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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2372-2381, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492250

RESUMO

Copper nanoparticles with different average particle sizes of 61-139 nm were facilely prepared by the wet chemical reduction of copper hydroxide without or with the use of organic modifier. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as an organic modifier effectively decreased the sizes of copper nanoparticles as compared to sodium citrate. The presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone favored the formation of the small-sized copper nanoparticle. The tribological properties of lithium-based complex grease were effectively improved by addition of copper nanoparticles (≤2 wt%). The improvement of grease tribological properties could be attributed to deposition of soft copper nanoparticles and tiny bearing action on rubbing surfaces.

2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471681

RESUMO

Endocrine therapy represents a mainstay adjuvant treatment of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer in clinical practice with an overall survival (OS) benefit. However, the emergence of resistance is inevitable over time and is present in one-third of the ER+ breast tumors. Several mechanisms of endocrine resistance in ER+/HER2- advanced breast cancers, through ERα itself, receptor tyrosine signaling, or cell cycle pathway, have been identified to be pivotal in endocrine therapy. The epigenetic alterations also contribute to ensuring tumor cells' escape from endocrine therapies. The strategy of combined hormone therapy with targeted pharmaceutical compounds has shown an improvement of progression-free survival or OS in clinical practice, including three different classes of drugs: CDK4/6 inhibitors, selective inhibitor of PI3Kα and mTOR inhibitors. Many therapeutic targets of cell cycle pathway and cell signaling and their combination strategies have recently entered clinical trials. This review focuses on Cyclin D-CDK4/6-RB axis, PI3K pathway and HDACs. Additionally, genomic evolution is complex in tumors exposed to hormonal therapy. We highlight the genomic alterations present in ESR1 and PIK3CA genes to elucidate adaptive mechanisms of endocrine resistance, and discuss how these mutations may inform novel combinations to improve clinical outcomes in the future.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483922

RESUMO

Metronidazole, a widely used drug for the treatment of infections with anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, can frequently cause metronidazole-induced cutaneous adverse reactions (McADRs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and McADRs in a Chinese Han population. The frequency of HLA-B*24:02 carriers among the McADR patients was 73.3%, which was significantly higher than that of the population controls (32.16%, OR=5.80, 95% CI=[1.80-18.72], Pc=0.004) and of the metronidazole-tolerant patients (26.67%, OR=7.56, 95% CI=[2.02-28.35], Pc=0.004). Molecular docking showed that metronidazole and one of its major metabolites had the potential to bind in the HLA groove and that there was a relatively stable binding state of the HLA-B*24:02-metronidazole/the metabolite complex. The CDR3 repertoires of both T cell receptor (TCR)Vα and Vß of the patients showed a significantly skewed or an oligoclonal distribution. The TCRVß CDR3 of the patients shared a similar motif, 'CASSxxxxxxQxF'. The current study demonstrated that both the HLA-A*24:02 allele and TCR are involved in the pathogenesis of McADRs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Parasitol Res ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486945

RESUMO

Myxobolus pelecicola Voronin et Dudin, 2015 was recently described from the skeletal musculature of sichel Pelecus cultratus. However, another species, Myxobolus ladogensis Rumyantsev et Schulman, 1997, was described previously from the same host, displaying identical tissue localization and spore morphology as in M. pelecicola. Unfortunately, M. ladogensis was overlooked when M. pelecicola was described, resulting in the superfluous description of the latter species, which, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, is a junior synonym of M. ladogensis. The description of M. ladogensis is supplemented with SSU rDNA sequence analysis supporting the conspecificity with M. pelecicola. The closest relatives of Myxobolus ladogensis (syn. M. pelecicola) include several muscle-infecting Myxobolus spp. with sequence similarity below 97%.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3978, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484936

RESUMO

The pH in atherosclerotic lesions varies between individuals. IgE activates macrophage Na+-H+ exchanger (Nhe1) and induces extracellular acidification and cell apoptosis. Here, we show that the pH-sensitive pHrodo probe localizes the acidic regions in atherosclerotic lesions to macrophages, IgE, and cell apoptosis. In Apoe-/- mice, Nhe1-deficiency or anti-IgE antibody reduces atherosclerosis and blocks lesion acidification. Reduced atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice receiving bone marrow from Nhe1- or IgE receptor FcεR1-deficient mice, blunted foam cell formation and signaling in IgE-activated macrophages from Nhe1-deficient mice, immunocomplex formation of Nhe1 and FcεR1 in IgE-activated macrophages, and Nhe1-FcεR1 colocalization in atherosclerotic lesion macrophages support a role of IgE-mediated macrophage Nhe1 activation in atherosclerosis. Intravenous administration of a near-infrared fluorescent pH-sensitive probe LS662, followed by coregistered fluorescent molecular tomography-computed tomography imaging, identifies acidic regions in atherosclerotic lesions in live mice, ushering a non-invasive and radiation-free imaging approach to monitor atherosclerotic lesions in live subjects.

6.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482399

RESUMO

Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare odontogenic tumor associated with aggressive clinical behavior, metastasis and low survival. To date, only 67 cases have been described in the English language literature, and an understanding of the behavior of CCOC has been based on limited case reports. The aim of the research was to further reveal the features of CCOC. We report 5 new cases of CCOC, with a mean age of 52.4 years. The clinical and histopathologic data of the disease obtained from earlier literature (95 cases) and the 5 new cases were analyzed. Data were extracted, including demographics, histopathologic findings, clinical presentation, primary treatment and outcomes. Immunohistochemical results revealed that the cancer is positive for AE1/AE3, EMA and CK19, negative for smooth muscle actin SMA, Vim and S-100. EWSR1 translocation was also observed in the new cases, which may help in the diagnosis of CCOC. Metastases of CCOC were rare, but the local recurrence rate of CCOC rose to 42%. The best treatment for patients with CCOC is wide local excision combined with regional lymph node dissection.

7.
Small ; : e1903159, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483559

RESUMO

Semimetal 1T' MoTe2 crystals have attracted tremendous attention owing to their anisotropic optical properties, Weyl semimetal, phase transition, and so on. However, the complex refractive indices (n-ik) of the anisotropic semimetal 1T' MoTe2 still are not revealed yet, which is important to applications such as polarized wide spectrum detectors, polarized surface plasmonics, and nonlinear optics. Here, the linear dichroism of as-grown trilayer 1T' MoTe2 single crystals is investigated. Trilayer 1T' MoTe2 shows obvious anisotropic optical absorption due to the intraband transition of dz 2 orbits for Mo atoms and px orbits for Te atoms. The anisotropic complex refractive indices of few-layer 1T' MoTe2 are experimentally obtained for the first time by using the Pinier equation analysis. Based on the linear dichroism of 1T' MoTe2 , angle-resolved polarized optical microscopy is developed to visualize the grain boundary and identify the crystal orientation of 1T' MoTe2 crystals, which is also an excellent tool toward the investigation of the optical absorption properties in the visible range for anisotropic 2D transition metal chalcogenides. This work provides a universal and nondestructive method to identify the crystal orientation of anisotropic 2D materials, which opens up an opportunity to investigate the optical application of anisotropic semimetal 2D materials.

8.
Behav Brain Res ; 376: 112207, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476331

RESUMO

Although the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) and serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor are involved in cognition, their roles in cognitive impairments in Parkinson' disease (PD) are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and antagonist WAY100635 administrated into the dHPC of rats were assessed in T-maze rewarded alternation test for working memory and in hole-board test for long-term habituation. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the medial forebrain bundle in rats impaired working memory and long-term habituation, decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dHPC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC), and decreased the mean density of 5-HT1A receptors and co-localization of 5-HT1A receptor and excitatory amino acid carrier 1-immunoreactive (EAAC1-ir) neurons in the dHPC compared to sham-operated rats. Activation of dHPC 5-HT1A receptors by local infusion of 8-OH-DPAT impaired working memory and long-term habituation in both sham-operated and the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Furthermore, blockade of dHPC 5-HT1A receptors by WAY100635 improved the memories in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, but had no effects in sham-operated rats. Additionally, dHPC injection of 8-OH-DPAT decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels, increased 5-HT levels in the mPFC, dHPC and vHPC in sham-operated and lesioned rats, while WAY100635 increased DA and NA levels only in lesioned rats. The results of the present study suggest that dHPC 5-HT1A receptors regulate cognitive impairments in PD by changes of monoamines in the related brain regions.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134237, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494414

RESUMO

The incorporation and cycling of pyrogenic organic matter in soil is a potential carbon sink, while the pyrolysis behaviors of soil organic matter are still lacking. Pyrolysis characteristics of soil fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA) were investigated using thermogravimetry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer-mass spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) and kinetic models. Four reaction stages corresponding to four pseudo-components were distinguished for both FA and HA. FA exhibited greater transformation contributions of hemicellulose-like and cellulose-like pseudo-components, while HA exhibited greater transformation contributions of lignin-like pseudo-components. Compared to HA, higher levels of heat-resistant aromatic compounds, phenolic groups, and carboxylic groups were recognized in FA. Values of both activation energy (Ea, 246.13-661.40 kJ·mol-1) and pre-exponential factor (lnA, 53.49-107.16 min-1) of FA were greater than corresponding Ea (241.74-466.70 kJ·mol-1) and lnA (51.99-74.36 min-1) values of HA determined by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method and Distributed Activation Energy Model. The main pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of both FA and HA closely matched with the order-based model corresponding to 2nd and 3rd order random nucleation on an individual particle. The evolved gas species of H2, CH4, H2O, and CO2 were dominant for FA and HA pyrolysis. Generally, the total H2/CO2 and CH4/H2O releases were relatively larger for FA and HA pyrolysis, respectively. TG-FTIR-MS is shown to be an effective method to provide valuable and qualitative analysis of the gaseous volatile species evolved during HS pyrolysis. Findings from this systematic study of soil organic matter responding to pyrolysis will be critical for predicting the changes of soil systems or carbon cycle affected by future climate and fire regimes.

10.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 118, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms driving the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer are believed to relate substantially to the tumor microenvironment. However, the cross-talks between tumor epithelial cell, stromal cells, and immune cells are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to determine the role of chemokine and neutrophil derived cytokine paracrine axis in mediating the interaction between tumor cells, stromal myofibroblasts, and neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer. METHODS: To identify myofibroblasts and neutrophil derived specific proteins affecting progression of prostate cancer, bioinformatics analyses were firstly performed in independent human prostate cancer gene expression data sets from the GEO data bank. Expression of stromal myofibroblasts secretory chemokine CXCL1 and neutrophil derived cytokine LCN2 was evaluated in prostate tissues via immunohistochemistry assay. We further investigated the effect of CXCL1 and LCN2 on prostate cancer using in vivo and in vitro models, and explored the underlying signal transduction pathways. RESULTS: A CXCL1-LCN2 paracrine network was confirmed in prostate cancer tissue samples, which was correlated with the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Of note, CXCL1-LCN2 axis activates Src signaling, triggers the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), consequently promotes the migration of prostate cancer cells, leading to enhanced tumor metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may provide enhanced insight into the interactions of carcinoma-stromal cells and immune cells linked to prostate cancer progression, wherein CXCL1-LCN2 axis is a key contributor to prostate cancer cells migration. These data indicate tumor microenvironment and Src signaling pathway may be potential therapeutic targets of prostate cancer treatment.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509580

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) is an important hormone released by the pituitary gland that plays a key role in the growth and development of organisms. In our study, TargetScan analysis and the dual luciferase reporter assays were used to predict and screen for miRNAs that might act on the rat Gh1 gene, and we identified miR-543-5p. Then, the GH3 cell line and the primary rat pituitary cells were transfected with miRNA mimic, inhibitor, and siRNA. We detected the Gh1 gene expression and the GH secretion by real-time PCR and ELISAs, respectively, to verify the regulatory effect of miR-543-5p on GH secretion. The results showed that miR-543-5p can inhibit Gh1 mRNA expression and reduce GH secretion. MiR-543-5p inhibitor upregulated Gh1 mRNA expression and increased GH secretion compared with the negative control. In summary, miR-543-5p downregulates Gh1 expression, resulting in a decrease in GH synthesis and secretion, which demonstrates the important role of miRNAs in regulating GH and animal growth and development.

12.
Opt Express ; 27(17): 24300-24310, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510321

RESUMO

In this work we demonstrate a low-frequency acoustic sensor structure based on extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometer (EFPI) cavity. The cavity is fabricated through micromachining techniques in a square silicon substrate with 4 mm side length and 400 µm thickness, which gives the sensor relative compact size. In the assembling process of the lead-in fiber, a D-shaped ceramic ferrule is designed to achieve the open cavity structure, which can balance the environmental pressure inside and outside the cavity and thus giving the sensor potentials of resisting strong pressure variations in some harsh application environments. Experimentally, sensor response to low-frequency acoustic waves from 0.1 Hz to 250 Hz is measured and demonstrated. A flat response region between 0.5 Hz to 250 Hz with sensitivity fluctuation of 0.8 dB is realized. Pressure resistant test of 25 MPa is also conducted on the sensor and exhibited to prove the function of the open cavity structure.

13.
Food Funct ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513213

RESUMO

This aim of this study is to assess the possible effects of dietary okra seed oil (OSO) consumption on attenuation of alcohol-induced liver damage and gut microbiota dysbiosis, and associated mechanisms in mice. Mice were orally administered alcohol alone or in combination with OSO at 400 and 800 mg per kg bw for 8 weeks. OSO caused a strong inhibition of abnormal weight loss and liver fat accumulation in alcohol-administered mice. Malonaldehyde production was also effectively antagonized, and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were elevated by OSO treatment in ethanol-based mice (p < 0.05). Concentrations of hepatic TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were decreased after OSO treatment when compared with alcohol-treated mice, respectively (p < 0.05). As revealed by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, OSO notably reduced the Proteobacteria proportion and enhanced the Bacteroidetes population of alcohol-treated mice, and a significant reduction in Clostridium XlVa and Staphylococcus was observed, revealing that OSO attenuated the alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis. OSO also attenuated lipid metabolic disorder by modulating metabolism of serum free fatty acids in ethanol-based mice, but had no significant difference in cecum total short-chain fatty acids among the tested mice. Amelioration of these parameters and liver injury via H&E staining examination demonstrated that OSO consumption could effectively protect against liver damage and maintain intestinal eubiosis in mice.

14.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(8): 554-9, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) on intracellular Raf/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/ ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)/ cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signal pathway in the hippocampus of depression model rats, so as to explore its anti-depressive mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, auricular EA, PD98059(ERK inhibitor), DMSO (Dimethylsulfoxide), PD98059+EA groups (n=10 in each group). The rats in the control group were fed with normal diet without any treatment. The depression model was induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for consecutive 21 days. EA (20 Hz, 2 mA) was applied to bilateral auricular "Xin"(Heart) and "Shenmen" for 30 min, once daily for 28 days. Rats of the PD98059, DMSO and PD98059+EA groups received intracerebroventricular injection of PD98059(100 µmol/L), DMSO and PD98059 (dissolved by DMSO) solutions (5 µL/d), respectively, once daily for 28 days. Sucrose preference test (sucrose consumption) was conducted at the baseline, before and after the intervention. The expression of hippocampal Raf, phosphorylated (p)-Raf, ERK, p-ERK, RSK, CREB and p-CREB proteins were detected by Western blot after EA intervention. RESULTS: Following modeling, the sucrose consumption volume, and the expression levels of hippocampal Raf, p-Raf, ERK, p-ERK, RSK, CREB, p-CREB proteins were significantly lower in the model group than those in the control group (P<0.01). Following the treatment, the sucrose consumption and the expression levels of Raf, p-Raf, ERK, p-ERK, RSK, CREB, p-CREB in the auricular EA group and those of p-Raf, ERK and CREB in the PD98059+EA group were obviously increased in comparison with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01), the expression level of p-ERK in the PD98059 group was obviously decreased in comparison with the model group (P<0.05), suggesting an improvement of depression after auricular EA. Compared with auricular EA group, the expression level of p-ERK, p-CREB and RSK in the PD98059+EA group were significantly decreased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA of auricular "Xin" and "Shenmen" is able to improve depression in depression rats, which is probably related to its effect in promoting activities of hippocampal Raf/ERK/RSK/CREB signaling.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Animais , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Depressão , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular , Hipocampo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 300, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484582

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Our pilot study suggested that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) reduced the need for intubation compared with conventional administration of oxygen on patients with "early" stage of mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, PaO2/FIO2 between 200 and 300). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether early NIV can reduce the need for invasive ventilation in patients with pneumonia-induced early mild ARDS. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of NIV compared with conventional administration of oxygen through a Venturi mask. Primary outcome included the numbers of patients who met the intubation criteria. RESULTS: Two hundred subjects were randomized to NIV (n = 102) or control (n = 98) groups from 21 centers. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. In the NIV group, PaO2/FIO2 became significantly higher than in the control group at 2 h after randomization and remained stable for the first 72 h. NIV did not decrease the proportion of patients requiring intubation than in the control group (11/102 vs. 9/98, 10.8% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.706). The ICU mortality was similar in the two groups (7/102 vs. 7/98, 4.9% vs. 3.1%, p = 0.721). Multivariate analysis showed minute ventilation greater than 11 L/min at 48 h was the independent risk factor for NIV failure (OR, 1.176 [95% CI, 1.005-1.379], p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NIV did not reduce the need for intubation among patients with pneumonia-induced early mild ARDS, despite the improved PaO2/FIO2 observed with NIV compared with standard oxygen therapy. High minute ventilation may predict NIV failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01581229 . Registered 19 April 2012.

16.
Exp Neurol ; : 113058, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499061

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that depression is closely related to hyperactivity of the lateral habenula (LHb). However, it is not clear how activation and blockade of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the LHb affect depressive-like behaviors, particularly in Parkinson's disease-related depression. In this study, unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in rats induced depressive-like behaviors and led to hyperactivity of LHb neurons compared to SNc sham-lesioned rats. Interestingly, intra-LHb injection of AMPAR agonist (S)-AMPA produced antidepressant-like effects in the two groups of rats and antagonist NBQX induced depressive-like behaviors, although (S)-AMPA excited LHb neurons and NBQX inhibited these neurons. We further found that intra-LHb injection of (S)-AMPA excited dopaminergic neurons in the anterior ventral tegmental area (aVTA) and serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which increased release of DA and 5-HT in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), while NBQX induced the opposite effects. Further, lesioning the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus did not alter the proportions of the responses of these neurons to AMPAR stimulation. Additionally, lesions of the SNc reduced the level of p-GluR2-S880 in the LHb, which can increase the surface expression of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPARs (CI-AMPARs). This change in SNc-lesioned rats enhanced effects of (S)-AMPA and NBQX on the behaviors, LHb neuronal firing and release of DA and 5-HT. Collectively, antidepressant-like effects produced by (S)-AMPA attribute to activation of LHb neurons expressing CI-AMPAR, which excites aVTA dopaminergic neurons and DRN serotonergic neurons via the direct projection, thereby increasing release of mPFC DA and 5-HT.

17.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(5): 5504-5530, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499723

RESUMO

In this paper we study an SLIR epidemic model with nonmonotonic incidence rate, which describes the psychological effect of certain serious diseases on the community when the number of infectives is getting larger. By carrying out a global analysis of the model and studying the stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium, we show that either the number of infective individuals tends to zero or the disease persists as time evolves. For the stochastic model, we prove the existence, uniqueness and positivity of the solution of the model. Then, we investigate the stability of the model and we prove that the infective tends asymptotically to zero exponentially almost surely as R0 < 1. We also proved that the SLIR model has the ergodic property as the fluctuation is small, where the positive solution converges weakly to the unique stationary distribution.

18.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498543

RESUMO

Prefoldin (PFD) is a group II chaperonin that is ubiquitously present in the eukaryotic kingdom. Six subunits (PFD1-6) form a jellyfish-like heterohexameric PFD complex and function in protein folding and cytoskeleton organization. However, little is known about its function in plant cell wall-related processes. Here, we report the functional characterization of a PFD gene from Populus deltoides, designated as PdPFD2.2 There are two copies of PFD2 in Populus and PdPFD2.2 was ubiquitously expressed with high transcript abundance in the cambial region. PdPFD2.2 can physically interact with DELLA protein RGA1_8g, and its subcellular localization is affected by the interaction. In P. deltoides transgenic plants overexpressing PdPFD2.2, the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio was increased, but cellulose content and crystallinity index were unchanged. In addition, the total released sugar (glucose and xylose) amounts were increased by 7.6% and 6.1%, respectively, in two transgenic lines. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that secondary metabolic pathways, including lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis, were affected by overexpressing PdPFD2.2. A total of eight hub transcription factors (TFs) were identified based on TF binding sites of differentially expressed genes in Populus transgenic plants overexpressing PdPFD2.2. In addition, several known cell wall-related TFs, such as MYB3, MYB4, MYB7, TT8, and XND1, were affected by overexpression of PdPFD2.2. These results suggest that overexpression of PdPFD2.2 can reduce biomass recalcitrance and PdPFD2.2 is a promising target for genetic engineering to improve feedstock characteristics to enhance biofuel conversion and reduce the cost of lignocellulosic biofuel production.

19.
J Nurs Manag ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444838

RESUMO

AIM: To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of the Inpatients' Involvement in Medication Safety Scale(IIMSS). BACKGROUND: Medication safety is the third biggest challenge threatening patient safety. Patient involvement in medication safety management is essential, however, few tools have been developed to assess the related process. METHODS: The scale was formulated through literature review, semi-structured interviews and Delphi expert consultation. A group of 461 inpatients from a tertiary hospital were selected to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. RESULTS: The scale consisted of 3 dimensions and 23 items. The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.916 for the total scale and were 0.777-0.858 for 3 subscales; the test-retest reliability was 0.742 for the total scale. The content validity was 0.957, and the item content validity ranged from 0.833-1.000. The cumulative variance contribution of 3 selected factors was 51.19%. CONCLUSIONS: The IIMSS has good reliability and validity andcan be used to evaluate inpatients' involvement in medication safety. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: The scale provides theoretical reference for clinical nursing safety management, as well as helps nurses to provide targeted medication care for patients and their families. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 30(8): 714-721, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: For distal malignant biliary obstruction (MBO), a percutaneous metal stent is usually inserted by the transpapillary method. However, stent-related complications and recurrent biliary obstruction following transpapillary stent placement are concerns, and survival analysis of patients with distal MBO has rarely been done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2016, 104 patients underwent transpapillary uncovered metal stent placement for distal MBO at our institution. Clinical success, complications, recurrent biliary obstruction rates, and predictors of survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the total 104 patients, clinical success after stent insertion was achieved in 93 patients (90.3%). Major complications were observed in 24 patients (23.1%), which were as follows: cholangitis in 19 patients; pancreatitis in four patients; and biloma in one patient. Recurrent biliary occlusion was observed in 28 patients (26.9%). The median overall survival period was 162 days. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month overall survival rates after stent insertion were 64.4%, 41.3%, and 10.6%, respectively. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that metastatic carcinoma compared with ampullary carcinoma (HR=3.82; 95% CI, 1.30-11.24; p=0.015) and longer biliary stricture (HR=1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06; p<0.001) were independent risk factors for worse survival after metal stent insertion. CONCLUSION: Transpapillary stent placement was found to be effective with acceptable complication rates for treating distal MBO. Primary tumor and length of biliary stricture were found to be statistically significant independent prognostic factors for survival.

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