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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478047

RESUMO

Nail psoriasis is a refractory disease that affects 50-79% skin psoriasis patients and up to 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The pathogenesis of nail psoriasis is still not fully illuminated, although some peculiar inflammatory cytokines and chemokines seems to be the same as described in psoriatic skin lesions. Psoriatic nail involving matrix can cause pitting, leukonychia, red spots in lunula, and nail plate crumbling, while nail bed involvement can result in onycholysis, oil-drop discoloration, nail bed hyperkeratosis, and splinter hemorrhages. The common assessment methods of evaluating nail psoriasis includes Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), Nail Assessment in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (NAPPA), Nail Psoriasis Quality of life 10 (NPQ10), and so on. Treatment of nail psoriasis should be individualized according to the number of involving nail, the affected site of nail and presence of skin and/or joint involvement. Generally, topical therapies are used for mild nail psoriasis, while biologic agents such as etanercept are considered for severe nail disease and refractory nail psoriasis. Even though the current literature has shown some support for the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, or therapies of nail psoriasis, systemic review of this multifaceted disease is still rare to date. We elaborate recent developments in nail psoriasis epidemiology, pathogenesis, anatomy, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and therapies to raise better awareness of the complexity of nail psoriasis and the need for early diagnosis or intervention.

2.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 577: 95-102, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in cancer-related cellular behaviors. Our research aimed to explore the biological functions of lncRNA AL592284.1 (AL592284.1) in cervical cancer (CC). METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed to examine AL592284.1 expressions in cell lines and tumor specimens. To study the roles of AL592284.1 on malignant behaviors in both in vitro and in vivo, Loss-of-function assays were carried out. Besides, bioinformatics prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to reveal the interaction among AL592284.1 and its target genes. The functions of the AL592284.1/miR-30a-5p/Vimentin axis in CC cells was clarified by rescue assays. RESULTS: We observed that the levels of AL592284.1 in CC were distinctly increased. Functional assays revealed that knockdown of AL592284.1 suppressed the proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT progress of CC cells. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-30a-5p/Vimentin regulatory axis is the direct downstream of AL592284.1. Rescue experiments indicated that AL592284.1 induced overexpression of Vimentin via sponging miR-30a-5p, resulting in the promotion of CC progression. CONCLUSION: The present study proves that AL592284.1 plays an tumor-promotive role in CC via regulating the miR-30a-5p/Vimentin axis, and inhibition of AL592284.1 may pave the way for CC treatment.

3.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 332, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study sought to observe the effect of retaining intact posterior capsule in congenital cataract surgery in children aged 4-8 years. METHODS: This is a retrospective case control study. Seventy-seven children (130 eyes) aged from 4 to 8 years who underwent cataract surgery were divided into two groups. In Group A, 50 eyes underwent phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation and posterior capsule capsulotomy combined with anterior vitrectomy. In Group B, 80 eyes underwent cataract phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. The postoperative visual acuity and the rate of complications were compared. RESULTS: In all patients, cataract surgeries were performed evenly without intraoperative complications. The follow-up time ranged from 6 months to 42 months. No apparent visual axis opacity was detected in group A during the follow-up. By the last visit, apparent visual axis opacity was detected in 31 eyes (38.75%) in group B. Among them, 9 eyes (29.03%) with mild posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were treated with Nd:YAG laser, 3 eyes (9.68%) with thick proliferative membranes were treated with posterior capsule capsulotomy combined with anterior vitrectomy and proliferative membranes in 19 eyes (61.29%) were completely aspired and the posterior capsule was retained. During follow-up, only 2 (6.45%) eyes had PCO recurrence and were treated with Nd:YAG laser. The visual acuity was significantly higher than that before surgery in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: For older children, the incidence of PCO will be low even if intact posterior capsule is retained. Either Nd:YAG laser or surgical treatment for PCO will be able to maintain good vision.


Assuntos
Opacificação da Cápsula , Catarata , Cápsula do Cristalino , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Adolescente , Opacificação da Cápsula/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Cápsula do Cristalino/cirurgia , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150166, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517327

RESUMO

Herein, we demonstrated the suitability and effectiveness of utilizing flow-electrode capacitive deionization (FCDI) for treatment of fluoride-contaminated brackish groundwater. By comparing operational modes of short-circuited closed-cycle (SCC), isolated closed-cycle (ICC) and single cycle (SC), it was found that SCC mode was the most advantageous. In SCC configuration, the effects of different parameters on the removal of F- and Cl- were investigated including current density, hydraulic residence time (HRT), activated carbon (AC) loading and feed concentration of coexisting NaCl. Results indicated that the steady-state effluent Cl- concentration dropped with elevated applied current, and the decreasing rate got faster with the increase of HRT or AC loading. However, for the steady-state effluent F- concentration, it dropped to a value under a small applied current and maintained stable in spite of the increase in applied current, and both HRT and AC loading had insignificant effects on the steady-state effluent F- concentration. F- was preferentially removed from the treated water compared with Cl-, and a higher ion selectivity could be obtained at lower applied current and smaller HRT with the trade-off being that operation under these circumstances would generate outlet water with little change in conductivity compared to the influent. The removal efficiencies of F- and Cl- both decreased with increasing feed concentration of coexisting NaCl. This study should be of value in establishing FCDI as a viable technology for treatment of fluoride-contaminated brackish groundwater.

5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113840, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520958

RESUMO

Peptidylarginine deaminase 4 (PAD4) is a crucial post-translational modifying enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into citrulline residues, and mediating the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). PAD4 plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and various tumors. Therefore, PAD4 is considered as a promising drug target for disease diagnosis and treatment. More and more efforts are devoted to developing highly efficient and selective PAD4 inhibitors via high-throughput screening, structure-based drug design and structure-activity relationship study. This article outlined the physiological and pathological functions of PAD4, and corresponding representative small molecule inhibitors reported in recent years.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125870, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523586

RESUMO

A novel strategy based on quorum sense (QS) was proposed to improve the treatment performance of the partial denitrification/Anammox (PD/A) process at high loads by adding immobilized Pseudomonas sp. HFQ8C/N, which could release high concentrations of N-butyryl-DL-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-octanoyl-DL- homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL). The results showed that adding immobilized HFQ8C/N improved the sludge activity and settleability, contributing to higher nitrogen removal efficiency at the high nitrogen loading rate (NLR). It was proved that C4-HSL promoted the abundances of Thauera and Candidatus Kuenenia at NLR 1.68-2.52 kg N/(m3·d), while C10-HSL promoted the abundance of Candidatus Brocadia. Besides, C8-HSL and C10-HSL played different regulation roles in the production of protein (PN) in tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) at different loads, improving the sludge settleability. This study provided a new way to improve the treatment performance of high-load PD/A processes.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10617-10629, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473514

RESUMO

Hydrophilic alkyl polyglycosides (APGs) and alkyl glycosides (AGs) with anomeric pure are a class of important substitutes for petroleum-based surfactants. Improving their water solubility should make such hydrophilic glycosurfactants have more excellent potential application value. To solve the inherent problem of poor water solubility of traditional alkyl ß-d-glucopyranoside (5), a series of alkyltetra(oxyethyl) ß-d-glucopyranosides (4a-4g, n = 7-18) were successfully synthesized by introducing tetra(oxyethylene) fragments to carry out the structural modification. The relationship between the related structure and the physicochemical properties was further investigated, including their hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), water-solubility, foaming performance, emulsification, hygroscopicity, surface activity, and thermotropic/lyotropic liquid crystal phase behavior. The results showed that the water solubility gradually decreased as the alkyl chain length increased due to the gradual decrease of their HLB number. Octadecyltetra(oxyethyl) ß-d-glucopyranoside (4g, n = 18) was found to be insoluble in water at 25 °C. Taken together, long-chain alkyl glycosides had good foaming properties and excellent emulsifying properties. Among them, dodecyltetra(oxyethyl) ß-d-glucopyranoside (4d, n = 12) had the best foaming performance. In the rapeseed oil/water system, cetyltetra(oxyethyl) ß-d-glucopyranoside (4f, n = 16) had the best emulsifying ability. With the increase of the alkyl chain length, the critical micelle concentration (Ccmc), γcmc, Γmax, and hygroscopicity of this series of glycosides showed a downward trend. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM) showed that the thermal stability increased with the increase of the alkyl chain length, and alkyltetra(oxyethyl) ß-d-glucopyranosides (4d-4g, n = 12-18) had the corresponding melting points and clearing points. Alkyltetra(oxyethyl) ß-d-glucopyranosides (4b-4g, n = 8-18) formed a smectic phase with a typical fan-shaped and focal conic texture during the cooling process. In the water contact experiments, it was found that glycosides (4b-4g, n = 8-18) at high concentrations transformed into various lyotropic liquid crystal including hexagonal phase, bicontinuous cubic phase, and lamellar phase phases. Therefore, such green nonionic glycosurfactants alkyltetra(oxyethyl) ß-d-glucopyranosides should have potential practical application prospects.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125729, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492776

RESUMO

Metal sites (Ni, Bi or Ag) were introduced into carbon strengthened expanded graphite (CEG) based photocatalysts, and performed as a novel strategy to enhance the elimination of Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin-LR from water. Results show that metal doping can efficiently improve the adsorption of harmful algae and enhance the photocatalytic activities in inactivation of harmful algae and degradation of MC-LR. Among the CEG catalysts, Ni-CEG can achieve the highest removal rate up to 90.6% for algal cells with 5 h visible light irradiation, while Bi-CEG catalyst provides the best performance for MC-LR degradation with the removal rate of 80.9% in 6 h visible light irradiation. In general, considering the coexistence of algal cells and microcystin-LR, Bi-CEG is proved to be an excellent candidate for the remediation of eutrophicated waters since it can achieve the efficient removal of both harmful algae and MC-LR. DFT calculations indicate that metal doping can transform the photocatalysts into n-type semiconductor, and provide the mid-gap state. In addition, the partial charge density distribution near Fermi level was mainly composed by the metal dopants, which can enhance the interaction with harmful algae and MC-LR.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125893, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492831

RESUMO

Vacuum UV (VUV) technology has attracted much attention because it effectively splits water to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in situ and has the advantages of UV. So far, the synergistic mechanisms, formation pathways and contributions of ROS in VUV/Fe2+/H2O2 process have not been extensively studied. Herein, complete removal (at 4 min) and 63.3% mineralization (at 8 min) of 45 µM norfloxacin (NOR) were achieved at neutral pH by VUV/Fe2+/H2O2 (90 µM Fe2+ and 3 mM H2O2). Compared with its subsystems, VUV/Fe2+/H2O2 can not only increase the pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant of NOR removal by 2.3-14.9 times and increase the mineralization by 20.4-59.4%, but also reduce the residual ratio of H2O2 by 19.9-70.1% and reduce total cost by 20.0-68.0%. The synergy factor of VUV/Fe2+/H2O2 was 3.97, which was attributed to the VUV irradiation promoting iron redox cycle and H2O2 decomposition. Moreover, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical, which were identified as the main ROS, contributed 79.07% and 18.47% to NOR removal, respectively. Degradation pathways of NOR were proposed. Furthermore, effects of coexisting ions and dissolved organic matter were investigated. As an energy-saving and efficient process, the satisfactory results of VUV/Fe2+/H2O2 applied in real waters also highlight its application potential.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125896, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492834

RESUMO

Cork, a porous biomass material, is consist of thin-walled hollow prismatic cells arranged into a compact and orderly honeycomb-like structure and could be applied as an adsorption material. Here, cork-activated carbons (CACs) with a fluffy honeycomb-like structure were synthesized by two-step pyrolysis with solid KOH chemical activation to rapidly and efficiently adsorb methylene blue (MB) (maximum wavelength: 664 nm). The structure, morphology and surface functional groups of the CACs were characterized using BET, SEM, and FTIR analysis. The results show that the CACs have a well-developed hierarchical porous structure and an ultra-high specific surface area of 2864.9 m2/g, which would facilitate the efficient diffusion and adsorption of MB molecules onto CACs. MB adsorption performance results show that the CACs have an outstanding maximum MB adsorption capacity (1103.68 mg/g) and fast adsorption kinetics (800 mg/L, 99.8% in 10 min), indicating that CACs possess significant advantages compared with most other adsorbents previously reported. The adsorption mechanism was studied by various kinetic models, isothermal models and thermodynamic models. Langmuir model is the most adapted to describe the adsorption process, indicating that the MB molecules are uniformly adsorbed on CAC's surface in a single layer. Moreover, MB adsorption by the CACs was an endothermic, spontaneous and randomly increasing adsorption. The regeneration test showed that the uptake of MB onto CACs can still reached 580 mg/g after three adsorption-desorption cycles, demonstrating the excellent reusability of CACs. The continuous adsorption performance of MB onto CACs was evaluated by a packed column test, which further confirmed its potential as an adsorbent for dye wastewater purification.

11.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516632

RESUMO

Mammalian GATA2 gene encodes a dual zinc finger transcription factor, which is essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation in the aorta, gonad, mesonephros (AGM) region, HSC self-renewal, and specification of progenitor cell fates. Previously, we demonstrated that Gata2 expression in AGM is controlled by its intronic +9.5 enhancer. Gata2 +9.5 deficiency removes the E-box motif and the GATA site and depletes fetal liver HSCs. However, whether this enhancer has essential functions to regulate adult hematopoiesis has not been established. Here, we evaluate Gata2 +9.5 enhancer function in adult hematopoiesis. +9.5+/- bone marrow cells displayed reduced T cell reconstitution in a competitive transplant assay. Donor-derived analysis demonstrated a previously unrecognized function of the +9.5 enhancer in T cell development at the lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor stage. Moreover, +9.5+/- adult HSCs displayed increased apoptosis and reduced long-term self-renewal capability in comparison with wild-type (WT) HSCs. These phenotypes were more moderate than those of Gata2+/- HSCs. Consistent with the phenotypic characterization, Gata2 expression in +9.5+/- LSKs was moderately higher than that in Gata2+/- LSKs, but lower than that in WT LSKs. Our data suggest that +9.5 deficiency compromises, without completely abrogating, Gata2 expression in adult HSCs.

12.
J Biol Chem ; : 101190, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517008

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that is highly contagious and pathogenic in domestic pigs with a mortality rate up to 100%. However, how ASFV suppresses JAK-STAT1 signaling to evade the immune response remains unclear. In this study, we found that the ASFV-encoded protein MGF-505-7R inhibited proinflammatory IFN-γ-mediated JAK-STAT1 signaling. Mechanistically, MGF-505-7R was found to interact with JAK1 and JAK2 and mediate their degradation. Further study indicated that MGF-505-7R promoted degradation of JAK1 and JAK2 by upregulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF125 expression, respectively. Consistently, MGF-505-7R-deficient ASFV induced high levels of IRF1 expression and displayed compromised replication both in primary porcine alveolar macrophages and pigs compared with wild-type ASFV. Furthermore, MGF-505-7R deficiency attenuated the virulence of the ASFV and pathogenesis of ASF in pigs. These findings suggest that the JAK-STAT1 axis mediates the innate immune response to the ASFV, and that MGF-505-7R plays a critical role in the virulence of the ASFV and pathogenesis of ASF by antagonizing this axis. Thus, we conclude that deletion of MGF-505-7R may serve as a strategy to develop attenuated vaccines against the ASFV.

13.
Talanta ; 235: 122729, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517597

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer is a malignant disease with dramatically low advanced-stage 10-year survival. Meanwhile, the metabolites in saliva are becoming a wealthy source of disease biomarkers. However, there is a lack of non-invasive analytical methods for the identification of biomarkers in saliva for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Therefore, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) method to simultaneously determine the metabolic levels of 10 amino acids in saliva, aiming to study the amino acid metabolism profile to promote early diagnosis of thyroid cancer. We tested unstimulated whole saliva from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC; n = 61) and healthy controls (HC; n = 61), and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to establish the diagnostic value of potential markers. The method validation results showed good precision, linearity (R2 > 0.99), recovery (92.2 %-110.3 %), intra- and inter-day precision (RSD < 7 % and RSD < 9 %, respectively). The concentration of 10 amino acids was significantly different between PTC and HC in human salivary analysis (P < 0.05), the area under the curve (AUC) values of a single marker for the diagnosis of PTC were ranging from 0.678 to 0.833. A panel of alanine, valine, proline, phenylalanine was selected in combination yielded the AUC of 0.936, which will improve the accuracy of early diagnosis of thyroid cancer (sensitivity: 91.2 %; specificity: 85.2 %). This study proved the possibility of salivary amino acid biomarkers for PTC early diagnosis, providing a simple auxiliary way for the non-invasive diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

14.
Talanta ; 235: 122774, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517632

RESUMO

A method combining magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of aristolochic acids I (AAI) in mouse serum and tissues. The magnetic covalent organic frameworks (MNP@COF)-based MSPE exhibited high adsorption capacity towards AAI (93.1 mg/g) in optimal conditions. After MSPE extraction, AAI was separated with C18 column using gradient elution and quantified (m/z 342.21 â†’ 298.13) by UHPLC-MS/MS with monitor reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This MSPE-based UHPLC-MS/MS method was validated with respected to lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), linearity, recovery, precision and accuracy of intra- and inter-day, and matrix effect. Good calibration linearities at the range of 1-500 ng/L for AAI in biological matrices (serum, kidney, and liver) with high correlation coefficient (R2) > 0.9970, and high enrichment factors (mean values from 1038 to 1045) were obtained. This method was highly sensitive to determine AAI with LLOQ within the range of 4.62-5.24 ng/L in extracted serum, kidney, and liver samples. Recoveries at 5, 50, 100 and 300 ng/L in biological samples ranged from 93.2 to 104.0%, and intra- and inter day accuracy and precision (defined as bias and coefficient of variation, respectively) were below ± 15%. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of biological samples collected from mice exposed with AAI with concentrations range of 0.007-0.041 µg/L for consecutive four days. The established method might be applied for the investigation of risk assessment and toxicity induced by long-time use of AAI-containing herbs or dietary supplements.

15.
Neuroimmunomodulation ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glioma is the most aggressive and malignant type of tumors among primary intracranial tumors. miR-433-3p has been verified to be correlated with the formation and progression of many types of cancers. METHODS: In this study, the effects of miR-433-3p and AJUBA on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma and the molecular mechanisms were investigated. We analyzed bioinformatics databases and conducted cell biology experiments to determine that compared with adjacent tissue and normal cells, the expression level of miR-433-3p in glioma tissue and cells was lower, while the expression level of AJUBA was higher. Overexpressing miR-433-3p could significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells and promote cell apoptosis. RESULTS: In addition, after overexpressing miR-433-3p and AJUBA, it was found that overexpressing AJUBA could attenuate the inhibitory effect of overexpressing miR-433-3p on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells, which suggested that miR-433-3p regulated the biological function of glioma by downregulating AJUBA expression. CONCLUSION: These results proved that miR-433-3p could target to inhibit the expression of AJUBA, thus inhibiting the biological function and malignant progression of glioma.

16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-29, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519265

RESUMO

This study assessed the molecular mechanism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protection against IPEC-1 cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA+DON group, and the DHA+DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+, and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.

17.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519916

RESUMO

Viruses depend on host cellular metabolism to provide the energy and biosynthetic building blocks required for their replication. In this study, we observed that influenza A virus (H1N1), a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus with an eight-segmented genome, enhanced glycolysis both in mouse lung tissues and in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. In detail, the expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2), the first enzyme in glycolysis, was upregulated in H1N1-infected A549 cells, and the expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 (PDK3) was upregulated in H1N1-infected mouse lung tissues. Pharmacologically inhibiting the glycolytic pathway or targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), the central transcriptional factor critical for glycolysis, significantly reduced H1N1 replication, revealing a requirement for glycolysis during H1N1 infection. In addition, pharmacologically enhancing the glycolytic pathway further promoted H1N1 replication. Furthermore, the change of H1N1 replication upon glycolysis inhibition or enhancement was independent of interferon signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that influenza A virus induces the glycolytic pathway and thus facilitates efficient viral replication. This study raises the possibility that metabolic inhibitors, such as those that target glycolysis, could be used to treat influenza A virus infection in the future.

18.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 147(3): 260-270, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507635

RESUMO

Sesamin is a lignan compound in plants that has various pharmacological effects, including reducing diabetes-associated injuries, regulating fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, and exerting antiinflammatory and antitumour effects. Previous studies have reported that sesamin can inhibit the proliferation of several types of tumour cells and exert antitumour effects. However, the antitumour effect of sesamin on T-cell lymphoma is still unknown. In this study, we selected a T-cell lymphoma mouse model to investigate the mechanism of sesamin against T-cell lymphoma via programmed cell death in vivo and in vitro. We found that sesamin could significantly inhibit the growth of EL4 cells in a tumour-bearing mouse model. Sesamin markedly inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells by inducing apoptosis, pyroptosis and autophagy. Autophagy occurred earlier than apoptosis and pyroptosis in EL4 cells after sesamin treatment. Blocking autophagy inhibited apoptosis and pyroptosis in EL4 cells after sesamin treatment. Taken together, these results suggested that sesamin promoted apoptosis and pyroptosis via autophagy to enhance antitumour effects on murine T-cell lymphoma. This study expands our knowledge of the pharmacological effects of sesamin on T-cell lymphoma, and provides a theoretical basis for the development of new antitumour drugs and treatments for T-cell lymphoma.

19.
Xenobiotica ; : 1-22, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514945

RESUMO

1. Morin, a natural flavonol, is present in many plants. It has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities and is often used as an adjuvant treatment for arthritis. Diclofenac sodium is the first-choice drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the herb-drug interaction (HDI) between morin and diclofenac sodium remains unclear.2. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether and how morin affect the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac sodium.3. The enzyme kinetic and pharmacokinetic studies showed that morin significantly accelerated the metabolism and reduced systemic exposure of diclofenac sodium. Interestingly, the effect of morin on the pharmacokinetic profile of diclofenac sodium was not in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the effect of morin on P-gp was further investigated.4. The results implied that the influence mechanism of morin on the pharmacokinetic of diclofenac sodium might be related to CYP2C9 and P-gp. Attention should be paid to the risk of HDI between morin and diclofenac sodium in clinical practice.

20.
Respiration ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515245

RESUMO

Guidelines have recommended endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy as initial sampling approaches of mediastinal lymph nodes for lung cancer staging. However, the small sample volume might restrict the diagnostic utility of needle aspiration in certain mediastinal diseases. We have recently shown that transbronchial mediastinal cryobiopsy, which is capable of providing larger amounts of intact tissue, improves diagnostic yield in rare tumors and benign diseases compared to EBUS-TBNA. Here, we present a case of mediastinal nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma successfully diagnosed by endoscopic transesophageal cryobiopsy.

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