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1.
Nano Lett ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522597

RESUMO

Nucleic-acid-based immune adjuvants have been extensively investigated for the design of cancer vaccines. However, nucleic acids often require the assistance of a carrier system to improve cellular uptake. Yet, such systems are prone to carrier-associated adaptive immunity, leading to difficulties in a multidose treatment regimen. Here, we demonstrate that a spherical nucleic acid (SNA)-based self-adjuvanting system consisting of phosphodiester oligonucleotides and vitamin E can function as a potent anticancer vaccine without a carrier. The two functional modules work synergistically, serving as each other's delivery vector to enhance toll-like receptor 9 activation. The vaccine rapidly enters cells carrying OVA model antigens, which enables efficient activation of adaptive immunity in vitro and in vivo. In OVA-expressing tumor allograft models, both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations significantly retard tumor growth and prolong animal survival. Furthermore, the vaccinations were also able to reduce lung metastasis in a B16F10-OVA model.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the performance of diagnostic algorithm of adding hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) measuring up to 3 cm in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: We searched multiple databases from inception to April 10, 2020, to identify studies on using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for the diagnostic accuracy of HCC (≤ 3 cm) in patients with chronic liver disease. The diagnostic algorithm of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with HBP for HCC was defined as a nodule showing hyperintensity during arterial phase and hypointensity during the portal venous, delayed, or hepatobiliary phases. For gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI without HBP, the diagnostic criteria were a nodule showing arterial enhancement and hypointensity on the portal venous or delayed phases. The data were extracted to calculate summary estimates of sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, likelihood ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) by using a bivariate random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies with 2696 HCC lesions were included. Overall Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with HBP had a sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 92%, and the area under the sROC curve of 95%. The summary sensitivity of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with HBP was significantly higher than that without HBP (84% vs 68%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with HBP showed higher sensitivity than that without HBP and had comparable specificity for diagnosis of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. KEY POINTS: • Hypointensity on HBP is a major feature for diagnosis of HCC. • Extending washout appearance to the transitional or hepatobiliary phase on Gd-EOB-DTPA provides favorable sensitivity and comparable specificity for diagnosis HCC. • The summary sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with HBP was significantly higher than that without HBP (84% vs 68%, p = 0.01) for diagnosis of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease.

3.
J Vis ; 22(6): 4, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522260

RESUMO

The representation of individual planar locations and features stored in working memory can be affected by the average representation. However, less is known about how the average representation affects the short-term storage of depth information. To evaluate the possible different roles of the ensemble average in working memory for planar and depth information, we used mathematical models to fit the data collected from one study on working memory for depth and 12 studies on working memory for planar information. The pattern of recalled depth was well captured by models assuming that there was a probability of reporting the average depth instead of the individual depth, compressing the recalled front-back distance of the stimulus ensemble compared to the perceived distance. However, when modeling the recalled planar information, we found that participants tended to report individual nontarget features when the target was not memorized, and the assumption of reporting average information improves the data fitting only in very few studies. These results provide evidence for our hypothesis that average depth information can be used as a substitution for individual depth information stored in working memory, but for planar visual features, the substitution of target with the average works under a constraint that the average of to-be-remembered features is readily accessible.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Rememoração Mental , Humanos
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 720-726, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524524

RESUMO

Shrubs play an important role in maintaining biodiversity, stability and ecological service in grassland. Exploring the effects of enclosure on dominant shrub population can provide scientific guidance for grassland restoration and tending management. In this study, we investigated main growth characteristics and spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population in four enclosed grasslands with duration of 0, 5, 15, and 25 years. The results showed that population density increased first and then decreased with time extension, and peaked after enclosed for 15 years, which was 3.7 times that of unenclosed plot. The crown and projected area showed opposite responses trend to that of density, which decreased by 31.7% and 52.3% after enclosed 15 years, respectively. The height decreased by 25.3% after 5 years of enclosure, and then increased gradually. Semi-variance function analysis showed that population distribution in all grasslands conformed to Gaussian model. The spatial variation decreased gradually in the early stage of enclosure, and then increased after enclosed for 15 years. Structure ratio in each plot was higher than 0.75, but nugget was relatively small, indicating that spatial autocorrelation of population was mainly affected by structural factors rather than random factors. Spatial distribution of A. ordosica population was patchy and striped. Enclosure reduced spatial variation of population at small scale. However, spatial heterogeneity and scale dependence of population enhanced after enclosed 25 years as plaque dissociating. Our findings suggest that enclosure duration is the key factor affecting plant growth and spatial distribution of dominant population in desert steppe. Long-term fencing enhances the spatial heterogeneity of dominant population. Appropriate human intervention should be carried out after 15 years of enclosure.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Artemisia/fisiologia , China , Clima Desértico , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Solo/química , Análise Espacial
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562189

RESUMO

Sesquiterpenyl epoxy-cyclohexenoids (SECs) that depend on a polyketide synthase-terpenoid synthase (PKS-TPS) pathway are widely distributed in plant pathogenic fungi. However, the biosynthesis and function of the acetylated SECs still remained cryptic. Here, we identified that AOL_s00215g 273 (273) was responsible for the acetylation of SECs in Arthrobotrys oligospora via the construction of Δ273, in which the acetylated SECs were absent and major antibacterial nonacetylated SECs accumulated. Mutant Δ273 displayed increased trap formation, and nematicidal and antibacterial activities but decreased fungal growth and soil colonization. Glutamine, a key precursor for NH3 as a trap inducer, was highly accumulated, and biologically active phenylpropanoids and antibiotics were highly enriched in Δ273. The decreased endocytosis and increased autophagosomes, with the most upregulated genes involved in maintaining DNA and transcriptional stability and pathways related to coronavirus disease and exosome, suggested that lack of 273 might result in increased virus infection and the acetylation of SECs played a key role in fungal diverse antagonistic ability.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565323

RESUMO

Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes that protect eukaryotic chromosome ends from being erroneously repaired by the DNA damage repair system, and the length of telomeres indicates the replicative potential of the cell. Telomeres shorten during each division of the cell, resulting in telomeric damage and replicative senescence. Tumor cells tend to ensure cell proliferation potential and genomic stability by activating telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) for telomere lengthening. The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway is the most frequently activated TMM in tumors of mesenchymal and neuroepithelial origin, and ALT also frequently occurs during experimental cellular immortalization of mesenchymal cells. ALT is a process that relies on homologous recombination (HR) to elongate telomeres. However, some processes in the ALT mechanism remain poorly understood. Here, we review the most recent understanding of ALT mechanisms and processes, which may help us to better understand how the ALT pathway is activated in cancer cells and determine the potential therapeutic targets in ALT pathway-stabilized tumors.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 796227, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517504

RESUMO

Osteoporosis, characterized by the destruction of bone resorption and bone formation, is a serious disease that endangers human health. Osteoporosis prevention and treatment has become one of the important research contents in the field of medicine. Acacetin, a natural flavonoid compound, could promote osteoblast differentiation, and inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro. However, the mechanisms of acacetin on osteoclast differentiation and type H vessel formation, as well as the effect of preventing bone loss, remain unclear. Here, we firstly used primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and ovariectomized (OVX) mice to explore the function of acacetin on bone remodeling and H type vessel formation. In this study, we found that acacetin inhibits osteoclast formation and bone resorption of BMMs induced by the macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in a concentration of 20 µM without exerting cytotoxic effects. It was accompanied by downregulation of osteoclast differentiation marker genes (Ctsk, Acp5, and Mmp9) and cell fusion genes (CD9, CD47, Atp6v0d2, Dc-stamp, and Oc-stamp). Moreover, acacetin disrupted actin ring formation and extracellular acidification in osteoclasts. Mechanistic analysis revealed that acacetin not only inhibits the expression of the major transcription factor NFATc1 and NF-κB during RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, but also suppresses RANKL-induced the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3ß, IκBα, and p65. Additionally, acacetin enhanced the ability of M-CSF and RANKL-stimulated BMMs to promote angiogenesis and migration of EPCs. We further established that, in vivo, acacetin increased trabecular bone mass, decreased the number of osteoclasts, and showed more type H vessels in OVX mice. These data demonstrate that acacetin prevents OVX-induced bone loss in mice through inhibition of osteoclast function and promotion of type H vessel formation via Akt/GSK3ß and NF-κB signalling pathway, suggesting that acacetin may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 676831, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517782

RESUMO

Introduction: Extensive use of antiretroviral therapy has remarkably improved the survival rates of people living with HIV. Doravirine (DOR) is a newly-approved antiretroviral belonging to the class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Here, we compared the efficacy and safety of DOR + tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate (TDF)+Lamivudine (3TC)/Emtritabine (FTC) with traditional triple therapies in treatment-naïve HIV-1-positive adults. Methods: Randomized controlled trials involving treatment-naïve HIV-1-positive adults that met inclusion criteria were systematically retrieved and data on the following outcomes extracted: virological suppression, adverse events, severe adverse events, and drug-related adverse events. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was then performed on the data. Results: This study included a total of 39 randomized controlled trials involving 26 antiretroviral therapies and 21,110 HIV1-positive patients. At week 48, relative to the other 25 regimens included in the network of virological suppression, DOR + TDF+3TC/FTC exhibited superiority to some efavirenz, nevirapine, atazanavir, or lopinavir-based regimens, including efavirenz + abacavir+3TC [Odd Ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CrI) = 0.35-0.77]. At week 48, the performance of DOR + TDF+3TC/FTC was relatively similar to all other analyzed regimens in terms of adverse events. The DOR + TDF+3TC/FTC regimen performed better in terms of severe adverse events and drug-related adverse events. Conclusion: The network meta-analysis showed that DOR + TDF+3TC/FTC has good efficacy and safety at 48 weeks. Systematic Review Registration: Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/6ybp7.

9.
Org Lett ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532347

RESUMO

Direct electrocarboxylation of various N-acylimines with atmospheric CO2 is achieved in an undivided cell under mild conditions, affording substituted α-amino acids in yields of 62-95%. This reaction is conducted with high efficiency using triethanolamine as an external reductant under nonsacrificial anode conditions, and can be facilely performed on gram scale. Preliminary mechanistic studies including cyclic voltammetry and control experiments support N-radical carbanion as the key intermediate.

10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 825727, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548067

RESUMO

Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) causes a great medical burden globally, and the same-day discharge (SDD) method has previously been considered to be cost saving. However, a standard cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed to evaluated the benefits of SDD when performing THA from the perspective of both economic and clinical outcomes. Methods: Eighty-four participants undergoing primary THA were randomized to either the SDD group or the inpatient group. Outcomes were assessed by an independent orthopedist who was not in the surgical team, using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), SF-36 scores and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). All the cost information was also collected. Results: The mean stay of patients in the SDD group was 21.70 ± 3.45 h, while the inpatient group was 78.15 ± 26.36 h. This trial did not detect any significant differences in OHS and QALYs. The total cost in the SDD group was significantly lower than that in the inpatient group (¥69,771.27 ± 6,608.00 vs. ¥80,666.17 ± 8,421.96, p < 0.001). From the perspective of total cost, when measuring OHS, the incremental effect was -0.12 and the incremental cost was -¥10,894.90. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was 90,790.83. When measuring QALYs, the incremental effect was 0.02, and the ICER was negative. Sensitivity analysis produced similar results. Conclusions: SDD has an acceptable likelihood of being more cost-effective than the traditional inpatient option. After conducting cost-utility analysis, SDD resulted in better QALYs, while significantly reducing the total cost.

11.
Oncoimmunology ; 11(1): 2073010, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558158

RESUMO

The glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) agonistic antibody (DTA-1) has been proved to elicit robust immune response in various kinds of tumors. However, only a few of the HCC patients could benefit from it, and the mechanism of DTA-1 resistance remains unknown. Here, we measured GITR expression in different immunocytes in HCC microenvironment, and we observed that tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Ti-Tregs) significantly expressed GITR, which were associated with poor prognosis. Meanwhile, we analyzed the variation of tumor-infiltrating immune components and associated inflammation response after DTA-1 treatment in orthotopic liver cancer model of mice. Surprisingly, DTA-1 treatment reduced the infiltration of Tregs but failed to activate CD8+ T cells and elicit antitumor efficacy. In particular, DTA-1 treatment enforced alternative M2 polarization of macrophage, and macrophage depletion could enhance DTA-1-mediated antitumor efficacy in HCC. Mechanistically, macrophage M2 polarization attributed to the IL-4 elevation induced by Th2 immune activation in the treatment of DTA-1, resulting in DTA-1 resistance. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist could diminish the macrophage (M2) polarization and reverse the M2-mediated DTA-1 resistance, eliciting robust antitumor effect in HCC. Our finding demonstrated that the TLR4 agonist synergized with DTA-1 was a potential strategy for HCC treatment.

12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1209: 338885, 2022 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569838

RESUMO

Due to the favorable biocompatibility, photostability and fluorescence emissions, carbon dots (CDs) are being widely investigated as fluorescent probes. Current CD-based fluorescent probe designs depend largely on conventional fluorescence sensing mechanisms, for e.g. the inner filter effect, photoinduced electron transfer, and Förster resonance energy transfer. Although these mechanisms have been successful, it is still desirable to introduce new sensing mechanisms. In recent years, emerging mechanisms such as aggregation-induced emission, hydrogen-bond induced emission, and intramolecular charge transfer have been developed for CD-based probes. This review summarizes both conventional and emerging mechanisms, and discuss CDs in the context of chemosensing, biosensing, and bioimaging. We provide an outlook for several other mechanisms such as CN isomerization, the short-wavelength inner filter technique, excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, and twisted intramolecular charge transfer, which have been applied to organic fluorescent probes design but not as much in CD-based sensing systems. We envision that this review will provide insights that inspire further development of CD-based fluorescent probes as for biological applications.

13.
Med Oncol ; 39(5): 94, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570225

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in men. Prostate cancer metastasis usually observed at the last stage is the major cause of prostate cancer-related death. Long non-coding RNAs were reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. This study aimed to investigate the effects and related mechanisms of AC245100.4 in prostate cancer. Knockdown and overexpression of AC245100.4 was used to detect the effect of AC245100.4 on cell migration. qRT-PCR was used to confirm the downstream target of AC245100.4. RAP-MS was used to find pathways related to AC245100.4. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of p-p38 and p38. We found that AC245100.4 promoted the migration of prostate cancer cells via regulating PAR2. The AC245100.4 or PAR2 knockdown resulted in a decrease in Vimentin but an increase in E-cadherin protein levels, while the AC245100.4 or PAR2 overexpression got the opposite results. Moreover, we discovered that AC245100.4 activated the p38-MAPK via regulating PAR2. In brief, these results have suggested that AC245100.4 and PAR2 served as oncogenic factors in cellular migration in PCa cells.

14.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 36(5): 609-613, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570636

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of membrane induction technique in the treatment of Gustilo-Anderson ⅢB type injury of distal femur complicated with bone defect. Methods: The clinical data of 20 patients with Gustilo-Anderson ⅢB type injury of distal femur complicated with bone defects admitted between January 2019 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including 15 males and 5 females, with an average age of 35 years (range, 19-70 years). Causes of injuries included 15 cases of traffic accidents and 5 cases of falling from height. Bone defect located at metaphyseal in 11 cases and at proximal metaphyseal in 9 cases. The time from injury to primary first-stage surgery was 4-28 hours, with an average of 11 hours. After primary radical debridement, the length of bone defect was 3-12 cm, with an average of 6 cm. Antibiotic-containing bone cement was implanted in the bone defect site to induce membrane formation. At 34-56 days (mean, 45 days) after the first-stage surgery, bone grafting was performed in the induced membrane for the repair and reconstruction of bone defects; 16 patients received a combination of autogenous cancellous and allogeneic bone grafts and 4 patients received cancellous bone grafts. The bone graft healing time after the second-stage surgery was recorded; the visual analogue scale (VAS) score and Lysholm score were compared before the second-stage bone graft and at last follow-up to evaluate the pain and functional improvement of the affected limb; and the knee joint range of motion at last follow-up was recorded. Results: None of the patients had a second revision after the first-stage surgery, 1 patient recieved flap transfer and the flap survived well after operation. All patients were followed up 12-36 months after the second-stage surgery, with an average of 23 months. All patients achieved bone union, and the bone union time was 7-10 months (mean, 8.4 months). No bone nonunion or donor site related complications occurred. The Lysholm score and VAS score at last follow-up were 85.6±4.1 and 1.7±0.8, respectively, and they were significantly improved when compared with those before the second-stage bone defect repair (42.7±4.6 and 7.1±0.8, respectively) ( t=37.410, P<0.001; t=21.962, P<0.001). Knee flexion range of motion was 60°-120°, with an average of 95°; the limit of elongation was 0°-10°, with an average of 5°. Conclusion: For Gustilo-Anderson ⅢB type injury of distal femur complicated with bone defect, induction membrane technique can effectively control infection, promote bone healing of the defect site, and effectively restore the function of lower limbs with satisfactory effectiveness.

15.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 36(5): 614-618, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570637

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of flap combined with induced membrane technique in treatment of post-traumatic tibial osteomyelitis with soft tissue defect. Methods: A clinical data of 33 patients with post-traumatic tibial osteomyelitis with soft tissue defect who met the selection criteria between August 2015 and October 2018 was retrospectively analyzed. There were 21 males and 12 females. The age ranged from 19 to 70 years, with an average of 39 years. The osteomyelitis located in the upper 1/3 of tibia in 8 cases, in the middle 1/3 of tibia in 14 cases, and in the lower 1/3 of tibia in 11 cases. According to Cierny-Mader classification standard, 19 cases of osteomyelitis were type Ⅲ and 14 cases were type Ⅳ. The duration of osteomyelitis ranged from 2 months to 20 years (median, 3 months). In the first-stage operation, after radical debridement, the length of bone defect was 1.5-12.5 cm (mean, 5.0 cm) and the size of soft tissue defects ranged from 5 cm×4 cm to 15 cm×12 cm. Bone cement containing antibiotics was implanted into the bone defect and the personalized flap was used to repair the wound. After the wound healed at 6-8 weeks and the infection was controlled, bone grafting was performed to repair bone defects in the second-stage operation. Results: The flaps survived completely after the first-stage operation in 29 cases. Partial necrosis of the flap occurred in 4 cases and healed after surgical dressing change. All the incisions healed by first intention after the second-stage operation. All patients were followed up 24-32 months (mean, 28 months). All the bone grafts healed after operation, and the radiographic healing time was 3-9 months (mean, 5 months). The clinical healing time was 4-14 months (mean, 8 months). There was no recurrence of osteomyelitis during follow-up. At last follow-up, according to Johner-Wruhs evaluation criteria, the limb function was excellent in 27 cases, good in 4 cases, and fair in 2 cases, with an excellent and good rate of 93.9%. Conclusion: For the post-traumatic tibial osteomyelitis with soft tissue defect, the flap combined with induced membrane technique is a reliable and effective method and can effectively restore the function of lower limbs with satisfactory effectiveness.

16.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; : 1-9, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574720

RESUMO

This study investigated the pharmacological mechanism of kaempferol in the treatment of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain by network pharmacological method and cells experiment. The kaempferol and disease target genes were obtained from several databases, including TCMSP, SwissTargetPrediction, GeneCards, and CTD. Then, the common target genes of drugs and diseases were obtained using Venny online tools. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional analyses were carried out to obtain the enriched molecular pathways associated with the kaempferol and disease. Finally, we constructed a neuropathic pain cell experiment to confirm the findings. 138 intersection targets were identified between targets of kaempferol and oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Enrichment analyses revealed that the IL-17 signaling pathway was associated with the therapeutic effects of kaempferol. Kaempferol down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL2 in oxaliplatin-treated astrocytes. Our findings showed that kaempferol alleviated oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity via regulation of inflammation-related genes.

17.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has become a major concern in global TB control. This study aimed to investigate the patterns and trend of DR-TB epidemic between different time periods in Chongqing. METHODS: A total of 985 and 835 culture positive TB patients with drug susceptibility testing (DST) results admitted to the hospital in 2016 and 2019, respectively, were included. Chi-square testing was used to compare the prevalence and trends of DR-TB in 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: The proportion of previously treated TB cases with culture positivity was 45.7% in 2019, significantly higher than that in 2016 (39.1%, P = 0.004). The overall rate of drug resistance in 2019 was 43.1%, higher than that in 2016 (40.2%). The rates of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and pre-extensively drug resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) increased significantly from 2016 to 2019 among all TB cases (MDR: 25% vs 33.4%, P < 0.001 and pre-XDR: 7.1% vs 12.8%, P < 0.001, respectively) and previously treated TB cases (MDR: 46.5% vs 56%, P = 0.008 and pre-XDR: 13.2% vs 21.5%, P = 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that the prevalence of DR-TB remains high in Chongqing. The trend of resistance to anti-TB drugs beccame worse between 2016 and 2019. Moreover, acquired MDR may play a major role in MDR-TB epidemic in Chongqing. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and effective treatment of TB patients will be important to reduce the burden of DR-TB in Chongqing.

19.
Langmuir ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561306

RESUMO

In recent years, adsorption-based membranes have been widely investigated to remove and separate textile pollutants. However, cyclic adsorption-desorption to reuse a single adsorbent and clear scientific evidence for the adsorption-desorption mechanism remains challenging. Herein, silk nanofibers were used to assess the adsorption potential for the typical anionic dyes from an aqueous medium, and they show great potential toward the removal of acid dyes from the aqueous solution with an adsorption rate of ∼98% in a 1 min interaction. Further, we measured the filtration proficiency of a silk nanofiber membrane in order to propose a continuous mechanism for the removal of acid blue dye, and a complete rejection was observed with a maximum permeability rate of ∼360 ± 5 L·m-2·h-1. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies demonstrate that this fast adsorption occurs due to multiple interactions between the dye molecule and the adsorbent substrate. The as-prepared material also shows remarkable results in desorption. A 50-time cycle exhibits complete adsorption and desorption ability, which not only facilitates high removal aptitude but also produces less solid waste than other conventional adsorbents. Additionally, fluorescent 2-bromo-2-methyl-propionic acid (abbreviated as EtOxPY)-silk nanofibers can facilitate to illustrate a clear adsorption and desorption mechanism. Therefore, the above-prescribed results make electrospun silk nanofibers a suitable choice for removing anionic dyes in real-time applications.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 833: 155217, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429556

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an element of global concern in agricultural fields owing to its high bioavailability and its risk to human health via the consumption of wheat products. However, whether wheat leaves can directly absorb atmospheric Cd and transport them to the grains along with the contribution of leaves to Cd accumulation in the grains is not clear. We evaluated this mechanism through three comparative treatments: 1) exposure to atmospheric deposition (CK), 2) no exposure to atmospheric deposition (T1), and 3) exposure to atmospheric deposition with leaf cutting (T2). The Cd accumulation rate of grains in the CK, T1, and T2 groups all showed an increasing trend, followed by a decreasing trend, which was consistent with the trend of filling rate. Moreover, the critical period for leaf Cd accumulation in the grains was the early filling period, and its contribution decreased gradually as filling progressed. The contribution of the leaves to grain Cd reached 31.73% at maturity, with the reactivation of stored Cd in leaves pre-flowering and the newly absorbed atmospheric Cd by leaves post-flowering contributing 19.76% and 11.97% to Cd accumulation in grains, respectively, at maturity. Sub-microstructure analysis of the leaves further confirmed that the direct Cd absorption by leaves from atmospheric deposition through stomata contributed to Cd accumulation in wheat grains. Therefore, controlling the sources of atmospheric Cd pollution and reducing Cd absorption by leaves during grain filling can effectively control Cd pollution of wheat grains. This study provides significant insights on how to more effectively control the Cd content of edible part of wheat and ensure food security.

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