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1.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 1, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone neoplasm and is sometimes referred to as osteocartilaginous exostosis. The symptoms caused by osteochondroma are rare, especially the urogenital complications. Therefore, this tumour is sometimes misdiagnosed. CASE PRESENTATION: This report described a 70-year-old woman with hematuria who was initially misdiagnosed with a bladder tumour in the outpatient department by a urologist. However, during cystoscopy, we found that the mass did not resemble a bladder tumor. Multidisciplinary approach with careful analysis of the imaging data suggested the diagnosis of osteochondroma. Open surgical excision of the mass was done and histology confirmed the diagnosis of benign osteochondroma. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient was still asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates that hematuria is caused by not only urogenital disease but also osteochondroma. We present this case to draw the attention of clinicians to osteochondroma of the pubic symphysis.

2.
Protein Cell ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389663

RESUMO

There remains a significant gap in our quantitative understanding of crosstalk between apoptosis and necroptosis pathways. By employing the SWATH-MS technique, we quantified absolute amounts of up to thousands of proteins in dynamic assembling/de-assembling of TNF signaling complexes. Combining SWATH-MS-based network modeling and experimental validation, we found that when RIP1 level is below ~1000 molecules/cell (mpc), the cell solely undergoes TRADD-dependent apoptosis. When RIP1 is above ~1000 mpc, pro-caspase-8 and RIP3 are recruited to necrosome respectively with linear and nonlinear dependence on RIP1 amount, which well explains the co-occurrence of apoptosis and necroptosis and the paradoxical observations that RIP1 is required for necroptosis but its increase down-regulates necroptosis. Higher amount of RIP1 (>~46,000 mpc) suppresses apoptosis, leading to necroptosis alone. The relation between RIP1 level and occurrence of necroptosis or total cell death is biphasic. Our study provides a resource for encoding the complexity of TNF signaling and a quantitative picture how distinct dynamic interplay among proteins function as basis sets in signaling complexes, enabling RIP1 to play diverse roles in governing cell fate decisions.

3.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392615

RESUMO

Carrier-free nanomedicines without structural modification are attractive for the development of natural small molecules (NSMs) and biomedical applications. Moreover, the combination of NSMs is expected to obtain nanomedicines with high efficacy and low side effects due to their inherent pharmacological activities and health benefits. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability of NSMs limit their wider biomedical and clinical applications. In this study, we revealed the co-assembly properties of pentacyclic triterpenoids and constructed a series of carrier-free nanodrugs, which are co-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) formed by the combination of two NSMs via a supramolecular assembly strategy. Experimental work and simulation studies were combined to reveal the co-assembly mechanism of non-covalent interactions between NSMs. Not only do co-assembled NPs have rapid cellular uptake ability and passive targeting tumor ability based on the EPR effect, but also their constituent units could arrest the cell cycle at different stages of tumor cells and induce apoptosis, showing synergistic anti-tumor effects (CI < 0.7). Compared with self-assembled NPs and positive control, co-assembled NPs show the strongest therapeutic effect in vivo. Importantly, the co-assembled NPs highlight the unique advantages of NSMs in terms of biosafety and health benefits, and systemic toxicity and histological examination confirm that co-assembled NPs have reliable biosafety, and no side effects and nano toxicity risks were observed.

5.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417277

RESUMO

Previous studies have revealed a close connection between acne and insulin resistance (IR). However, studies on the prevalence and characteristics of female acne patients with IR were limited. In the present study, A total of 524 female acne patients and 50 healthy controls were consecutively recruited. Detailed examinations were conducted on all the subjects. The clinical severity of acne was determined by the Global Acne Grading System. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values was calculated as: fasting glucose (mmol/L)×fasting insulin (mIU/L)/22.5. A HOMA-IR value greater than 2.5 was predefined as IR.

6.
Chem Biodivers ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427403

RESUMO

Fractionation of the ethanol extract of a marine fungus, Arthrinium sp., afforded a new pyridone alkaloid (arthpyrone L, 1 ), the structure with absolute configuration of which was established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. In vitro cell viability assays revealed that compound 1 showed antiproliferative effects toward human A549 (lung), MG63, U2OS (bone), MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 (breast) cancer cells. MG63 cell line was chosen for further biological evaluations and presented apoptosis and cell cycle arrest (G0/G1 phase) upon treatment of 1 . Subsequent mechanism studies demonstrated that the growth inhibition of 1 against MG63 cells was via activation of caspase-modulated apoptotic pathway and inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway.

7.
Brain Res Bull ; 167: 1-10, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248200

RESUMO

A significant pathological feature of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is neuronal loss. Oxidative stress caused by repeated seizures is an important mechanism leading to neuronal loss in hippocampus. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) a coenzyme that is involved in many biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2) catalyzes an essential step in NAD (NADP) biosynthetic pathwayhas and been considered as a neuronal maintenance factor that protect neurons against insults through context-dependent mechanism. However, it is unexpected that Nmnat2 does not play a neuroprotective role in epilepsy. We found that Nmnat2 was increased in mice model of TLE. Gain-of-function approach revealed that overexpression of Nmnat2 in CA1 area enhanced seizure susceptibility and caused neuronal loss in vivo. Moreover, we found that the chaperone function was essential to increased apoptosis through the function mutation of Nmnat2. Finally, Nmnat2 overexpression in vivo reduced in expression of SOD2 and increased FoxO3a. Overall, our study discloses a new biological function of Nmnat2 in epilepsy and provides novel insights into the molecular events underlying epilepsy.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153433, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies mainly reported the clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infections, but the research on clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with stroke is still rare. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted at 11 hospitals in 4 provinces of China, and COVID-19 patients with stroke were enrolled from February 24 to May 4, 2020. We analyzed epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of cases as well as the laboratory test results, treatment regimens and outcomes, and the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes were compared between severe and nonsevere patients, and by age group, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients [mean age: 66.41 (SD 12.1) years] were enrolled. Among them, 9 (33.3%) were severe patients and 18 (66.7%) were nonsevere patients; 17 (63.0%) were female; 19 (70.4%) were aged 60 years and above. The most common symptoms were fever [19 (70.4%)], fatigue [12 (44.4%)] and cough [11 (40.7%)], respectively. Abnormal laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients with stroke included high levels of C-reactive protein [19 (73.1%)], D-dimer [14 (58.3%)], blood glucose [14 (53.8%)], fibrinogen [13 (50.0%)], and decreased lymphocytes [12 (44.4%)]. Comparing to nonsevere cases with stroke, severe patients with stroke were likely to be older, susceptible to receiving oxygen inhalation, and had more complications (p < 0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in lymphocytes, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase between the severe cases and nonsevere cases (p < 0.05). The older patients had a decreased platelet count and elevated fibrinogen, compared with the younger (p < 0.05). All patients (100%) received antiviral treatment, 12 (44.4%) received antibiotics treatment, 26 (96.3%) received Traditional Chinese Medicine (Lung cleansing & detoxifying decoction), and oxygen inhalation was in 18 (66.7%). The median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. By May 4, 2020, a total of 26 (96.3%) patients were cured and discharged, and 1 (3.7%) patients died. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with stroke had poor indicators of coagulation system, and severe and older patients might have a higher risk of complications and unfavorable coagulation system. However, the overall treatment outcome is favorable.

9.
Steroids ; 165: 108767, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212127

RESUMO

Two new ergostane-type steroids (1 and 2) have been isolated from the fruiting body of a medicinal macro fungus Ganoderma lingzhi. The structures including the absolute configurations of them were elucidated by a combination of different spectroscopic analyses especially 13C NMR and ECD calculations. Compound 2 features an unusual 1,2-dioxolane moiety. Our bioassays revealed that the two steroids showed remarkable cytotoxicity against human A549 (lung) and MCF-7 (breast) tumor cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 5.15 to 8.57 µg/mL.

10.
Arthroscopy ; 37(1): 234-242, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949633

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To (1) compare these parameters between patients with patellar dislocation and healthy individuals on magnetic resonance imaging measurements, (2) validate the diagnostic capacity of the tibial tubercle-posterior cruciate ligament (TT-PCL) distance and tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, (3) define the pathologic threshold values of these parameters for tibial tubercle osteotomy indication, and (4) compare these values with those of previous studies. METHODS: Seventy patients with patellar dislocation and 70 healthy volunteers were identified. The inter- and intraobserver reliability values were determined using Bland-Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The diagnostic capacity of the parameters was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The data of the control group were used to determine the pathologic threshold values of the measurements. Logistic regression analysis was performed with these pathologic threshold values. RESULTS: Significant differences in the TT-PCL distance (P = .01) and TT-TG distance (P < .001) were found between the study group (21.48 ± 3.18 and 12.91 ± 3.80, respectively) and the control group (20.07 ± 2.99 and 8.46 ± 3.16, respectively). Both the TT-PCL distance and TT-TG distance had excellent inter- and intraobserver agreement, with inter-ICCs >0.915 and intra-ICCs >0.932, respectively. However, the TT-TG distance had a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than did the TT-PCL distance (0.820 vs 0.627). The pathologic threshold value of the TT-PCL distance was 24.76 mm. The pathologic threshold value of the TT-TG distance was 13.64 mm. Subjects with a TT-TG distance of >13.64 mm had a greater risk for patellar dislocation, with an odds ratio of 14.02 (95% confidence interval 4.00-49.08, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Both the TT-PCL distance and TT-TG distance can be measured reliably by magnetic resonance imaging; however, the TT-TG distance has a better diagnostic capacity than does the TT-PCL distance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, I.

11.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127849, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297003

RESUMO

Cyhalofop-butyl is a kind of aromatic phenoxypropionic acid herbicide widely used in agriculture. However, studies on its immunotoxicity to aquatic organisms have not been reported. In this study paper, morphological, immunological, cytological, biochemical and molecular biology methods were used to study the effects of cyhalofop-butyl on the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity in zebrafish. After cyhalofop-butyl exposed, the results showed that the zebrafish embryos had shorter length, yolk sac edema, significantly reduced number of immune cells, inflammatory response and immunocytes apoptosis. In addition, we found that the expression of immune-related genes and pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated, and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway mediated the immunotoxicity induced by cyhalofop-butyl. Therefore, our results indicate that cyhalofop-butyl has developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity to zebrafish, and this study offer new contents for the effects of cyhalofop-butyl exposure on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Butanos , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Nitrilos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 26(1): 91-101, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865767

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify the anti-inflammatory effect of soybean isoflavones (SI) on the inflammatory response induced by Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) and to elucidate its possible mechanism. BMECs were pretreated with SI of different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 µg/mL) for 0.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 h. And then, S. agalactiae was used to infect bMECs for 6 h (MOI = 50:1) to establish the inflammation model. Cell viability, growth curves of S. agalactiae, cytotoxicity, and S. agalactiae invasion rate were determined. A proteomics technique was used to further detect differential proteins and enrichment pathways. SI (40 µg/mL) improved the viability of bMECs at 12 h (p < 0.05) and 60 and 80 µg/mL of SI greater (p < 0.01). Moreover, 60 µg/mL of SI protects cells from bacterial damage (p < 0.05). SI could inhibit S. agalactiae growth and internalization into bMECs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, proteomics results showed that 133 proteins were up-regulated and 89 proteins were down-regulated significantly. The differentially significantly expressed proteins (DSEPs) were mainly related to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration. GO annotation showed that 222 DSEPs were divided into 23 biological processes (BP) terms, 14 cell components (CC) terms, and 12 molecular functions (MF) terms. DSEPs were significantly enriched in 10 pathways, of which the immune pathway was the main enrichment pathway.

13.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108921, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191001

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of predominant Enterovirus that possesses high pathogenicity. Lipid rafts, as cholesterol - and sphingolipid - enriched membrane nanodomains, are involved into many aspects of the virus life cycle. Our previous study found that lipid rafts integrity was essential for CA16 replication, but how lipid rafts regulate CA16 replication through activating downstream signaling remains largely unknown. Thus, in this study, we revealed that lipid rafts were required for activation of PI3K/Akt signaling at early stage of CA16 infection. Treatment with wortmannin significantly reduced the expression of virus protein, indicating PI3K/Akt signaling was beneficial for early stage of virus infection. In addition, lipid rafts integrity was also indispensable for PI3K/Akt activation during the late stage of CA16 infection, which played critical functions in mediating sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1 (SREBP1) maturation. Whereas, over-expression of SREBP1 exhibited inhibition on virus replication, suggesting that PI3K/Akt signaling and SREBP1 might positively and negatively influence virus replication in two different stages of infection, respectively. Taken together, our study demonstrates an important role of the lipid raft-associated PI3K/Akt/SREBP1 signaling in modulating CA16 replication, which will deepen our understanding mechanism of CA16 infection.

14.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128498, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032210

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NEOs) are widely used in agricultural production processes in China and worldwide. NEOs have been an increasing concern because of their potential toxicity to nontarget organisms. However, studies that focused on human exposure to NEOs in China are limited. In this study, levels of six parent NEOs (p-NEOs), namely imidacloprid (IMI), acetamiprid (ACE), clothianidin (CLO), dinotefuran (DIN), thiamethoxam (THIX), and thiacloprid (THI), and three metabolites (m-NEOs), such as 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid (5-OH-IMI), 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furyl methyl) urea (UF), and N-desmethyl-acetamiprid (N-dm-ACE) were measured in 127 tooth samples collected from South China. P-NEOs and m-NEOs are frequently detected (76%-93%) in tooth samples, with median levels of 0.03-1.20 ng/g. UF is the most abundant NEOs in tooth samples (36%). Females have higher NEO levels than males, and gender-related differences in NEO levels are found. Associations among most p-NEOs are also found (p < 0.05), indicating the source of human exposure to p-NEOs is related. However, no significant relationships (p > 0.05) between levels of m-NEOs and their corresponding p-NEOs are found, suggesting that exogenous m-NEOs contribute to exposure. We have also examined the associations between human NEOs exposure and periodontitis, and associations between NEO exposure and periodontitis are observed (OR = 2.63-7.33; 95% CI = 1.01-21.1, p-trend < 0.05). Our results suggest that NEO levels are associated with increased odds of prevalent periodontitis. This study is the first to report about p-NEOs and m-NEOs in tooth samples collected from South China.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Periodontite , China , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Tiametoxam
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113544, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152436

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gut microbiome dysbiosis is closely associated with cholestatic liver disease. Huangqi decoction (HQD), a traditional herbal formula, has protection against cholestatic liver injury. However, the effect of HQD on gut microbiome remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effect of HQD on 3, 5-diethoxycarbonyl-1, 4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) induced cholestatic liver injury and its effect on the gut microbiome profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice with DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury were treated with low and high doses of HQD for 8 weeks. Fecal samples were analyzed by 16 S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Barrier function as well as intestinal and hepatic inflammation was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: HQD treatment ameliorated the DDC-induced liver injury and collagen deposition around hepatic bile ducts. Moreover, decreased diversity, reduced richness, and abnormal composition of intestinal microbiota of cholestatic mice were remarkably attenuated by HQD supplementation. Differences in bacterial abundance, including levels of Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Alistipes, and Gordonibacter, were increased in DDC-induced mice, as compared with control mice, and were decreased after HQD treatment. Moreover, intestinal dysbiosis promoted disruption of the intestinal barrier in cholestatic mice. However, HQD treatment alleviated intestinal barrier dysfunction. Importantly, increased hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory factors and the NLRP3 inflammasome, which have a positive correlation with differential bacteria, were characteristics found in DDC-induced cholestatic mice that were alleviated upon treatment with HQD. CONCLUSION: HQD treatment alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis, ameliorated the intestinal barrier dysfunction, inhibited liver inflammation, and protected against DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury.

16.
Water Res ; 189: 116559, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161329

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a powerful technique for monitoring illicit drugs of abuse in the community. Here, we report upon a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor for the sensitive and selective detection of methamphetamine based upon the assembly of noble metal core-shell nanoparticles on a bespoke glassy nanofibrous electrospun paper matrix. The hierarchical structure of the fibrous paper, modified with the synthesized Au@Ag core-shells (Au@Ag) gave strong SERS signalling, enabling us to evaluate the community-wide prevalence of methamphetamine in wastewater treatment plants within Beijing. We show that, when normalized for the daily flow of the wastewater treatment plants and for population density, higher mass loads of drugs are generally found in sewage influent from urban areas, implying greater local methamphetamine usage than that in less populated areas. The user-friendly and disposable paper sensors demonstrate the applicability of rapid on-site illicit drug detection, illustrating the application to wastewater-based epidemiology, which has the potential to inform government agencies regarding societal interventions.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Pequim , Águas Residuárias/análise , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Innate Immun ; 27(1): 70-80, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579053

RESUMO

Compromised TLR-mediated chronic inflammation contributes to bacterial infection-caused chronic suppurative otitis media, but the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined the expression status of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and TLRs in human middle-ear mucosae tissues collected from patients with chronic suppurative otitis media, chronic otitis media and non-otitis media, and found that Nrf2 was high-expressed, whereas TLR4, instead of other TLRs, was low expressed in chronic suppurative otitis media compared to chronic otitis media and non-chronic otitis media groups. Consistently, inflammatory cytokines were significantly up-regulated in the chronic suppurative otitis media group, instead of the chronic otitis media and non-chronic otitis media groups. Next, LPS-induced acute otitis media and chronic suppurative otitis media models in mice were established, and high levels of inflammatory cytokines were sustained in the mucosae tissues of chronic suppurative otitis media mice compared to the non-otitis media and acute otitis media groups. Interestingly, continuous low-dose LPS stimulation promoted Nrf2 expression, but decreased TLR4 levels in chronic suppurative otitis media mice mucosae. In addition, knock-down of Nrf2 increased TLR4 expression levels in chronic suppurative otitis media mice, and both Nrf2 ablation and TLR4 overexpression inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in chronic suppurative otitis media. Finally, we found that both Nrf2 overexpression and TLR4 deficiency promoted chronic inflammation in LPS-induced acute otitis media mice models. Taken together, knock-down of Nrf2 reversed chronic inflammation to attenuate chronic suppurative otitis media by up-regulating TLR4.

18.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128148, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038776

RESUMO

The brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides show various biological activities, but their hypoglycemic activity and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, three fractions of sulfated polysaccharides Up-3, Up-4, and Up-5 were prepared by microwave-assisted extraction from U. pinnatifida. In vitro assays demonstrated that Up-3 and Up-4 had strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and Up-3, Up-4, and Up-5 could improve the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells without affecting their viability. In vivo studies indicated Up-3 and Up-4 markedly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels. Up-U (a mixture of Up-3, Up-4, and Up-5), reduced fasting blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance and alleviated insulin resistance in HFD/STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice. Histopathological observation and hepatic glycogen measurement showed that Up-U alleviated the damage of the pancreas islet cell, reduced hepatic steatosis, and promoted hepatic glycogen synthesis. These findings suggest that Up-U could alleviate postprandial and HFD/STZ-induced hyperglycemia and was a potential agent for diabetes treatment.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alga Marinha/química , Undaria/química , Animais , Fracionamento Químico , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Insulina/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Micro-Ondas , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Período Pós-Prandial , Sulfatos/química
19.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt A): 115829, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160738

RESUMO

Antagonism between selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) has been demonstrated in plants. However, a mutual suppression threshold for Se and Cd has not been identified in previous studies using Cd or Se individually. To fill this knowledge gap, we determined the levels of Se and Cd in various tissues of rice under concentration gradients of Se and Cd with different Se application times via hydroponic experiments. The results showed that the application of exogenous Se or Cd reduced the uptake and transport of the other. When the molar ratio of Se/Cd (R (Se/Cd)) was higher than 1, the concentration and transfer factor of Cd (TF-Cd) in all parts of rice simultaneously reached the lowest values. The minimum Se absorption in rice was obtained at R (Cd/Se) greater than 20, while no inhibition threshold was found for Se transport. In addition, approximately 1:1 R (Se/Cd) was observed in roots and the addition of exogenous Cd or Se promoted the enrichment of the other element in roots. These data suggested a mutual inhibition of Se and Cd in their absorption, transportation and accumulation in rice, which might be related to the formation of insoluble Cd-Se complexes in roots. This study provided new insights into a plausible explanation of the interactions between Se and Cd and contributed to the remediation and treatment of combined Se and Cd pollution in farmland systems.


Assuntos
Oryza , Selênio , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 63(1): 22-28, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078421

RESUMO

AIM: To identify and evaluate the evidence documenting the association between neonatal morphine and later childhood neuropsychological development. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature search of eight electronic databases from inception until June 2019. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies recruiting neonates who received morphine treatment, and measuring neuropsychological development outcomes with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. RESULTS: Twelve separate reports from three RCTs and five cohort studies met our inclusion criteria. Owing to the small number of the included trials and the variable study designs, a meta-analysis was not performed. The findings from this review indicated that neonatal morphine use had no adverse effects on behaviour, cognition, motor, and executive function development at 8 to 9 years and earlier; except for the inconsistent conclusions on internalizing behavioural problems at 5 to 7 years and cognitive and motor developments at 18 months. INTERPRETATION: Why a child needs morphine may have a more profound impact on later neuropsychological development than morphine itself. The small number, high heterogeneity, and limitations of the included studies limit confidence in the result of this systematic review.

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