Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 171
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121175, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744208

RESUMO

The fiscal system plays an important role in the government's environmental governance efforts. There is currently no consensus on how fiscal structure adjustments impact pollution and carbon reduction. This paper uses China's fiscal "province-managing-county" reform (FPMCR) implemented in 2004 as a quasi-natural experiment, utilizing panel data from 1670 counties in China from 2000 to 2020 to investigate the impact of fiscal decentralization on reduction pollution and carbon emissions (RPCE), as well as its underlying mechanisms. The results show that (1) from 2000 to 2020, China's RPCE shows an overall trend of fluctuating increase, with its value turning positive after 2013. China's RPCE exhibits a spatial pattern characterized by "lower in the north, higher in the south; higher in the east, lower in the west". (2) After implementing FPMCR, the RPCE levels in reformed counties decreased by -1.44%, showing that reformed county-level governments prioritize economic development over environmental protection. (3) The mechanism analysis found that after implementing FPMCR, reformed counties experienced a 9.16% increase in nighttime light intensity (NLI), and a 3.99% and 4.34% increase in the number of large-scale industrial enterprises (NLIE) and industrial agglomeration (IA), respectively. This suggests that FPMCR leads to radical urbanization and rapid industrialization in counties, which is detrimental to the improvement of RPCE levels. (4) The spatial heterogeneity analysis found that FPMCR's impact coefficient on RPCE levels in the eastern regions is -1.96%, while in the western regions it is -1.16%. This indicates that reformed counties in the eastern regions are more likely to invest expanded fiscal resources in economic development projects, leading to a decrease in RPCE levels. (5) The temporal heterogeneity analysis found that after the promulgation of the "Three-Year Action Plan to Win the Blue Sky Defense Battle" in 2018, the adverse impact of FPMCR on RPCE is completely reversed, leading to a 1.76% increase in RPCE levels. (6) Further analysis reveals that localizing leaders can slow down the promotion of county-level urbanization and industrialization by the FPMCR, benefiting the improvement of RPCE levels. In other words, "the outsider monk will not recite scriptures as well as a local one". This study has clarified the causal relationship and underlying mechanisms between fiscal decentralization and environmental governance, providing reliable theoretical support for optimizing grassroots fiscal systems and reducing environmental pollution in other transitional economies. It enriches the field of environmental economics related to fiscal decentralization.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , China , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
2.
Curr Top Dev Biol ; 159: 59-129, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729684

RESUMO

The mammalian lung completes its last step of development, alveologenesis, to generate sufficient surface area for gas exchange. In this process, multiple cell types that include alveolar epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts undergo coordinated cell proliferation, cell migration and/or contraction, cell shape changes, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions to produce the gas exchange unit: the alveolus. Full functioning of alveoli also involves immune cells and the lymphatic and autonomic nervous system. With the advent of lineage tracing, conditional gene inactivation, transcriptome analysis, live imaging, and lung organoids, our molecular understanding of alveologenesis has advanced significantly. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the constituents of the alveolus and the molecular pathways that control alveolar formation. We also discuss how insight into alveolar formation may inform us of alveolar repair/regeneration mechanisms following lung injury and the pathogenic processes that lead to loss of alveoli or tissue fibrosis.


Assuntos
Alvéolos Pulmonares , Animais , Humanos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/citologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Regeneração , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia
3.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 9(5)2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38786490

RESUMO

The sand cat swarm optimization algorithm (SCSO) is a novel metaheuristic algorithm that has been proposed in recent years. The algorithm optimizes the search ability of individuals by mimicking the hunting behavior of sand cat groups in nature, thereby achieving robust optimization performance. It is characterized by few control parameters and simple operation. However, due to the lack of population diversity, SCSO is less efficient in solving complex problems and is prone to fall into local optimization. To address these shortcomings and refine the algorithm's efficacy, an improved multi-strategy sand cat optimization algorithm (IMSCSO) is proposed in this paper. In IMSCSO, a roulette fitness-distance balancing strategy is used to select codes to replace random agents in the exploration phase and enhance the convergence performance of the algorithm. To bolster population diversity, a novel population perturbation strategy is introduced, aiming to facilitate the algorithm's escape from local optima. Finally, a best-worst perturbation strategy is developed. The approach not only maintains diversity throughout the optimization process but also enhances the algorithm's exploitation capabilities. To evaluate the performance of the proposed IMSCSO, we conducted experiments in the CEC 2017 test suite and compared IMSCSO with seven other algorithms. The results show that the IMSCSO proposed in this paper has better optimization performance.

4.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(11)2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688289

RESUMO

Objective. Conventional computed tomography (CT) imaging does not provide quantitative information on local thermal changes during percutaneous ablative therapy of cancerous and benign tumors, aside from few qualitative, visual cues. In this study, we have investigated changes in CT signal across a wide range of temperatures and two physical phases for two different tissue mimicking materials, each.Approach. A series of experiments were conducted using an anthropomorphic phantom filled with water-based gel and olive oil, respectively. Multiple, clinically used ablation devices were applied to locally cool or heat the phantom material and were arranged in a configuration that produced thermal changes in regions with inconsequential amounts of metal artifact. Eight fiber optic thermal sensors were positioned in the region absent of metal artifact and were used to record local temperatures throughout the experiments. A spectral CT scanner was used to periodically acquire and generate electron density weighted images. Average electron density weighted values in 1 mm3volumes of interest near the temperature sensors were computed and these data were then used to calculate thermal volumetric expansion coefficients for each material and phase.Main results. The experimentally determined expansion coefficients well-matched existing published values and variations with temperature-maximally differing by 5% of the known value. As a proof of concept, a CT-generated temperature map was produced during a heating time point of the water-based gel phantom, demonstrating the capability to map changes in electron density weighted signal to temperature.Significance. This study has demonstrated that spectral CT can be used to estimate local temperature changes for different materials and phases across temperature ranges produced by thermal ablations.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Imagens de Fantasmas , Termometria , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Termometria/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Temperatura , Humanos
5.
J Imaging Inform Med ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558368

RESUMO

In recent years, the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in medical imaging has become increasingly prominent, with the majority of AI applications approved by the FDA being in imaging and radiology in 2023. The surge in AI model development to tackle clinical challenges underscores the necessity for preparing high-quality medical imaging data. Proper data preparation is crucial as it fosters the creation of standardized and reproducible AI models while minimizing biases. Data curation transforms raw data into a valuable, organized, and dependable resource and is a fundamental process to the success of machine learning and analytical projects. Considering the plethora of available tools for data curation in different stages, it is crucial to stay informed about the most relevant tools within specific research areas. In the current work, we propose a descriptive outline for different steps of data curation while we furnish compilations of tools collected from a survey applied among members of the Society of Imaging Informatics (SIIM) for each of these stages. This collection has the potential to enhance the decision-making process for researchers as they select the most appropriate tool for their specific tasks.

6.
Neuron ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653248

RESUMO

White matter injury (WMI) causes oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation arrest and functional deficits, with no effective therapies to date. Here, we report increased expression of growth hormone (GH) in the hypoxic neonatal mouse brain, a model of WMI. GH treatment during or post hypoxic exposure rescues hypoxia-induced hypomyelination and promotes functional recovery in adolescent mice. Single-cell sequencing reveals that Ghr mRNA expression is highly enriched in vascular cells. Cell-lineage labeling and tracing identify the GHR-expressing vascular cells as a subpopulation of pericytes. These cells display tip-cell-like morphology with kinetic polarized filopodia revealed by two-photon live imaging and seemingly direct blood vessel branching and bridging. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments indicate that GHR signaling in pericytes is sufficient to modulate angiogenesis in neonatal brains, which enhances OPC differentiation and myelination indirectly. These findings demonstrate that targeting GHR and/or downstream effectors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for WMI.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598400

RESUMO

Electronic healthcare (e-health) allows smart devices and medical institutions to collaboratively collect patients' data, which is trained by artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to help doctors make diagnosis. By allowing multiple devices to train models collaboratively, federated learning is a promising solution to address the communication and privacy issues in e-health. However, applying federated learning in e-health faces many challenges. First, medical data are both horizontally and vertically partitioned. Since single horizontal federated learning (HFL) or vertical federated learning (VFL) techniques cannot deal with both types of data partitioning, directly applying them may consume excessive communication cost due to transmitting a part of raw data when requiring high modeling accuracy. Second, a naive combination of HFL and VFL has limitations including low training efficiency, unsound convergence analysis, and lack of parameter tuning strategies. In this article, we provide a thorough study on an effective integration of HFL and VFL, to achieve communication efficiency and overcome the above limitations when data are both horizontally and vertically partitioned. Specifically, we propose a hybrid federated learning framework with one intermediate result exchange and two aggregation phases. Based on this framework, we develop a hybrid stochastic gradient descent (HSGD) algorithm to train models. Then, we theoretically analyze the convergence upper bound of the proposed algorithm. Using the convergence results, we design adaptive strategies to adjust the training parameters and shrink the size of transmitted data. The experimental results validate that the proposed HSGD algorithm can achieve the desired accuracy while reducing communication cost, and they also verify the effectiveness of the adaptive strategies.

8.
Immunology ; 172(3): 375-391, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471664

RESUMO

Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with multiple malignancies. Developing therapeutic vaccines to eliminate HPV-infected and malignant cells holds significant value. In this study, we introduced a lipid nanoparticle encapsulated mRNA vaccine expressing tHA-mE7-mE6. Mutations were introduced into E6 and E7 of HPV to eliminate their tumourigenicity. A truncated influenza haemagglutinin protein (tHA), which binds to the CD209 receptor on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs), was fused with mE7-mE6 in order to allow efficient uptake of antigen by antigen presenting cells. The tHA-mE7-mE6 (mRNA) showed higher therapeutic efficacy than mE7-mE6 (mRNA) in an E6 and E7+ tumour model. The treatment resulted in complete tumour regression and prevented tumour formation. Strong CD8+ T-cell immune response was induced, contributing to preventing and curing of E6 and E7+ tumour. Antigen-specific CD8+ T were found in spleens, peripheral blood and in tumours. In addition, the tumour infiltration of DC and NK cells were increased post therapy. In conclusion, this study described a therapeutic mRNA vaccine inducing strong anti-tumour immunity in peripheral and in tumour microenvironment, holding promising potential to treat HPV-induced cancer and to prevent cancer recurrence.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Células Dendríticas , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Vacinas de mRNA , Animais , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Feminino , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas Repressoras/imunologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Lipossomos
9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2098, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459034

RESUMO

Yutu-2 rover conducted an exciting expedition on the 41st lunar day to investigate a fin-shaped rock at Longji site (45.44°S, 177.56°E) by extending its locomotion margin on perilous peaks. The varied locomotion encountered, especially multi-form wheel slippage, during the journey to the target rock, established unique conditions for a fin-grained lunar regolith analysis regarding bearing, shear and lateral properties based on terramechanics. Here, we show a tri-aspect characterization of lunar regolith and infer the rock's origin using a digital twin. We estimate internal friction angle within 21.5°-42.0° and associated cohesion of 520-3154 Pa in the Chang'E-4 operational site. These findings suggest shear characteristics similar to Apollo 12 mission samples but notably higher cohesion compared to regolith investigated on most nearside lunar missions. We estimate external friction angle in lateral properties to be within 8.3°-16.5°, which fills the gaps of the lateral property estimation of the lunar farside regolith and serves as a foundational parameter for subsequent engineering verifications. Our in-situ spectral investigations of the target rock unveil its composition of iron/magnesium-rich low-calcium pyroxene, linking it to the Zhinyu crater (45.34°S, 176.15°E) ejecta. Our results indicate that the combination of in-situ measurements with robotics technology in planetary exploration reveal the possibility of additional source regions contributing to the local materials at the Chang'E-4 site, implying a more complicated geological history in the vicinity.

10.
J Biomech ; 165: 111996, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377740

RESUMO

High loading impact associated with heel strikes causes running injuries. This study aimed to investigate how loading impact is affected by midsole hardness and running surface type. Twelve young rear-foot runners ran at a fixed speed along an 18 m runway wearing shoes with different midsole hardness (Asker C-45, C-50, C-55, C-60, from soft to hard) and on two different surfaces (rubber and concrete). We quantified vertical average loading rate (VALR) and vertical impact peak force (VIPF). We conducted midsole × surface repeated-measures ANOVA on loading impact measures, and one-sample t-tests to compare VALR with a threshold value (80 BW·s-1). Midsole hardness and surface type mainly affected VALR. Although no significant effect of these variables was observed for VIPF magnitude, there were effects on time to VIPF and steps with VIPF. Several combinations of midsole and surface hardness reduced VALR below 80 BW·s-1: Asker C-45 with both surfaces, and Asker C-50 with a rubber surface. The combination of softer midsole and surface effectively reduced loading rates as shown by increased time to VIPF and reduced VALR. Combining softer midsole and surface results in the greatest cushioning, which demonstrates the benefit of considering both factors in reducing running injuries.


Assuntos
, Borracha , Dureza , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Sapatos
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 249, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172560

RESUMO

Hydrogels have been designed to react to many different stimuli which find broad applications in tissue engineering and soft robotics. However, polymer networks bearing mechano-responsiveness, especially those displaying on-demand self-stiffening and self-softening behavior, are rarely reported. Here, we design a mechano-controlled biocatalytic system at the molecular level that is incorporated into hydrogels to regulate their mechanical properties at the material scale. The biocatalytic system consists of the protease thrombin and its inhibitor, hirudin, which are genetically engineered and covalently coupled to the hydrogel networks. The catalytic activity of thrombin is reversibly switched on by stretching of the hydrogels, which disrupts the noncovalent inhibitory interaction between both entities. Under cyclic tensile-loading, hydrogels exhibit self-stiffening or self-softening properties when substrates are present that can self-assemble to form new networks after being activated by thrombin or when cleavable peptide crosslinkers are constitutional components of the original network, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate the programming of bilayer hydrogels to exhibit tailored shape-morphing behavior under mechanical stimulation. Our developed system provides proof of concept for mechanically controlled reversible biocatalytic processes, showcasing their potential for regulating hydrogels and proposing a biomacromolecular strategy for mechano-regulated soft functional materials.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Trombina , Hidrogéis/química , Peptídeos , Polímeros/química
12.
Radiology ; 310(1): e230242, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165243

RESUMO

A Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm misdiagnosed a finding as an intracranial hemorrhage in a patient, who was finally diagnosed with an ischemic stroke. This scenario highlights a notable failure mode of AI tools, emphasizing the importance of human-machine interaction. In this report, the authors summarize the review processes by the FDA for software as a medical device and the unique regulatory designs for radiologic AI/machine learning algorithms to ensure their safety in clinical practice. Then the challenges in maximizing the efficacy of these tools posed by their clinical implementation are discussed.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Estados Unidos , Humanos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Software , Aprendizado de Máquina
13.
Bioessays ; 46(1): e2300083, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010492

RESUMO

Recent studies support a model in which the progeny of SOX9+ epithelial progenitors at the distal tip of lung branches undergo cell allocation and differentiation sequentially along the distal-to-proximal axis. Concomitant with the elongation and ramification of lung branches, the descendants of the distal SOX9+ progenitors are distributed proximally, express SOX2, and differentiate into cell types in the conducting airways. Amid subsequent sacculation, the distal SOX9+ progenitors generate alveolar epithelial cells to form alveoli. Sequential cell allocation and differentiation are integrated with the branching process to generate a functional branching organ. This review focuses on the roles of SOX9+ cells as precursors for new branches, as the source of various cell types in the conducting airways, and as progenitors of the alveolar epithelium. All of these processes are controlled by multiple signaling pathways. Many mouse mutants with defective lung branching contain underlying defects in one or more steps of cell allocation and differentiation of SOX9+ progenitors. This model provides a framework to understand the molecular basis of lung phenotypes and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of lung patterning. It builds a foundation on which comparing and contrasting the mechanisms employed by different branching organs in diverse species can be made.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Alvéolos Pulmonares , Camundongos , Animais , Pulmão/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Transdução de Sinais
14.
JACS Au ; 3(12): 3424-3435, 2023 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38155647

RESUMO

The low intrinsic thermal conduction and high dielectric properties of epoxy resins have significantly limited their applications in electrical and electronic devices with high integration, high frequency, high power, and miniaturization. Herein, a liquid crystalline epoxy (LCE) monomer with a biphenyl mesogenic unit was first synthesized through an efficient one-step reaction. Subsequently, bisphenol AF (BPAF) containing low-polarizable -CF3 groups and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) were applied to cure the LCE and commercial diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A-type epoxy (E-51), respectively, to afford four kinds of epoxy resins with various intrinsic thermal conductivity and dielectricity values. Owing to the dual effect of microscopically stacking of mesogens and the contribution of fluorine to the formation of liquid crystallinity, ordered microstructures of the nematic liquid crystal phase were formed within the cross-linking network of LCE as confirmed by polarized optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Consequently, phonon scattering was suppressed, and the intrinsic thermal conductivity was improved considerably to 0.38 W/(m·K), nearly twice as high as that of E-51 cured with DDM (0.20 W/(m·K)). Additionally, the ordered microstructure and ultralow polar -CF3 groups within LCE cured with BPAF enabled the epoxy resin to exhibit a remarkably lower and stable dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) over both low and high frequencies compared to E-51 cured with DDM. The ε decreased from 3.40 to 2.72 while the tan δ decreased from 0.044 to 0.038 at 10 GHz. This work presents a scalable and facile strategy for breaking the bottleneck of making epoxy resins simultaneously with high inherent thermal conduction and low dielectric performance.

15.
Mol Oncol ; 2023 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140768

RESUMO

Cancer represents a profound challenge to healthcare systems and individuals worldwide. The development of multiple drug resistance is a major problem in cancer therapy and can result in progression of the disease. In our previous studies, we developed small-molecule inhibitors targeting ubiquitin-specific peptidase 24 (USP24) to combat drug-resistant lung cancer. Recently, we found that the USP24 inhibitor NCI677397 induced ferroptosis, a type of programmed cell death, in drug-resistant cancer cells by increasing lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and found that the targeting of USP24 by NCI677397 increased gene expression of most lipogenesis-related genes, such as acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), and activated autophagy. In addition, the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), was inhibited by NCI677397 treatment via an increase in protein degradation, thereby inducing lipid ROS production and lipid peroxidation. In summary, we demonstrated that NCI677397 induced a marked increase in lipid ROS levels, subsequently causing lipid peroxidation and leading to the ferroptotic death of drug-resistant cancer cells. Our study provides new insights into the clinical use of USP24 inhibitors as ferroptosis inducers (FINs) to block drug resistance during chemotherapy.

16.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 909, 2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38031176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different posterior inclinations of tibial component after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) may lead to different biomechanical characteristics of the knee joint. This finite element study was designed to investigate the tibiofemoral contact pressures after UKA with different posterior inclinations of tibial component. METHODS: Finite element model of a healthy knee joint was constructed, and mobile-bearing (MB) UKA models with 5 different posterior inclinations (3°, 5°, 7°, 9° and 11°) of tibial components were simulated. The maximum contact pressures of tibial plateau cartilage in the lateral compartment and polyethylene insert in the medial compartment were calculated based on the ground reaction force and the angle of the knee flexion obtained by 3D motion capture system. RESULTS: The loading ratio of medial and lateral compartments during standing stance (medial 54.49%, lateral 45.51%) and tibial anterior displacement (134 N, 3.89 mm) of healthy knee was basically consistent with previous experimental data. The maximum contact pressures of the medial meniscus and lateral tibial plateau cartilage of the healthy knee during standing stance were 2.14 MPa and 1.57 MPa, respectively. At the static standing phase, the maximum contact pressures of the polyethylene insert decreased from 17.90 to 17.29 Mpa, and the maximum contact pressures of the tibial plateau cartilage in the lateral compartment increased from 0.81 to 0.92 Mpa following an increase in the posterior inclination of the tibial component. At the first peak of ground reaction force, the maximum contact pressures of polyethylene insert increased from 22.37 to 25.16 MPa, and the maximum contact pressures of tibial plateau cartilage in the lateral compartment increased from 3.03 to 3.33 MPa, with the increase in the posterior inclination of the tibial component. At the second peak of ground reaction force, the maximum contact pressures of polyethylene insert decreased from 2.34 to 2.22 MPa with the increase in posterior inclination of tibial component. CONCLUSION: The preoperative and postoperative finite element models of MB UKA were well established. The results showed that the maximum contact pressures of the polyethylene insert did not change significantly with the increase in the posterior inclination of the tibial prosthesis, while the maximum contact pressures of the tibial plateau cartilage of the lateral compartment increased when the posterior inclination of the tibial prosthesis was > 7°. Our results also show that the maximum contact pressures were greater with an excessive inclination angle (11°) of the tibial component, and the pressures of the tibial plateau cartilage in the lateral compartment were more concentrated on the posterior area. This study, therefore, proposes that excessive osteotomy should be avoided.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Polietileno , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia
17.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 281: 103-140, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37735301

RESUMO

Glia are integral components of neural networks and are crucial in both physiological functions and pathological processes of the brain. Many brain diseases involve glial abnormalities, including inflammatory changes, mitochondrial damage, calcium signaling disturbance, hemichannel opening, and loss of glutamate transporters. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived glia provide opportunities to study the contributions of glia in human brain diseases. These cells have been used for human disease modeling as well as generating new therapies. This chapter introduces glial involvement in brain diseases, then summarizes different methods of generating iPSC-derived glia disease models of these cells. Finally, strategies for treating disease using iPSC-derived glia are discussed. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview and shed light on the applications of iPSC-derived glia in brain disease research and treatment.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Humanos , Encéfalo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Neuroglia
18.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 30(3): 490-497, 2023 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37772525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Although it has previously been shown that temperature is associated with cardiovascular disease, no investigations exploring the association between apparent temperature (AT) and hypertension in farmers in Zhangye and Longnan, Gansu Province, China, have been undertaken. As hypertension is a commonly known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the relationship between apparent temperature (AT) and hypertension is examined in Zhangye and Longnan to provide advice to local governments on preventive measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Daily data and weather conditions were collected in Zhangye and Longnan from 2014-2015. The Poisson generalized linear model and the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) were combined to investigate the relationship between AT and hypertension in hospital admissions in the study areas. RESULTS: A non-linear relationship between AT and hypertension in hospital admissions in both Zhangye and Longnan were recorded. The cold effects were stronger in Zhangye than that in Longnan for both study group and subgroups. The heat effects were more deleterious for the entire study group, female subgroup and adult subgroup in Longnan, but stronger for the male subgroup and elderly subgroup in Zhangye. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation indicates that AT has adverse impacts on hypertension hospital admissions in Zhangye and Longnan, especially under low AT exposure levels. The results from this study may promote the formulation of further prevention measures for hypertension disease.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(50): 109135-109144, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37770733

RESUMO

Excessive carbon emissions are the major challenge to global sustainable development. In the context of the coronavirus pandemic, pressure on global economic growth is gradually rising, threatening established carbon reduction targets. However, the relationship between economic growth pressures and carbon emission intensity has yet to be clearly discussed. Thus, this study quantitatively discusses the impacts of economic growth pressures from central (EGPN) and provincial (EGPP) governments on city carbon intensity. The study is based on data from China's city panels from 2005 to 2019. This study finds that (1) there is a U-shaped correlation between economic growth pressure and a city's carbon emission intensity, whether the economic growth pressure comes from the central government or the provincial government; (2) carbon emission intensity is more sensitive to economic growth pressure from the provincial government than it is to economic growth pressure from the central government. The findings of this study will help enhance the understanding of the relationship between economic growth pressure and carbon emission intensity, and can also provide a reference for global sustainable development that balances economic growth and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cidades , China
20.
Environ Earth Sci ; 82(9): 229, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37128499

RESUMO

The microbial­induced carbonate precipitation (MICP), as an emerging biomineralization technology mediated by specific bacteria, has been a popular research focus for scientists and engineers through the previous two decades as an interdisciplinary approach. It provides cutting-edge solutions for various engineering problems emerging in the context of frequent and intense human activities. This paper is aimed at reviewing the fundaments and engineering applications of the MICP technology through existing studies, covering realistic need in geotechnical engineering, construction materials, hydraulic engineering, geological engineering, and environmental engineering. It adds a new perspective on the feasibility and difficulty for field practice. Analysis and discussion within different parts are generally carried out based on specific considerations in each field. MICP may bring comprehensive improvement of static and dynamic characteristics of geomaterials, thus enhancing their bearing capacity and resisting liquefication. It helps produce eco-friendly and durable building materials. MICP is a promising and cost-efficient technology in preserving water resources and subsurface fluid leakage. Piping, internal erosion and surface erosion could also be addressed by this technology. MICP has been proved suitable for stabilizing soils and shows promise in dealing with problematic soils like bentonite and expansive soils. It is also envisaged that this technology may be used to mitigate against impacts of geological hazards such as liquefaction associated with earthquakes. Moreover, global environment issues including fugitive dust, contaminated soil and climate change problems are assumed to be palliated or even removed via the positive effects of this technology. Bioaugmentation, biostimulation, and enzymatic approach are three feasible paths for MICP. Decision makers should choose a compatible, efficient and economical way among them and develop an on-site solution based on engineering conditions. To further decrease the cost and energy consumption of the MICP technology, it is reasonable to make full use of industrial by-products or wastes and non-sterilized media. The prospective direction of this technology is to make construction more intelligent without human intervention, such as autogenous healing. To reach this destination, MICP could be coupled with other techniques like encapsulation and ductile fibers. MICP is undoubtfully a mainstream engineering technology for the future, while ecological balance, environmental impact and industrial applicability should still be cautiously treated in its real practice.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...