Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.878
Filtrar
1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112225, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509781

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Our previous research found that Sangguayin (SGY) deccoction made by four dietary and medicinal plant components (Leaf of Morus alba L., Root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi., Root of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. and Fruit of Momordica charantia L.) showed significant anti-diabetic effects on db/db mice and high fat diet induced obese mice. Nevertheless, it remained unclear what the role of gut microbiota in the hypoglycaemia effects of SGY. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to examine the beneficial effects of Sangguayin Deccoction against metabolic syndrome and and its regulating role in gut microbiota and hepatic metabolome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were divided to a normal chow diet (NCD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet with Sangguayin Decoction (HFD-SGY, oral dose of 250 mg/kg/d) for 16 weeks. Next generation sequencing was applied for analyzing the gut microbial community of colonic contents. Further, untargeted metabolomic analysis based on LC-MS was used for determining the changes of hepatic metabolites. Hepatic genes expression were measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: SGY supplement decreased blood glucose level and glucose intolerance. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed that SGY increased Verrucomicrobia phylum, resulting in a bloom of Akkermansia, and eventually upregulated the contents of Lachoclostridium and Roseburia. Additionally, dietary SGY decreased bacteria including Faecalibaculum, and Blautia. Moreover, the hepatic lipid metabolism was notably altered by SGY treatment. The oxidation of glutamione metabolism idecreasees, production of poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) got significant increase in liver tissue. The reversion of PUFA metabolism by SGY may act through PPARα mediated Fads1 and Fads2 gene expression. The altered metabolites in liver showed intimate correlatship with modified genera. CONCLUSION: Data indicated that SGY reshaped gut microbial structure and improved PUFA metabolism. These functions of SGY may alter hepatic lipid metabolism, conferring preventative effects against high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome.

2.
Water Res ; 168: 115154, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630020

RESUMO

Pyrrhotite is often considered as a gangue mineral, and discarded in mine wastes and tailings. Glyphosate and fertilizer, often excessively used in agriculture, flow into water bodies with agriculture runoff, and cause pollution of water bodies. In this study, the pyrrhotite was used as a substrate in a pilot constructed wetland (CW) to remove the glyphosate and nutrients from simulated agriculture runoff. In nearly one year, the pilot pyrrhotite constructed wetland (Pyrr-CW) removed 90.3 ±â€¯6.1% of glyphosate, 88.2 ±â€¯5.1 of total phosphorus (TP) and 60.40 ±â€¯5.60% of total nitrogen (TN) on average, much higher than the control CW. The abundances of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Sulfurifustis, Sulfuriferula and Thiobacillus, were much higher in the Pyrr-CW than those in the control CW. In the Pyrr-CW goethite was produced by pyrrhotite aerobic oxidation (PAO) and pyrrhotite autotrophic denitrification (PAD) continuously and spontaneously. Higher glyphosate and TP removals were resulted from adsorption on the goethite produced, and higher TN removal was attributed to the PAD. High glyphosate and nutrients removal could keep a long term until the pyrrhotite in the Pyrr-CW was used up. The phosphorus (P) sequestered in the Pyrr-CW existed mainly in organic P, (Fe + Al)P and (Ca + Mg)P, and their order was (Fe + Al)P > organic P > (Ca + Mg)P. No heavy metal ions released from the Pyrr-CW. With higher and lasting removal rate, and lower cost, the Pyrr-CW is a promising technology for simultaneous glyphosate and nutrients removal from agricultural runoff and wastewater.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Áreas Alagadas , Agricultura , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
3.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 29: 72-84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283505

RESUMO

Single image dehazing is a critical image pre-processing step for subsequent high-level computer vision tasks. However, it remains challenging due to its ill-posed nature. Existing dehazing models tend to suffer from model overcomplexity and computational inefficiency or have limited representation capacity. To tackle these challenges, here, we propose a fast and accurate multi-scale end-to-end dehazing network, called FAMED-Net, which comprises encoders at three scales and a fusion module to efficiently and directly learn the haze-free image. Each encoder consists of cascaded and densely connected point-wise convolutional layers and pooling layers. Since no larger convolutional kernels are used and features are reused layer-by-layer, FAMED-Net is lightweight and computationally efficient. Thorough empirical studies on public synthetic datasets (including RESIDE) and real-world hazy images demonstrate the superiority of FAMED-Net over other representative state-of-the-art models with respect to model complexity, computational efficiency, restoration accuracy, and cross-set generalization. The code will be made publicly available.

4.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 29: 157-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329119

RESUMO

Many existing non-local means (NLM) methods either use Euclidean distance to measure the similarity between patches, or compute weight ωij only once and keep it unchanged during the subsequent denoising iterations, or use only the structure information of the denoised image to update weight ωij . These may lead to the limited denoising performance. To address these issues, this paper proposes the non-local adaptive means (NLAM) for image denoising. NLAM treats weight ωij as an optimization variable and iteratively updates its value. We then introduce three unbiased distances, namely, pixel-pixel, patch-patch, and coupled unbiased distances. These unbiased distances are more robust to measure the image pixel/patch similarity than Euclidean distance. Using the coupled unbiased distance, we propose the unbiased distance non-local adaptive means (UD-NLAM). Because UD-NLAM uses only a single patch size to compute weight ωij , we introduce multipatch UD-NLAM (MUD-NLAM) to adapt different noise levels. To further improve denoising performance, we then propose a new denoising method called MUD-NLAM with wavelet shrinkage (MUD-NLAM-WS). Experimental results show that the proposed NLAM, UD-NLAM, and MUD-NLAM outperform existing NLM methods, and MUD-NLAM-WS achieves a better performance than the state-of-the-art denoising methods.

5.
Talanta ; 207: 120298, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594629

RESUMO

The detection of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from cancer cells with sensitive and selective methods has stimulated increasing interest due to its potential utility in the application of tumor diagnosis. Here, we developed a ratiometric electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified "Y" shape-like structure for the detection of exosomal miRNA-21 (miR-21). When miR-21 is present, the LNA-assisted strand displacement reaction on the "Y" shape-like structure is activated, leading to a structure change and augmentation of the signal ratio, which reflects the different distances between the electrode surface and two electroactive molecules labeled on the "Y" shape-like structure. With this dual signal ratiometric method, the biosensor shows high accuracy and sensitivity with a limit of detection as low as 2.3 fM. Moreover, because of the logarithm of the signal ratio displays a linear relationship with the logarithm of the miR-21 concentration, the biosensor is stable enough to be used in the detection of miR-21 in MCF-7 cell-derived exosomes. In addition, the biosensor shows good selectivity even in the detection of even a single base-mismatched target due to the LNA-assisted strand displacement reaction. Notably, the sensor is both regenerative and robust. In brief, the high sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the low cost of the glassy carbon electrode, make this biosensor a promising tool for the development of point-of-care testing in cancer.

6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117463, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421349

RESUMO

Real-time process quality control of ramulus cinnamomi (cassia twig) is still a challenge in pharmaceutical industry. Rapid critical quality attribute (CQA) determination of ramulus cinnamomi is essential for quality control. Microscale thermophoresis (MST) was used to investigate the CQA of ramulus cinnamomi by the interaction with biomacromolecule. There was a good affinity between cinnamaldehyde and human serum albumin (HSA) with Ka as 2.1722×103mol/L. It was an excellent combination of similarity to ibuprofen with same binding force as discovered as hydrogen bond and van der Waals force. Furthermore, regarding cinnamaldehyde as CQA, on-line near-infrared was used to monitor pilot extraction process of ramulus cinnamomi combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantitative model was established with Rpre2 as 0.9798 and RMSECV as 0.0993, suggesting the NIR model was so robust and accurate for pilot process quality control. This method provided a perfect guideline for rapid CQA determination and real-time process quality control of Chinese materia medica (CMM) based on a vital CQA.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 302-313, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metformin, a first-line antiglycemic drug, has been reported to have anti-depressant effects in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, its exact role and underlying mechanism still need to be investigated. METHOD: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to the Chronic social defeat stress (SDS) and drug administration (Control + Vehicle, SDS + Vehicle, SDS + MET (200 mg kg-1), SDS + FLUOX (3 mg kg-1), SDS + MET + FLUOX). And the depression phenotypes were evaluated by the sucrose preference test, social interaction, tail suspension test and forced swimming test. The potential mechanisms underlying the effects of metformin on depression was discussed by using Chromatin immunoprecipitation, Quantitative real-time PCR mRNA expression analysis and Western blot in vivo and in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. RESULT: The metformin treatment counteracted the development of depression-like behaviors in mice suffering SDS when administered alone and enhanced the anti-depressant effect of fluoxetine when combined with fluoxetine. Further RNA sequencing analysis revealed that metformin treatment prevented the transcriptional changes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the animals and Golgi staining indicated favorable morphological changes in the neurite plasticity of CA1 pyramidal neurons, which approximated to those found in unstressed mice. At a molecular level, metformin significantly upregulated the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by increasing the histone acetylation along with the BDNF promoter, which was attributed to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that metformin can produce antidepressant effects, which provides empirical insights into the clinical value of metformin in the prevention and therapy of depression.

8.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104588, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dental occlusion are frequently changed in clinic. Molecular responses in jaw muscles to aberrant dental occlusion are changes are attractive, yet remain are obscure. DESIGN: Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) prostheses were applied to Sprague-Dawley rats and then ceased after two weeks to detect the reactions of the masseter, a representative jaw elevator, and the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM), a representative jaw depressor. RESULTS: Two weeks of UAC elicited mild injury of the two muscles. Myogenesis and protective reactions were detected as increases in αB-crystallin expression in the masseter after 3 days and in the LPM after 2 weeks, and increases in desmin expression in both muscles after 2 weeks. A switch in fibre types from IIb to IIx occurred in the LPM but not in the masseter. Inflammatory responses, shown by the infiltration of inflammatory cells and increases in TNF-α mRNA expression, and fibrosis responses, shown by increased mRNA expression of Type I and III collagens, appeared very mild in the two muscles. These responses were partially recovered by the cessation of UAC. During the whole process, no obvious changes were observed in mitochondrial function, as indicated by the levels of proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, mitofusin-2 and voltage-dependent anion channel. CONCLUSIONS: UAC causes injury and very limited inflammatory and fibrosis adaption in the masseter and LPM. Both muscles respond with myogenesis and protective activity. The LPM responds also with muscle fibre isoform alternations. These alterations were partially recovered by the cessation of dental stimulation at an early stage.

9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(8): 085403, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693999

RESUMO

Tungsten (W) oxides have shown broad applications such as photocatalyst and cathode of lithium ion batteries. It is well-known that pressure can induce structural phase transition, producing novel properties. On the other hand, the study of W oxides under high pressures is beneficial for the control of the oxygen fugacity. In this work, we built the high-pressure phase diagram of W-O binary compounds through first-principles swarm-intelligence structural search calculations. WO2 and WO3 are stable in the whole considered pressure range from 0 to 300 GPa. Besides reproducing the known structures, we identify two new phases of WO2 (e.g. C2/m and Cmca) and three ones for WO3 (e.g. Pnma, Cmcm, and Pm-3n), associating with the evolution of polyhedron (i.e. octahedron → distorted octahedron for WO2, and octahedron → hendecahedron → tetradecahedron → icosahedron for WO3). More interestingly, the Pm-3n-structured WO3 shows the highest coordination number of 12. Electron structure calculations indicate that pressure-induced nonmetal → metal transition occurs for WO2 and WO3. Our study provides an opportunity to understand the structures and electronic properties of W-O system under high pressure.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121113, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479827

RESUMO

Copper ion (Cu (II)) pollution has attracted much attention due to its remarkable toxic domino effect at excess amount. Efficient Cu (II) ions removal is thus a prerequisite for wastewater recycling. Herein, we present a facile and environmentally benign strategy to fabricate thiol (SH)-functionalized Fe3O4@C nanoparticles (denoted as Fe3O4@C-SH NPs) based on one-step self-assembling of a bifunctional oligopeptide with a sequence of Cys-Lys-Cys-Lys-Cys-Lys (CK-VI) for highly efficient removal of copper ions (Cu (II)) in aqueous solutions. Under the physiological conditions, CK-VI readily self-organized into a robust and tailor-made functional monolayer predominately composed of well-packed ß-sheets on the surface of Fe3O4@C NPs with their thiol groups standing on the outermost layer. The resulting Fe3O4@C-SH NPs containing abundant thiol active sites exhibited excellent adsorption capacity (up to 28.8 mg g-1) and selectivity for Cu (II) ions over coexisting ions. Compared with other covalent grafting methods with multistep processes and in harsh conditions, the proposed oligopeptides assembly-based coating method makes it possible to rapidly fabricate the Fe3O4@C-SH NPs in a simple mild one-step aqueous process with low cost. The current study provides facile and environmentally friendly approaches to rapidly tailor multifunctional surfaces of NPs for various toxic metal ions removal from wastewater.

11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112837, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493746

RESUMO

The ambiguity of dose-effect relationship of many traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) has always influenced their rational use in TCM clinic. Rhubarb, a preferred representative of cathartic TCM, is currently widely used that results in a diversity of its dosage. The aim of this study was to use an integrated metabolomics strategy to simultaneously reveal dose-effect relationship and therapeutic mechanisms of different efficacy of rhubarb in constipation rats. Six doses of rhubarb (0.135, 0.27, 0.81, 1.35, 4.05, and 8.1 g/kg) were examined to elucidate the laxative and fire-purging effects by pathological sections and UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE. The results showed that there existed serious lesions in the stomach and colon of model rats. And conditions were basically improved to some extent in rhubarb-treated groups. Through relative distance calculation based on metabolomics score plots, it suggested that the effective dose threshold (EC20-EC80 range) of rhubarb was from 0.31 to 4.5 g/kg (corresponding to 3.44-50.00 g in the clinic) in rat serum and 0.29-2.1 g/kg (corresponding to 3.22-23.33 g in the clinic) in feces. Then, 33 potential biomarkers were identified in total. Functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations of these biomarkers were associated with 15 metabolic pathways, mainly including arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, primary bile acid biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism. Of note, different doses of rhubarb could alleviate endogenous disorders to varying degrees through regulating multiple perturbed pathways to the normal state, which might be in a dose-dependent manner and involved in therapeutic mechanisms. To sum up, integrated serum and fecal metabolomics obtained that rhubarb ranging from 0.31 to 2.1 g/kg is safe and effective for constipation treatment. Also, our findings showed that the robust metabolomics techniques would be promising to be more accurately used in the dose-effect studies of complex TCM, and to clarify syndrome pathogenesis and action mechanisms in Chinese medicine.

12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112873, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539711

RESUMO

A rapid, sensitive and convenient analytical method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTRAP®/MS2) was proposed for the simultaneous determination of characteristic alkaline and acidic components covering many structure types including alkaloids, phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids in Leonurus japonicus Houtt. (LJ). The proposed method was first reported and validated by assessing the matrix effects, linearity, limit of detections, limit of quantifications, precision, repeatability, stability and recovery of target components. The developed UPLC-QTRAP®/MS2 was successfully applied to simultaneously determine all target compounds in 38 batches of LJ from 11 different producing regions in China and five organs (including root, caulis, branch, flower and leaf) of LJ from the same stand planting base in Jiangsu Province (China). The result showed that LJ in different regions with different geographical position would affect the accumulation of different compounds, and the significant discrepancies of some target compounds were also observed in different organs of LJ due to different biosynthetic pathway and enzymes in different organs. Furthermore, both hierarchical clustering analysis and principal components analysis were performed to classify the 38 batches of LJ samples from different producing regions on the basis of target compounds. As a result, the samples could be mainly clustered into different groups, which were similar with areas classification. Overall, the presented method would be helpful for the comprehensive utilization and development of LJ resources.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1274-1286, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264214

RESUMO

This study is launched to investigate the effect of lentivirus-mediated microRNA-26a (miR-26a)-modified neural stem cells (NSCs) in brain injury in rats with cerebral palsy (CP). The successfully constructed miR-26a lentivirus expression vector and empty vector virus were used to modify NSCs. The model of CP with ischemia and anoxia was established in rats. NSCs and miR-26a-NSCs were stereoscopically injected into the cerebral cortex of the modeled rats, respectively. The survival and migration of NSCs infected with recombinant lentivirus expressing green fluorescence in vivo was observed under a light microscope. The neurobehavioral functions, morphology, and ultrastructure of cerebral cortex and hippocampus, apoptosis of brain cells, expression of apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 and Bax, together with the expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were determined. Expression of miR-26a in NSCs infected with plVTHM-miR-26a increased significantly. After NSCs transplantation, the neurobehavioral status of CP rats was improved, the degree of brain pathological injury was alleviated, the apoptotic index of cells in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and the expression of the apoptotic protein (caspase-3 and Bax) were decreased, the expression of GFAP were significantly decreased. After miR-26a-NSCs transplantation, these aforementioned results further improved or decreased. Our study suggests that miR-26a-modified NSCs mediated by lentivirus can improve brain injury, inhibit apoptosis of brain cells and activation of astrocytes in CP rats.

14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 559: 29-38, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606524

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic halide perovskites solar cells have garnered increasing attention in recent years due to the dramatic rise in power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). In perovskite solar cells (PSCs), selecting appropriate hole transport materials to insert between perovskite layer and electrodes can improve Schottky contact, facilitate the hole transport, therefore reduce charge recombination, and therefore improve cell performance. Doping of metal cation is an effective means to regulate energy level structure and change its conductivity. In this study, we novelly introduce the Pb2+ doped NiOx as the hole transport materials to decrease the energy loss between NiOx and the perovskite layer, which improves open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the PSCs. In order to improve the conductivity of the NiOx film, the Li+ co-doping is introduced. We introduce Pb and Li co-doping strategy to match the work function of doped NiOx with perovskite valence band energy level, and increase the conductivity of NiOx for high-efficiency inverted planar PSCs. The Pb and Li co-doped NiOx devices exhibit efficient hole extraction and enhanced conductivity, which improve the performance of inverted planar PSCs to 17.02% compared with 15.40% of the undoped device.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4977, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672970

RESUMO

Metal-support interaction is of great significance for catalysis as it can induce charge transfer between metal and support, tame electronic structure of supported metals, impact adsorption energy of reaction intermediates, and eventually change the catalytic performance. Here, we report the metal size-dependent charge transfer reversal, that is, electrons transfer from platinum single atoms to sulfur-doped carbons and the carbon supports conversely donate electrons to Pt when their size is expanded to ~1.5 nm cluster. The electron-enriched Pt nanoclusters are far more active than electron-deficient Pt single atoms for catalyzing hydrogen evolution reaction, exhibiting only 11 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm-2 and a high mass activity of 26.1 A mg-1 at 20 mV, which is 38 times greater than that of commercial Pt/C. Our work manifests that the manipulation of metal size-dependent charge transfer between metal and support opens new avenues for developing high-active catalysts.

16.
Pharmazie ; 74(10): 577-582, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685080

RESUMO

In this study, micelles were designed to deliver an antitumor agent and a fluorescent marker to a tumor site. The micelles simultaneously encapsulated epirubicin (EPI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified graphene quantum dots (GQDs-PEG), and employed a PEG-polylactic acid block copolymer amphiphilic block polymer as a nanocarrier. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the functional groups in the synthesized GQDs-PEG. A Malvern particle size meter and transmission electron microscopy were used to show that the particle size of the GQDs-PEG is approximately 2-9 nm, and that of the bifunctional EPI-loaded micelles (EPI-FIDCR) is 19.59±1.21 nm, with zeta potential at -22.87±0.85 mV. The EE% and DL% for EPI in EPI-FIDCR are 74.02±0.55 % and 3.78±0.28 %, respectively. The IC50 values of EPI-FIDCR and EPI solution (EPI-Free) for tumor cells were 7.03 µg/mL and 5.54 µg/mL, showing that EPI-FIDCR still maintained strong cytotoxicity. Fluorescence micrographs of HeLa cells incubated with GQDs-PEG and EPI-FIDCR for 6 h, respectively, show that only EPI-FIDCR could enter the cells. In vitro cellular uptake assays and an inhibition study indicated that EPI-FIDCR could deliver both EPI and GQDs-PEG into tumor cells, while maintaining an inhibitory effect similar to that of unencapsulated EPI. A pharmacokinetic study showed that EPI-FIDCR could persist in the circulation for a significant period of time. The AUC0→t calculated for the EPI-FIDCR formulation was 159.5-fold compared with that of EPI-Free, based on its improved stability and prolonged blood circulation time. The EPI-FIDCR enables both fluorescence imaging and controlled drug-release, exhibits prolonged systematic circulation time and has potential for the treatment of cancer.

17.
Dermatitis ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no reported cases of 2,4-dichloro-5-methylpyrimidine (DCP)-induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to summarize the clinical features, treatment, and protective measures for DCP-induced ICD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data from 64 patients with DCP-induced ICD and the protective measures in a DCP manufacturing factory. RESULTS: Disease onset occurred 1 to 10 minutes after DCP single exposure in all 64 patients. The contact site developed edematous erythematous skin lesions with clear boundaries. Other symptoms included a burning sensation (n = 48), pruritus (n = 16), headache (n = 4), nausea/vomiting (n = 3), and syncope (n = 1). Ten patients developed pruritic rash over the whole body 1 to 4 days after contacting DCP. Histopathologic examination of the lesions was performed in 8 patients; all 8 showed manifestations of ICD. A patch test with 1% DCP ethanol solution was performed in 7 patients. One patient withdrew because of pruritus and massive erythema over the whole body. Four patients had a strong reaction, and 2 patients had a very strong reaction. All patients were cured. Positive-pressure inflatable protective clothing protected workers from the outside environment to prevent DCP-induced ICD. CONCLUSIONS: 2,4-Dichloro-5-methylpyrimidine exposure induces acute ICD and a delayed allergic reaction in some patients (15.6%). Positive-pressure inflatable protective clothing prevents DCP-induced ICD.

18.
Arch Anim Nutr ; : 1-14, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718315

RESUMO

The study evaluated the effects of soybean oil (SO) and dietary copper levels on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, enzyme activity, microflora and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Eight Holstein rumen-cannulated bulls (14 ± 0.2 months of age and 326 ± 8.9 kg of body weight) were allocated into a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with factors being 0 or 40 g/kg dietary dry matter (DM) of SO and 0 or 7.68 mg/kg DM of Cu from copper sulphate (CS). The basal diet contained per kg DM 500 g of corn silage, 500 g of concentrate, 28 g of ether extract (EE) and 7.5 mg of Cu. The SO × CS interaction was significant (p < 0.05) for ruminal propionate proportion and acetate to propionate ratio. Dietary SO addition increased (p < 0.05) intake and total tract digestibility of EE but did not affect average daily gain (ADG) of bulls. Dietary CS addition did not affect nutrient intake but increased (p < 0.05) ADG and total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre. Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments. Dietary SO addition did not affect ruminal total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, decreased (p < 0.05) acetate proportion and ammonia N and increased (p < 0.05) propionate proportion. Dietary CS addition did not affect ammonia N, increased (p < 0.05) total VFA concentration and acetate proportion and decreased (p < 0.05) propionate proportion. Acetate to propionate ratio decreased (p < 0.05) with SO addition and increased (p < 0.05) with CS addition. Dietary SO addition decreased (p < 0.05) activity of carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase and xylanase as well as population of fungi, protozoa, methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens but increased (p < 0.05) α-amylase activity and population of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus. Dietary CS addition increased (p < 0.05) activity of cellulolytic enzyme and protease as well as population of total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, methanogens, primary cellulolytic and proteolytic bacteria. Microbial protein synthesis was unchanged with SO addition but increased (p < 0.05) with CS addition. The results indicated that the addition of CS promoted nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation by stimulating microbial growth and enzyme activity but did not relieve the negative effects of SO addition on ruminal fermentation in dairy bulls.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693945

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metal that is a contaminant in aquatic ecosystems. Cd can accumulate in aquatic animals, leading to detrimental effects in tissues, and Cd exposure can induce immunotoxicity in fish. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in immune responses, yet the participation of miRNAs in Cd-induced immunotoxicity remains poorly understood. The present study evaluated the effects of Cd exposure on the immune responses and the mRNAs and miRNAs expressions of immune-related genes in Cyprinus carpio (C. carpio). Then, microRNA-155 (miR-155) was overexpressed and microRNA-181a (miR-181a) was knocked down to determine which miRNA plays a key role in the immune response to Cd. The results showed that 0.5 mg/L Cd2+ significantly decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidneys of C. carpio. Cd exposure upregulated the mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-8, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR-4) and downregulated those of IL-10 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in C. carpio kidneys. Cd exposure also led to upregulation of miR-155 and miR-181a expressions. Furthermore, AKP and ACP activity in the kidneys was markedly changed after intraperitoneal injection of C. carpio with miR-155 agomir and miR-181a antagomir. All detected mRNA expressions were significantly decreased after injection of miR-155 agomir, and IL-10, NF-κB, TNF-α, and HO-1 mRNA expressions were markedly increased after injection of miR-181a antagomir. The results of this study demonstrate that Cd exposure can immunocompromise C. carpio by targeting HO-1 through miR-155 and miR-181a. This is the first study to reveal that Cd exposure induces immunotoxicity through miR-155 and miR-181a in the kidneys of C. carpio.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA