templates, showing great potential in various promising applications.

15.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0241823, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591917

RESUMO

The tenacious biofilms formed by Streptococcus mutans are resistant to conventional antibiotics and current treatments. There is a growing need for novel therapeutics that selectively inhibit S. mutans biofilms while preserving the normal oral microenvironment. Previous studies have shown that increased levels of cyclic di-AMP, an important secondary messenger synthesized by diadenylate cyclase (DAC), favored biofilm formation in S. mutans. Thus, targeting S. mutans DAC is a novel strategy to inhibit S. mutans biofilms. We screened a small NCI library of natural products using a fluorescence detection assay. (+)-Brazilin, a tetracyclic homoisoflavanoid found in the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan, was identified as one of the 11 "hits," with the greatest reduction (>99%) in fluorescence at 100 µM. The smDAC inhibitory profiles of the 11 "hits" established by a quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography assay revealed that (+)-brazilin had the most enzymatic inhibitory activity (87% at 100 µM) and was further studied to determine its half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 25.1 ± 0.98 µM). (+)-Brazilin non-competitively inhibits smDAC's enzymatic activity (Ki = 140.0 ± 27.13 µM), as determined by a steady-state Michaelis-Menten kinetics assay. In addition, (+)-brazilin's binding profile with smDAC (Kd = 11.87 µM) was illustrated by a tyrosine intrinsic fluorescence quenching assay. Furthermore, at low micromolar concentrations, (+)-brazilin selectively inhibited the biofilm of S. mutans (IC50 = 21.0 ± 0.60 µM) and other oral bacteria. S. mutans biofilms were inhibited by a factor of 105 in colony-forming units when treated with 50 µM (+)-brazilin. In addition, a significant dose-dependent reduction in extracellular DNA and glucan levels was evident by fluorescence microscopy imaging of S. mutans biofilms exposed to different concentrations of (+)-brazilin. Furthermore, colonization of S. mutans on a representative model of enamel using suspended hydroxyapatite discs showed a >90% reduction with 50 µM (+)-brazilin. In summary, we have identified a drug-like natural product inhibitor of S. mutans biofilm that not only binds to smDAC but can also inhibit the function of smDAC. (+)-Brazilin could be a good candidate for further development as a potent therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.IMPORTANCEThis study represents a significant advancement in our understanding of potential therapeutic options for combating cariogenic biofilms produced by Streptococcus mutans. The research delves into the use of (+)-brazilin, a natural product, as a potent inhibitor of Streptococcus mutans' diadenylate cyclase (smDAC), an enzyme crucial in the formation of biofilms. The study establishes (+)-brazilin as a non-competitive inhibitor of smDAC while providing initial insights into its binding mechanism. What makes this finding even more promising is that (+)-brazilin does not limit its inhibitory effects to S. mutans alone. Instead, it demonstrates efficacy in hindering biofilms in other oral bacteria as well. The broader spectrum of anti-biofilm activity suggests that (+)-brazilin could potentially serve as a versatile tool in a natural product-based treatment for combating a range of conditions caused by resilient biofilms.

16.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; : 114281, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599299

RESUMO

Nattokinase (NK) is a thrombolytic enzyme extracted from natto, which can be used to prevent and treat blood clots. However, it is sensitive to the environment, especially the acidic environment of human stomach acid, and its effect of oral ingestion is minimal. This study aims to increase NK's oral and storage stability by embedding NK in microcapsules prepared with chitosan (CS) and γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA). The paper prepared a double-layer NK oral delivery system by layer self-assembly and characterized its stability and in vitro simulated digestion. According to the research results, the bilayer putamen structure has a protective effect on NK, which not only maintains high activity in various environments (such as acid-base, high temperature) and long-term storage (60 days), but also effectively protects the loaded NK from being destroyed in gastric fluid and achieves its slow release. This work has proved the feasibility of the design of bilayer putamen structure in oral administration and has good fibrolytic activity. Therefore, the novel CS/γ-PGA microcapsules are expected to be used in nutraceutical delivery systems.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; : 172289, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599405

RESUMO

Cu, as an essential and toxic element, has gained widespread attention. Both salinity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are known to influence Cu toxicity in marine organisms. However, the intricate interplay between these factors and their specific influence on Cu toxicity remains ambiguous. So, this study conducted toxicity tests of Cu on Oryzias melastigma. The experiments involved three salinity levels (10, 20, and 30 ppt) and three DOC levels (0, 1, and 5 mg/L) to comprehensively investigate the underlying mechanisms of toxicity. The complex toxic effects were analyzed by mortality, NKA activity, net Na+ flux and Cu bioaccumulation in O. melastigma. The results indicate that Cu toxicity is notably influenced by both DOC and salinity. Interestingly, the discernible variation in Cu toxicity across different DOC levels diminishes as salinity levels increase. The presence of DOC enhances the impact of salinity on Cu toxicity, especially at higher Cu concentrations. Additionally, Visual MINTEQ was utilized to elucidate the chemical composition of Cu, revealing that DOC had a significant impact on Cu forms. Furthermore, we observed that fluctuations in salinity lead to the inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, subsequently hindering the inflow of Na+. The effects of salinity and DOC on the bioaccumulation of copper were not significant. The influence of salinity on Cu toxicity is mainly through its effect on the osmotic regulation and biophysiology of O. melastigma. Additionally, DOC plays a crucial role in the different forms of Cu. Moreover, DOC-Cu complexes can be utilized by organisms. This study contributes to understanding the mechanism of copper's biological toxicity in intricate marine environments and serves as a valuable reference for developing marine water quality criteria for Cu.

18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1372539, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601145

RESUMO

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected billions of people worldwide, and the lessons learned need to be concluded to get better prepared for the next pandemic. Early identification of high-risk patients is important for appropriate treatment and distribution of medical resources. A generalizable and easy-to-use COVID-19 severity stratification model is vital and may provide references for clinicians. Methods: Three COVID-19 cohorts (one discovery cohort and two validation cohorts) were included. Longitudinal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from the discovery cohort (n = 39, mild = 15, critical = 24). The immune characteristics of COVID-19 and critical COVID-19 were analyzed by comparison with those of healthy volunteers (n = 16) and patients with mild COVID-19 using mass cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF). Subsequently, machine learning models were developed based on immune signatures and the most valuable laboratory parameters that performed well in distinguishing mild from critical cases. Finally, single-cell RNA sequencing data from a published study (n = 43) and electronic health records from a prospective cohort study (n = 840) were used to verify the role of crucial clinical laboratory and immune signature parameters in the stratification of COVID-19 severity. Results: Patients with COVID-19 were determined with disturbed glucose and tryptophan metabolism in two major innate immune clusters. Critical patients were further characterized by significant depletion of classical dendritic cells (cDCs), regulatory T cells (Tregs), and CD4+ central memory T cells (Tcm), along with increased systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The machine learning models based on the level of cDCs and LDH showed great potential for predicting critical cases. The model performances in severity stratification were validated in two cohorts (AUC = 0.77 and 0.88, respectively) infected with different strains in different periods. The reference limits of cDCs and LDH as biomarkers for predicting critical COVID-19 were 1.2% and 270.5 U/L, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, we developed and validated a generalizable and easy-to-use COVID-19 severity stratification model using machine learning algorithms. The level of cDCs and LDH will assist clinicians in making quick decisions during future pandemics.

20.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 196, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a major cause of morbidity and disability. Our study aimed to investigate the potential of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and ADAMTS7 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinases with thrombospondin motifs 7) as biomarkers for IVDD together with their functional relationship. METHODS: IVD tissues and peripheral blood samples were collected from IVDD rabbit models over 1-4 weeks. Tissues and blood samples were also collected from clinical patients those were stratified into four equal groups according to Pfirrmann IVDD grading (I-V) with baseline data collected for each participant. COMP and ADAMTS7 expression were analyzed and biomarker characteristics were assessed using linear regression and receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses. RESULTS: COMP and ADAMTS7 expression increased in tissues and serum during IVDD progression. Serum COMP (sCOMP) and serum ADAMTS7 (sADAMTS7) levels increased in a time-dependent manner following IVD damage in the rabbit model while significant positive correlations were detected between sCOMP and sADAMTS7 and Pfirrmann grade in human subjects. ROC analysis showed that combining sCOMP and sADAMTS7 assay results produced an improved diagnostic measure for IVDD compared to individual sCOMP or sADAMTS7 tests. In vitro assays conducted on human cell isolates revealed that COMP prevented extracellular matrix degradation and antagonized ADAMTS7 expression although this protective role was uncoupled under microenvironmental conditions mimicking IVDD. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in circulating COMP and ADAMTS7 correlate with IVDD progression and may play regulatory roles. Assays for sCOMP and/or sADAMTS7 levels can discriminate between healthy subjects and IVDD patients, warranting further clinical assessment.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Disco Intervertebral , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Proteína ADAMTS7 , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/metabolismo , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico
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