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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 154, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006115

RESUMO

The pollution levels of lakes vary in quantity and type of contaminants accumulated in their sediment and water. The second Chinese capital city will be built around Baiyangdian Lake in the near future, and thus, it is important to monitor pollution status of Baiyangdian Lake. This study mainly focused on the accumulated heavy metal concentrations in the surface sediment and in variety of fish bodies. Sediment pollution status and ecological risk were evaluated through geo-accumulation (I-geo), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), potential ecological risk ([Formula: see text]), and mean probable effect concentration quotient (mPEC-Q). In addition, human health risks via fish consumption were also evaluated. Based on the results, the average sediment trace As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 9.53, 0.35, 56.37, 32.33, 617.05, 30.18, 19.17, and 84.24 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. Both I-geo and [Formula: see text] inferred low pollution levels and low ecological risks from all assessed trace metals except Cd. Cd posed moderate to high ecological risks. Based on sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), average Ni and Cr concentrations exceeded the threshold effect concentrations (TEC), but their [Formula: see text] are low as their average concentrations is below Hebei province pre-contaminations (30.8 mg/kg for Ni and 68.3 mg/kg for Cr). There is no cumulative toxicity from all the metals through mPEC-Q. Omnivorous fish accumulated statistically insignificantly higher amounts of metals than carnivorous fish, except for Hg. The intake of 12.22 g/person/day fish muscle for the entire life is safe from noncarcinogenic human health problems.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 694, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019921

RESUMO

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are prevalent causes of vision loss requiring frequent intravitreous injections of VEGF-neutralizing proteins, and under-treatment is common and problematic. Here we report incorporation of sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks VEGF receptors, into a non-inflammatory biodegradable polymer to generate sunitinib microparticles specially formulated to self-aggregate into a depot. A single intravitreous injection of sunitinib microparticles potently suppresses choroidal neovascularization in mice for six months and in another model, blocks VEGF-induced leukostasis and retinal nonperfusion, which are associated with diabetic retinopathy progression. After intravitreous injection in rabbits, sunitinib microparticles self-aggregate into a depot that remains localized and maintains therapeutic levels of sunitinib in retinal pigmented epithelium/choroid and retina for more than six months. There is no intraocular inflammation or retinal toxicity. Intravitreous injection of sunitinib microparticles provides a promising approach to achieve sustained suppression of VEGF signaling and improve outcomes in patients with retinal vascular diseases.

3.
Am J Sports Med ; : 363546519900158, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) in extension after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury highlights an increased anterior position of the tibia relative to the femur. Recent studies demonstrated that subluxation is sometimes irreducible and the normal tibiofemoral relationship is not restored by ACL reconstruction (ACLR), which raises concerns regarding clinical outcomes after ACLR. HYPOTHESIS: Excessive preoperative ATS in extension is associated with inferior knee stability after anatomic ACLR. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: From March 2016 to January 2017, a total of 487 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed noncontact ACL injuries who underwent primary anatomic ACLR were retrospectively analyzed. Of these patients, 430 met the criteria for inclusion in this study. Anterior subluxation of the lateral and medial compartments (ASLC and ASMC) in extension relative to the femoral condyles was measured on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty patients (study group) who demonstrated excessive (>10 mm) ASLC and ASMC in extension were matched 1:2 to 40 participants (control group) who showed minimal or no (<3 mm) ASLC and ASMC in extension. The amount of ASLC and ASMC in extension relative to the femoral condyles at 2 years postoperatively was the primary outcome. Moreover, the Lysholm score, IKDC grade (International Knee Documentation Committee), and stability assessments (pivot-shift test and KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference) were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up visit. RESULTS: The preoperative mean ASLC and ASMC in extension of the study group were both significantly larger than those of the control group (study group vs control group: ASLC, 13.5 mm vs 1.2 mm; ASMC, 12.4 mm vs 1.0 mm; P < .05). Moreover, patients in the study group showed significantly larger posterior tibial slope than the patients in the control group (17.8°± 2.5° vs 9.5°± 1.5°; P < .05). At the final follow-up visit, the mean ASLC and ASMC of the study group were 8.1 mm and 7.3 mm, which were significantly larger than those of the control group (ASLC, 0.9 mm; ASMC, 0.7 mm; P < .05). In addition, the study group showed inferior knee stability when compared with the control group in terms of both the pivot-shift test (study group vs control group: 2 grade 2, 10 grade 1, and 8 grade 0 vs 1 grade 1 and 39 grade 0; P < .05) and the KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference (study group vs control group: 4.4 ± 1.2 mm vs 1.5 ± 0.6 mm; P < .05). Furthermore, the study group showed significantly lower mean Lysholm score (study group vs control group: 80.3 ± 6.3 vs 93.3 ± 4.3, P < .05) and IKDC grading results (study group vs control group: 3 grade C, 16 grade B, and 1 grade A vs 3 grade B and 37 grade A; P < .05) as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: In this short-term study, the excessive (>10 mm) preoperative ATS in extension after ACL injury was associated with inferior knee stability after anatomic ACLR.

4.
Gene ; 737: 144446, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035241

RESUMO

The homeotic complex (Hox) gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) plays pivotal roles in modifying specific morphological differences among the second (T2), the third thoracic (T3), and the first abdomen (A1) segment in several insects. Whether Ubx regulates wing dimorphism and other morphological traits in the delphacid family (order Hemiptera) remains elusive. In this study, we cloned a full-length Ubx ortholog (NlUbx) from the wing-dimorphic planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, and identified two NlUbx isoforms. RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of NlUbx in short-winged BPH nymphs significantly induced the development of wing-like appendages from T3 wingbuds, and this effect is likely mediated by the insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway. RNAi knockdown of NlUbx in long-winged BPH nymphs led to a transformation from hindwings to forewings. Additionally, silencing of NlUbx not only dramatically changed the T3 morphology, but also led to jumping defect of T3 legs. First-instar nymphs derived from parental RNAi had an additional leg-like appendages on A1. These results suggest that Ubx plays a role in determining some morphological traits in delphacid planthoppers, and thus help in understanding evolution of morphological characteristics in arthropods.

5.
Exp Neurol ; 327: 113240, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045596

RESUMO

The voltage sodium channel 1.8 (NaV1.8) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributes to the initiation and development of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, an effective intervention on NaV1.8 remains to be studied in pre-clinical research and clinical trials. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether transcription factor 4 (TCF4) overexpression represses NaV1.8 expression in DRG neurons, thus preventing the development of chronic pain. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP), we verified the interaction of TCF4 and sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 10A (SCN10A) enhancer in HEK293 cells and rat DRG neurons. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed the transcriptional inhibition of TCF4 on SCN10A promoter in vitro. To investigate the regulation of TCF4 on Nav1.8, we then upregulated TCF4 expression by intrathecally delivering an overexpression of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) in the Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model and spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced neuropathic pain model. By using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and immunostaining, we evaluated NaV1.8 expression after a noxious stimulation and the application of the TCF4 overexpression virus. We showed that the intrathecal delivery of TCF4 overexpression virus significantly repressed the increase of NaV1.8 and prevented the development of hyperalgesia in rats. Moreover, we confirmed the efficient role of an overexpressed TCF4 in preventing the CFA- and SNI-induced neuronal hyperexcitability by calcium imaging. Our results suggest that attenuating the dysregulation of NaV1.8 by targeting TCF4 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

6.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 189: 110831, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058252

RESUMO

Stent intervention as available method in clinic has been widely applied for cardiovascular disease treatment for decades. However, the restenosis caused by late thrombosis and hyperplasia still limits the stents long-term application, and the essential cause is usually recognized as endothelial functionalization insufficiency of the stent material surface. Here, we address this limitation by developing a pro-endothelial-functionalization surface that immobilized a natural factors-loaded nanoparticle, exosome, onto the poly-dopamine (PDA) coated materials via electrostatic binding. This PDA/Exosome surface not only increased the endothelial cells number on the materials, but also improved their endothelial function, including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) expression, cell migration and nitric oxide release. The pro-inflammation macrophage (M1 phenotype) attachment and synthetic smooth muscle cell proliferation as the interference factors for the endothelialization were not only inhibited by the PDA/Exosome coating, while the cells were also regulated to anti-inflammation macrophage (M2 phenotype) and contractile smooth muscle cell, which may contribute to endothelialization. Thus, it can be summarized this method has potential application on surface modification of cardiovascular biomaterials.

7.
Curr Opin Cell Biol ; 63: 114-124, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058267

RESUMO

Cells rely on a complex network of spatiotemporally regulated signaling activities to effectively transduce information from extracellular cues to intracellular machinery. To probe this activity architecture, researchers have developed an extensive molecular tool kit of fluorescent biosensors and optogenetic actuators capable of monitoring and manipulating various signaling activities with high spatiotemporal precision. The goal of this review is to provide readers with an overview of basic concepts and recent advances in the development and application of genetically encodable biosensors and optogenetic tools for understanding signaling activity.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050727

RESUMO

Abnormal falls in public places have significant safety hazards and can easily lead to serious consequences, such as trampling by people. Vision-driven fall event detection has the huge advantage of being non-invasive. However, in actual scenes, the fall behavior is rich in diversity, resulting in strong instability in detection. Based on the study of the stability of human body dynamics, the article proposes a new model of human posture representation of fall behavior, called the "five-point inverted pendulum model", and uses an improved two-branch multi-stage convolutional neural network (M-CNN) to extract and construct the inverted pendulum structure of human posture in real-world complex scenes. Furthermore, we consider the continuity of the fall event in time series, use multimedia analytics to observe the time series changes of human inverted pendulum structure, and construct a spatio-temporal evolution map of human posture movement. Finally, based on the integrated results of computer vision and multimedia analytics, we reveal the visual characteristics of the spatio-temporal evolution of human posture under the potentially unstable state, and explore two key features of human fall behavior: motion rotational energy and generalized force of motion. The experimental results in actual scenes show that the method has strong robustness, wide universality, and high detection accuracy.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9121894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071922

RESUMO

Background: Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) has strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidative stress, and antiapoptotic properties. The study focused on the protection of HRS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rat models and the relationship with autophagic regulation and mTOR/TFEB signaling pathway. Material and Methods. The LPS-induced ALI rats' model was established. Pathohistological change in lung tissue was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The inflammatory cytokines were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The key apoptosis proteins and autophagy-relevant proteins were analyzed by western blotting. In vitro, HPMEC models of ALI were treated with LPS. The inflammatory cytokines were detected. Apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry. The autophagy and mTOR/TFEB signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Results: HRS attenuated LPS-induced ALI and apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. HRS attenuated inflammatory response, inhibited apoptosis, induced and activated autophagy in LPS-induced ALI model, and downregulated mTOR/TFEB signaling pathway. The protection of HRS can be blocked by autophagy inhibitor. Moreover, mTOR activator reversed HRS protection and mTOR inhibitor enhanced HRS protection in LPS-induced model and HRS activated autophagy via mTOR/TFEB signaling pathway. Conclusion: The results confirmed the protection of HRS in LPS-induced ALI by regulating apoptosis through inhibiting the mTOR/TFEB signaling pathway.

10.
Stem Cells Dev ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070222

RESUMO

Bone defect regeneration is a complex process that involves the coordination of a variety of different type of cells. As bone tissues are innervated and rich in nerve fibers, the neuropeptides released from various never fibers could regulate bone development, metabolism and remodeling. Among all the neuropeptides, Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) could modulate the functions of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and may play a vital role in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) osteogenesis during bone repair. In present study, we investigated the role of VIP in bone formation and the mechanisms of VIP in mediating BMSCs osteogenic differentiation, as well as its possibility in clinical application of bone defect reconstruction. Our in vitro study results indicated that VIP promoted BMSCs osteogenic differentiation by activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in BMSCs. VIP could also stimulate tube formation of EA.hy926 endothelial cell and increase VEGF expression in BMSCs. Furthermore, in the rat skull defect model, VIP-conjugated functionalized hydrogel significantly enhanced cranial bone defect repair comparing to the control group, with increased bone formation and angiogenesis. Taken together, as a member of neuropeptides, VIP could promote the BMSCs osteogenesis and angiogenesis differentiation in vitro and stimulate bone repair in vivo by activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. The knowledge obtained from this study emphasized the close association between innervation and bone repair process, and VIP may be a potential therapeutic agent for augmenting bone repair.

11.
Allergy ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been widely spread. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristic and allergy status of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Electronical medical records including demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data and radiological materials of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with confirmed result of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection were extracted and analysed. RESULTS: An approximately 1:1 ratio of male (50.7%) and female COVID-19 patients was found, with an overall median age of 57.0 years. All patients were community acquired cases. Fever (91.7%), cough (75.0%), fatigue (75.0%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (39.6%) were the most common clinical manifestations, whereas hypertension (30.0%) and diabetes mellitus (12.1%) were the most common comorbidities. Drug hypersensitivity (11.4%) and urticaria (1.4%) were self-reported by several patients. Asthma or other allergic diseases was not reported by any of the patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 1.4%) and current smokers (1.4%) were rare. Bilateral ground glass or patchy opacity (89.6%) were the most common signs of radiological finding. Lymphopenia (75.4%) and eosinopenia (52.9%) were observed in most patients. Blood eosinophil counts correlate positively with lymphocyte counts in severe (r=0.486, p<0.001) and non-severe (r=0.469, p<0.001) patients after hospital admission. Significantly higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were associated with severe patients compared to non-severe patients (all p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 cases suggest eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma and COPD are not risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elder age, high number of comorbidities and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients.

12.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Iodine is one of the most important trace elements in the human body. It is not only the main component of thyroid hormones but also has extrathyroid biological functions. To date, there have been no large-scale epidemiological studies on the relationship between hyperuricemia and iodine intake, although both are closely related to health. A population-based epidemiological survey in China offers such an opportunity. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study recruited 75,653 adults aged ≥ 18 years from 2015 to 2017 with a randomized, multistage, stratified sampling strategy. Serum uric acid levels and urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) were measured. RESULTS: Stratified by UIC, the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 17.8%, 18.8%, 16.0% and 13.7% in the UIC < 100, 100-199, 200-299, and ≥ 300 µg/L groups, respectively; the prevalence of gout was 4.0%, 3.4%, 2.4% and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of gout decreased significantly as the UIC increased. The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout were markedly higher in postmenopausal females than in the premenopausal population (hyperuricemia: 15.9% vs. 8.3%, X2 = 520.072, p < 0.001; gout: 3.6% vs. 1.3%, X2 = 219.889, p < 0.001), and the prevalence decreased as the UIC increased. Subjects in the more than adequate and excessive iodine groups had lower likelihoods of having hyperuricemia [aOR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.77-0.85), aOR = 0.68 (95% CI 0.64-0.72)] and lower odds of having gout than subjects in the adequate iodine (AI) group [aOR = 0.77 (95% CI 0.68-0.86), aOR = 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.68)]. CONCLUSIONS: UIC was inversely associated with the occurrence of hyperuricemia and gout. More in-depth research and prospective studies are needed to explore the molecular mechanisms and confirm the observed association.

14.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068972

RESUMO

Electrocatalyst supports, in particular carbonaceous materials, play critical roles in the electro-catalytic activity and stability of precious metal group (PMG)-based catalysts such as Pt, Pd and Au for the electrochemical alcohol oxidation reaction (AOR) of fuels such as methanol and ethanol in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Carbonaceous supports such as high surface area carbon provide electronic contact throughout the catalyst layer, isolate PMG nanoparticles (NPs) to maintain the high electrochemical surface area, and provide hydrophobic properties to avoid the flooding of the catalyst layer by liquid water produced. Compared to high surface area carbon, PMG catalysts supported on 1D and 2D carbon materials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes show enhanced activity and durability due to the intrinsic effect of underlying carbonaceous supports on the electronic states of PMG NPs. The modification of the electronic environment in particular the d-band centers of PMG NPs weakens the adsorption of AOR intermediates and facilitates the breaking of the C-C bonds, thus enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of PMG catalysts. The doping of heteroatoms further facilitates the electrocatalytic activity for the AOR via the structural, bifunctional and electronic effect, in addition to the enhanced dispersion of PMG NPs in the carbon support. The prospect of the development of effective PMG-based catalysts for the high performance alcohol fuels-based PEMFCs is discussed.

15.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126127, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074498

RESUMO

In this study, high concentration of H2S (i.e., 5000 ppmv) in biogas was effectively removed by a slightly alkaline biotricking filter (BTF) with Polypropylene rings as packing material and oxygen from air as the electron acceptor. The results showed that when the inlet loading of H2S increased from 101.7 to 422.0 g/m3/h, the removal efficiency of H2S decreased from 100.0% to 91.4%, and the maximum elimination capacity (EC) was 386.0 ± 10.5 gH2S/m3/h when empty bed retention time (EBRT) was 1.0 min. The slightly alkaline condition could increase the mass transfer of H2S from gas to liquid phase and avoid the toxic effect of high concentration of H2S, resulting in high removal performance of H2S in the system. With the increase of H2S inlet loading, the ratio of SO42- in bio-desulfurization products gradually decreased, while that of S0 increased. At 101.7-210.7 gH2S/m3/h of inlet loading, SO42- was the dominant product with the ratio of above 50.00%, while S0 became the dominant product with 62.96% at 422.0 gH2S/m3/h of inlet loading. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that the dominant genus in the BTF was sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), with the abundance of SOB decreased with the increase of inlet loading. The dominant genus were Pseudomonas, Halothiobacillus and Sulfurimonas in the BTF at 101.7, 139.8 and 210.7 gH2S/m3/h of inlet loading, respectively. The SOB Sulfurimonas might play an important role for bio-desulfurization of high concentration of H2S in a slightly alkaline BTF under high inlet loading of H2S.

16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 310-320, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081327

RESUMO

Simulated photo-degradation of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in Lake Baihua (BH) and Lake Hongfeng (HF) was investigated with three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence combined with the fluorescence regional integration (FRI), parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis, and multi-order kinetic models. In the FRI analysis, fulvic-like and humic-like materials were the main constituents for both BH-FDOM and HF-FDOM. Four individual components were identified by use of PARAFAC analysis as humic-like components (C1), fulvic-like components (C2), protein-like components (C3) and unidentified components (C4). The maximum 3DEEM fluorescence intensity of PARAFAC components C1-C3 decreased by about 60%, 70% and 90%, respectively after photo-degradation. The multi-order kinetic model was acceptable to represent the photo-degradation of FDOM with correlation coefficient (Radj2) (0.963-0.998). The photo-degradation rate constants (kn) showed differences of three orders of magnitude, from 1.09 × 10-6 to 4.02 × 10-4 min-1, and half-life of multi-order model ( T1/2n) ranged from 5.26 to 64.01 min. The decreased values of fluorescence index (FI) and biogenic index (BI), the fact that of percent fluorescence response parameter of Region I (PI,n) showed the greatest change ratio, followed by percent fluorescence response parameter of Region II (PII,n), while the largest decrease ratio was found for C3 components, and the lowest T1/2n was observed for C3, indicated preferential degradation of protein-like materials/components derived from biological sources during photo-degradation. This research on the degradation of FDOM by 3DEEM/FRI-PARAFAC would be beneficial to understanding the photo-degradation of FDOM in natural environments and accurately predicting the environmental behaviors of contaminants in the presence of FDOM.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083263

RESUMO

Opening up a band gap without lowering high carrier mobility in germanene and finding suitable substrate materials to form van der Waals heterostructures have recently emerged as an intriguing way of designing a new type of electronic devices. By using first-principles calculations, here, we systematically investigate the effect of the GaGeTe substrate on the electronic properties of monolayer germanene. Linear dichroism of the Dirac-cone like band dispersion and higher carrier mobility (9.7 × 103 cm2 V-1 s-1) in the Ge/GaGeTe heterostructure (HTS) are found to be preserved compared to that of free-standing germanene. Remarkably, the band structure of HTS can be flexibly modulated by applying bias voltage or strain. A prototype data storage device FET based on Ge/GaGeTe HTS is proposed, which presents a promising high performance platform with a tunable band gap and high carrier mobility.

18.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083843

RESUMO

Mixed-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials have exhibited great potential in nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. In this study, we present a vertical point p-n junction (VPpnJ), in which a vertical stacked molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/ tungsten diselenide (WSe2) p-n junction is sandwiched between two cross-stacked metallic carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The device can be transformed from p-n junction to n-n junction via gate modulation. As a photodetector, the VPpnJ device can work in three different modes by setting the appropriate gating voltages. The photosensitive areas are localized around the top CNT, bottom CNT and the cross point at VG = -10 V, 10 V and ~0 V, respectively. In the p-n regime at the negative gate voltage, the VPpnJ device showed an obvious photovoltaic effect. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the VPpnJ can reach 42.7%. The electrical control of the electronic and optoelectronic characteristics can be mainly attributed to the gate tunable interfacial built-in electric fields in the heterostructures. The progress also reveals the functional diversity of such 1D/2D mixed-dimensional heterostructures, which will be prospects for future nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics.

19.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086756

RESUMO

The incidence of diabetes in women of childbearing age has been increasing recently and implantation failure and early abortion are important reasons for infertility in diabetic women. Glycogen synthesis and decomposition are the cores of glucose homeostasis in endometrium and AMPK is activated when cellular energy consumption increases. Embryo implantation is a complex process required huge energy. Yet the changes of glucose metabolism in endometrium and its impact on embryo implantation in diabetic women are still unclear. In this research, we established diabetic pregnancy mice model by intraperitoneal injecting streptozotocin on pregnant day 1. We first tested the changes of endometrial glucose homeostasis and embryo implantation. Next, we demonstrated abnormal activation of AMPK in the endometrium of diabetic mice and its affecting endometrial glucose homeostasis. Finally, we compared the endometrial glucose homeostasis and embryo implantation outcome in diabetic pregnant mice treated with insulin or insulin combined with metformin. The results indicated that there was disturbed glucose homeostasis associated with excessive activation of AMPK in endometrium of diabetic pregnant mice. AMPK inhibitor improved the over-activation of AMPK pathway in the endometrium, meanwhile, partially corrected the abnormal glycogen metabolism and improved the implantation. Insulin improved the disorder of endometrial glucose homeostasis and implantation of diabetic mice. Our research explores the causes of high abortion and infertility rate in diabetic women which is to provide a therapeutic reference for patients with diabetes complicated with infertility and early abortion.

20.
Cancer Lett ; 476: 67-74, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061752

RESUMO

Drug resistance is a big problem in cancer treatment and one of the most prominent mechanisms underlain is overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, particularly ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Inhibition of ABC transporters is an important approach to overcome drug resistance. The inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), an arm of unfolded protein response (UPR), splices XBP1 mRNA to generate an active transcription factor XBP1s. UPR is implicated in drug resistance. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We found that the anticancer drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) activated the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway to induce the expression of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in colon cancer cells. Inhibition of IRE1α RNase activity with small molecule 4µ8c suppressed the drug-induced expression of these ABC transporters and sensitized 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells to drug treatment. In vivo xenograft assay indicates that administration of 4µ8C substantially enhanced the efficacy of 5-FU chemotherapy on 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells. These results suggest that IRE1α-targeting might be a strategy to cope with drug resistance of colon cancer.

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