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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109603, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707339

RESUMO

Accidental phosgene exposure can result in acute lung injury (ALI). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to alleviate phosgene-induced ALI. However, the mechanism of MSCs underlying such protective effect remains largely unexplored. Exosomes, important components of microenvironment, are closely associated with intercellular information transfer. In the present study, we isolated lung exosomes in rats after phosgene exposure by ultracentrifugation and explored their effects on MSCs in vitro. ALI exosomes were elliptical in shape and 50-200 nm in size. ALI exosomes could promote proliferation and migration of MSCs. Moreover, ALI exosomes increased the secretion of IL-10, leading to enhanced immunoregulatory properties of MSCs. The paracrine factors, VEGF, HGF, LL-37 and Ang-1, were also augmented by ALI exosomes. However, ALI exosomes had no effect on differentiation of MSCs towards lung alveolar cells. To identify the effective miRNAs in ALI exosomes, we performed miRNA profile analysis. MiR-28-5p was considered as a possible effective molecule. We further studied the effect of miR-28-5p on MSCs. MiR-28-5p mimic promoted proliferation, migration, immunomodulation of MSCs. MiR-28-5p mimic promoted the paracrine of VEGF, HGF, LL-37 and Ang-1. Besides, we explored molecular mechanism of miR-28-5p in MSCs. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was found significantly augmented by miR-28-5p mimic, indicating the activation in this process. Taken together, our findings could help identify the effects of lung-derived exosomes on MSCs, and the effective molecule in exosomes, miR-28-5p, activated MSCs through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

2.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 62: 104660, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629066

RESUMO

Herba Epimedii is a famous Chinese edible herb, and due to its potential hepatotoxic effects, the safety associated with this herb has attracted a great deal of attention. In this study, the components of four types of the Herba Epimedii extracts were identified by HPLC-MS/MS. Among these components, 11 components that were present in all four extracts and could be obtained as reference substances were evaluated for their ability of cytotoxicity in HL-7702 and HepG2 cells, resulting in the identification of icarisid I and sagittatoside A as the most relevant with respect to the toxicity of the extracts. The targeted toxicological effects were further investigated using a series of correlated biological indicators to elucidate potentially hepatotoxic mechanisms. The results showed that the extracts and the selected compounds had varying degrees of influence on the leakage of ALT, AST and LDH; the activity of SOD, GSH and MDA; the increase in intercellular ROS; and the decrease in MMP. Among the tested substances, the ethanol extracts exhibited stronger hepatotoxicity, with icarisid I and sagittatoside A correlating with this toxic effect, and the hepatoxic mechanisms of which may be associated with damaged cell structure, increased oxidative stress and induction of apoptosis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785250

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postoperative pain is a negative factor that seriously affects a surgical patient's rehabilitation. We investigated whether nalbuphine provides superior postoperative analgesia in orthognathic surgery compared with sufentanil and whether the superior analgesia is achieved by the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 60 patients scheduled to undergo orthognathic surgery were randomized to receive 2.5 µg/kg of sufentanil (group S) or 2 mg/kg of nalbuphine (group N) for postoperative controlled intravenous analgesia. The primary outcome variable was the visual analog scale (VAS) score. The secondary outcome variables included the sedation score (Ramsay score) and plasma levels of inflammation factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and oxidant stress factors, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). RESULTS: The VAS scores of group N was significantly lower than those of group S, and the Ramsay scores for group N was greater. The plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and MDA for group N were significantly lower than those for group S, and the SOD levels were greater than those for group S. Furthermore, the VAS scores correlated positively with the plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and MDA and correlated negatively with the SOD levels. CONCLUSIONS: Nalbuphine offers better postoperative analgesia and sedation after orthognathic surgery. Nalbuphine also seems to provide superior postoperative analgesia by reducing inflammatory and oxidative stress.

4.
Toxicol Sci ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804693

RESUMO

Although studies have shown toxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles following inhalation, additional effects on injured lungs, which are characterized by dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary barriers, remain uncharacterized. To explore these additional effects, nano-sized ZnO (nZnO) and bulk-sized ZnO (bZnO) were applied to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mouse lungs, which were used as a disease model of acute lung inflammation. An elevated Zn2+ concentration was detected in lung tissue after LPS plus nZnO exposure. Exposure to nZnO in LPS-challenged mice resulted in higher total cell number, proportion of neutrophils, and total protein level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Intratracheal instillation of nZnO intensively aggravated LPS-induced lung inflammation that was accompanied by enhanced expression of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1αand granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Catalase, glutathione, and total superoxide dismutase levels were significantly decreased, and the malondialdehyde level was obviously increased in the LPS plus nZnO group. 8-Hydroxyguanosine, a marker for DNA damage, was highly concentrated in the lungs from the LPS plus nZnO group. Furthermore, nZnO increased lung apoptosis in an acute lung inflammation model. Taken together, this evidence indicates that nZnO aggravates lung inflammation related to LPS. This enhancement effect may be mediated via oxidative stress, which can lead to DNA damage and apoptosis. This work is important because of the ever-increasing exposure of people to ZnO nanoparticles in industry. The identification of the toxic effects of nZnO and possible mechanisms revealed in this study provide valuable information for future studies.

5.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 40(23): e1900469, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804763

RESUMO

Wearable devices have gained substantial interest for a wide range of applications, including biomonitoring and entertainment. They are basically composed of sensors and substrate materials. Recently, silicone materials have been extensively used in wearable devices because of their unique properties. Silicone materials, which possess remarkable insulation, predominantly serve as a substrate instead of a signaling material due to the indispensable electrical conductivity in wearable devices. Herein, a novel kind of silicone material, with both good conductivity and excellent self-healing efficiency, is designed by introducing imidazolium into the silicone polymer in one step. The free ions afford an ionic conductivity as high as 2.79 × 10-4 S m-1 , representing a significant improvement over traditional silicone materials. Because of the good conductivity, the silicone material is sensitive to stretching and can be applied as a flexible sensor. On the other hand, the material exhibits a high healing efficiency, reaching 89% in 6 h, due to the dynamic supramolecular interaction of the ion crosslink sites at the crack surface. Furthermore, the silicone material emits a yellow-green fluorescence under UV light.

6.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 29124-29132, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684651

RESUMO

We studied temperature-dependent amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films. For temperatures 180-360 K, a narrow-band lasing is observed. However, a new accompanying ASE band appears below 180 K, indicating a more complicated behavior. The two ASE bands are strongly correlated and in competition; they are assigned as exciton and bi-exciton recombination. We estimated the exciton binding energy (EB = 27.3 meV) and that of the bi-exciton, which is lower than the EB. The reduced effective mass of the exciton is estimated as µ = 0.11 me. This discovery identifies more details of the ASE phenomenon.

7.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703150

RESUMO

Although the alteration of DNA methylation due to abiotic stresses, such as exposure to the toxic metal cadmium (Cd), has been often observed in plants, little is known about whether such epigenetic changes are linked to the ability of plants to adapt to stress. Herein, we report a close linkage between DNA methylation and the adaptational responses in Arabidopsis plants under Cd stress. Exposure to Cd significantly inhibited the expression of three DNA demethylase genes ROS1/DML2/DML3 (RDD) and elevated DNA methylation at the genome-wide level in Col-0 roots. Furthermore, the profile of DNA methylation in Cd-exposed Col-0 roots was similar to that in the roots of rdd triple mutants, which lack RDD, indicating that Cd-induced DNA methylation is associated with the inhibition of RDD. Interestingly, the elevation in DNA methylation in rdd conferred a higher tolerance against Cd stress and improved cellular Fe nutrition in the root tissues. In addition, lowering the Fe supply abolished improved Cd tolerance due to the lack of RDD in rdd. Together, these data suggest that the inhibition of RDD-mediated DNA demethylation in the roots by Cd would in turn enhance plant tolerance to Cd stress by improving Fe nutrition through a feedback mechanism.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735294

RESUMO

As a type of severe asthenoteratospermia, multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) are characterized by the presence of immotile spermatozoa with severe flagellar malformations. MMAF is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, and the known MMAF-associated genes can only account for approximately 60% of human MMAF cases. Here we conducted whole-exome sequencing and identified bi-allelic truncating mutations of the TTC29 (tetratricopeptide repeat domain 29) gene in three (3.8%) unrelated cases from a cohort of 80 MMAF-affected Han Chinese men. TTC29 is preferentially expressed in the testis, and TTC29 protein contains the tetratricopeptide repeat domains that play an important role in cilia- and flagella-associated functions. All of the men harboring TTC29 mutations presented a typical MMAF phenotype and dramatic disorganization in axonemal and/or other peri-axonemal structures. Immunofluorescence assays of spermatozoa from men harboring TTC29 mutations showed deficiency of TTC29 and remarkably reduced staining of intraflagellar-transport-complex-B-associated proteins (TTC30A and IFT52). We also generated a Ttc29-mutated mouse model through the use of CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Remarkably, Ttc29-mutated male mice also presented reduced sperm motility, abnormal flagellar ultrastructure, and male subfertility. Furthermore, intracytoplasmic sperm injections performed for Ttc29-mutated mice and men harboring TTC29 mutations consistently acquired satisfactory outcomes. Collectively, our experimental observations in humans and mice suggest that bi-allelic mutations in TTC29, as an important genetic pathogeny, can induce MMAF-related asthenoteratospermia. Our study also provided effective guidance for clinical diagnosis and assisted reproduction treatments.

9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether interrupting prolonged sitting with 3 different walking-bout schedules improves glycemic metabolism relative to continuous prolonged sitting in sedentary adults. METHODS: In a randomized, crossover trial, 16 inactive healthy adults (7 men, 24±3 years old) completed four 26-h laboratory sessions, including 22.5 h in an energy expenditure (EE)-testing calorimeter chamber. The four 9-h intervention periods were as follows: 9-h uninterrupted sitting (SIT); 30-min sitting/3-min brisk (60% VO2max) treadmill walk (WALK3); 45-min sitting/5-min (WALK5); or 60-min sitting/8-min (WALK8). Coprimary outcomes included the difference in the mean interstitial glucose concentration, total areas under the curve (tAUC), and incremental AUC (iAUC) for the entire 26 h and 9 h (intervention period) during three activity-bout conditions compared with SIT. RESULTS: Compared with SIT, the 26-h mean glucose concentration was attenuated in WALK8 (Δmean -0.22 mmol·L [95% CI -0.43--0.001], p= 0.048) without adjustment for EE and attenuated in WALK3 (Δ-0.47 mmol·L [-0.75--0.10]), WALK5 (Δ-0.47 mmol·L [-0.83--0.10]), and WALK8 (Δ-0.53 mmol·L [-0.92--0.13]) after adjustment for EE (all p < 0.01). The 26-h tAUC was reduced in WALK3 (Δ-11.18 mmol·L·h [-20.07--2.29]), WALK5 (2.12.67 mmol·L·h [-22.54--2.79]), and WALK8 (Δ-13.85 mmol·L·h [-24.60--3.10]) (all p < 0.01), as well as the iAUC (all p < 0.05), only after adjustment for EE. The 9-h mean glucose concentration, tAUC, and iAUC decreased in the three activity-break conditions regardless of EE adjustment (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All three walking-bout conditions improved glycemic metabolism compared with SIT, independent of EE, in inactive, healthy adults.

10.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR, OMIM 133780) is a severe hereditary retinal disease characterized by incomplete retinal vascular development and pathological neovascularization. It has been reported that variants in nine genes are associated with FEVR, but they can only explain approximately 50% of FEVR patients, suggesting that other FEVR-associated variants or genes remain to be discovered. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to analyze genomic DNA samples from the probands of 68 families with FEVR. Sanger sequencing was used to verify all identified variants. Western blot analysis was utilized to detect the expression of the variant mutant proteins. A luciferase assay was conducted to test the receptor activity of the mutant FZD4 proteins in Norrin-ß-catenin signaling. RESULTS: Seven heterozygous FZD4 variants were found to cause FEVR in seven families, including six missense variants and one deletion variant: c.182C>T (p.T61I), c.205C>T (p.H69Y), c.217_234del (p.73T_78Qdel), c.264C>A (p.Y88X), c.344G>T (p.G115V), c.678G>A (p.W226X) and c.1310T>C (p.I437T). Among these variants, c.205C>T (p.H69Y) and c.678G>A (p.W226X) are known FEVR-causing variants, while the other five variants are novel pathogenic variants. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed the cause of FEVR in seven Chinese families and identified five novel pathogenic variants in FZD4, which expanded the mutation spectrum of FEVR in the Chinese population. These findings also provided further support for using WES in the clinical diagnosis of FEVR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Am J Med Sci ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia. Patients with AF are prone to forming cardiac thrombi. Elevated serum trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels are associated with increased thrombosis risk. No previous studies have examined the relationship between serum TMAO levels and thrombus formation in AF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 117 consecutive rheumatic heart disease patients with AF were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with thrombi (n = 25) and patients without thrombi (n = 92). Platelet function tests were performed by light transmittance aggregometry. Serum TMAO, betaine and choline levels were quantified by liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared between the 2 groups. The correlation between serum TMAO levels and thrombi formation was examined. RESULTS: No remarkable differences in demographic characteristics were found between the 2 groups. Serum TMAO levels were significantly higher in the thrombus group (4.55 UM [3.19-4.83] vs. 3.53 UM [2.96-4.25], P = 0.01). Enhanced platelet hyperreactivity was more likely in the thrombus group. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the diagnostic potential of serum TMAO levels to identify thrombus formation, with an area under the curve of 0.661 (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.80). Binary regression analyses showed that serum TMAO had potent predictive power for thrombus formation (P < 0.01, 95% CI of 1.21-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum TMAO levels were predictive of thrombus formation in AF patients. Our results highlight the usefulness of serum TMAO levels in identifying individuals with increased susceptibility to thrombus formation, allowing development of precise thrombus prevention strategies.

12.
Environ Int ; 134: 105258, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678662

RESUMO

Compared to rivers in Europe and North America, Chinese rivers that discharge into oceans have different organic carbon (OC) transport characteristics. Out of the top 25 largest rivers worldwide, three (Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers) are located in China, along with numerous small rivers. Thus, synthesized estimates of total riverine OC flux from Chinese rivers into marginal seas are critical but remain deficient. In this study, we developed relationships between riverine OC (dissolved OC, or DOC, and particulate OC, or POC) and basin characteristic variables (basin population density, precipitation, and riverine suspended sediment concentration) to estimate annual riverine DOC and POC fluxes during 1953-2016. The results showed that rivers in mainland China transported 9.63 Tg C of OC to the marginal seas in 2008, with 4.61 Tg C of DOC and 5.02 Tg C of POC. Of this transported OC, 14.28% DOC and 17.49% POC were transported by small southeastern rivers, whose drainage areas covered only 6.68% of the total. Because of intensifying human activities, DOC export increased but POC export decreased during 1953-2016. Additionally, basin population growth and reservoir water capacity were the major factors for increasing DOC flux and decreasing POC flux, respectively. Overall, the DOC/POC ratio increased for OC transport in Chinese rivers. Therefore, this study is important for understanding human-induced impacts on environmental change and the carbon cycle in marginal seas.

13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 121: 31-38, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) run a lifelong risk of suicide. Alterations in glia activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been reported in relation to suicide in patients with SCZ. While immune processes in the CNS have been related to the susceptibility and course of SCZ, there are hardly any direct comparisons between individuals with SCZ, both those who died of natural causes and those that committed suicide, and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared mRNA expression using real time qPCR of 16 glia-related genes in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) between 35 patients with SCZ (7 suicide completers and 28 patients who died of natural causes) and 34 well-matched controls without psychiatric or neurological diseases. RESULTS: We found an increased expression of the astrocytic gene aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) mRNA, a marker involved in dopaminergic activity, in SCZ versus controls. Excluding individuals with SCZ that committed suicide resulted in an elevated expression in the DLPFC of both ALDH1L1 and glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in patients with SCZ, compared to suicide completers and non-psychiatric controls. Regarding microglia genes: in the ACC, homeostatic markers such as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CR1) mRNA expression was increased in SCZ without suicide as compared to suicide completers, while no change was found when compared to controls. Another, purinergic receptor 12 (P2RY12) mRNA was exclusively elevated in the ACC of suicide completers, compared to either other group. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) expression, which maintains microglial metabolism, was reduced in non-suicide patients with SCZ, compared to suicide victims and control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Differential changes are found in astrocyte and microglia genes in the PFC subregions in relation to SCZ and suicide, indicating possible disturbances of glia homeostasis in these conditions.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742992

RESUMO

Inspired by blood coagulation and mussel adhesion, we report novel adhesive fibrin-bone@polydopamine (PDA)-shell composite matrix as highly efficient immobilization platform for biomacromolecules and nanomaterials. Fibrin, as a bioglue, and PDA, as a chemical adhesive, are integrated in a one-pot simultaneous polymerization consisting of biopolymerization of fibrinogen and chemical polymerization of dopamine. Fibrin fibers act as adhesive bones to construct scaffold, while PDA coat on the scaffold to form adhesive shell, generating 3D porous composite matrix with unique bone@shell structure. Two types of enzymes (glucose oxidase and acetylcholinesterase) and Au nanoparticles were adopted as respective model biomolecules and nanomaterials to investigate the immobilization capability of the matrix. The bionanocomposites showed high efficiency in capturing nanoparticles and enzymes, as well as significant mass-transfer and biocatalysis efficiencies. Therefore, the bionanocomposites exhibited significant potential in biosensing of glucose and paraoxon with limits of detection down to 5.2 µM and 4 ppt, respectively. The biological-chemical-combined polymerization strategy and composite platform with high immobilization capacity and mass-transfer efficiency open up a novel way for the preparation of high-performance bionanocomposites for various applications, in particular, biosensing.

15.
Diabetes Ther ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small fiber neuropathy (SFN)-the early stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN)-progresses gradually and is difficult to diagnose using neurophysiological tests. To facilitate the early diagnosis of SFN, biomarkers for SFN must be identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of SFN in prediabetic patients and the relationship between pNF-H and SFN. METHODS: 44 IGT patients (inpatients and outpatients) were selected at random. 33 healthy subjects served as controls. Data on clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters were collected. Quantitative sensory testing (QST), electromyography (EMG), and Sudoscan were performed, and pNF-H was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: 24 of the 44 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were diagnosed with SFN according to the modified Toronto Diabetic Neuropathy Expert Group consensus criteria. The thermal sensory thresholds of the IGT-SFN group were significantly different from those of the CTRL group (p < 0.05), except for the heat pain threshold. The sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of the sural nerve was 12.39 in the IGT-SFN group, which was significantly lower than those in the other groups. No significant difference in nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was observed among the three groups. The electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) in the IGT-SFN group was 69.78 ± 14.03uS, which was significantly lower than that in the CTRL group. The pNF-H in the IGT-SFN group was 170.6 (140.0, 223.6) pg/ml, which was significantly higher than those in the CTRL and IGT-non-SFN groups (76.55 and 64.7 pg/ml, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that pNF-H and 2h plasma glucose were independently correlated with SFN; the ORs (95% CI) were 1.429 (1.315, 1.924) and 2.375 (1.157, 4.837), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Serum pNF-H may be associated with SFN in IGT patients, and serum pNF-H could therefore serve as a sensitive biomarker for the detection of SFN.

16.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101589, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689594

RESUMO

A 62-year old sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD) male patient with APOE3 (ε3/ε3) genotype donated his peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was established by episomal vector system with the four factors OCT4, SOX2, C-MYC and KLF4. EB differentiation in vitro showed that iPSC line had a potential to differentiate into three germ layers. More than 90% cells expressed NANOG, OCT4 and SSEA4 detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the iPSC line was karyotypically normal. The iPSC line may provide new valuable tools for studying pathogenesis of sAD and screening candidate drugs for the disease.

17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet plays an important role in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Starch is the main source of carbohydrates in diets of broilers. This study investigated the effects of dietary corn starch and resistant starch on composition and function of caecal microbiota of broilers. A total of 320, 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five groups including normal corn-soybean (NC) diet, corn starch (CS) diet group, 4%, 8% and 12% resistant starch (RS) diet groups. The caecal contents of 42-day old broilers were sampled and microbiota community was analysed with 16S rRNA gene sequences. RESULTS: The CS group increased the abundances of Bilophila, Eggerthella, Olsenella and Sellimonas and decreased proportion of Akkermansia, Eisenbergiella, Oscillospira, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group and Synergistes in the caecum of birds compared to the NC group. However, the birds from RS groups had higher abundances of Anaerofilum, Bacteroides, Desulfovibrio and Parasutterella and lower abundances of Alistipes, Bilophila, Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Eggerthella and Ruminiclostridium 1 than the CS group. Functional prediction of these changes in microbiota revealed that the CS diet drove caecal microbiota that were more inclined to utilize carbohydrates through glycolysis/gluconeogenesis metabolism, while the 8%RS and 12%RS diets depleted microbial glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and amino acids metabolism. CONCLUSION: Dietary CS and RS alter the microbial composition and diversity, and modulate the metabolic pathways of microbial metabolism in caecum of broilers, which may further affect nutrient utilization and hindgut health of the host. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

18.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 203, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to confirm the safety and feasibility of simple pannus removal in patients with mechanical aortic valve dysfunction for pannus overgrowth by evaluating its early clinical outcomes. METHODS: From March 2015 to April 2019, 24 consecutive patients with mechanical aortic valve dysfunction due to subaortic pannus underwent reoperation. In 12 patients the repeat aortic valve replacement (AVR) was performed, and 12 received the simple pannus removal to preserve the previously implanted prosthesis. RESULTS: There was only 1 in-hospital death in simple pannus removal group. Significant differences were obtained between procedures in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamp time (128.7 vs 179.7 and 74.2 vs 132.7 mins, respectively, P < 0.05). The C-reactive protein (CRP) in simple pannus removal group was lower on the first day (0.13 ± 0.09 vs 0.31 ± 0.22 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and continued to be lower within 1 week after operation. There was no significant difference between procedures in aortic transvalvular peak velocity and transvalvular mean pressure gradient (TMPG) (2.6 ± 0.4 vs 2.5 ± 0.4 m/s and 13.2 ± 3.6 vs 11.6 ± 2.6 mmHg, respectively, P > 0.05) in echocardiography 1 week after operation. In addition, the aortic transvalvular peak velocity and TMPG in echocardiography 1 week after operation in pannus removal group between the repeat and initial surgery were not statistically significant (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 2.5 ± 0.3 m/s, 13.2 ± 3.6 vs. 13.0 ± 3.5 mmHg, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Simple pannus removal was a safe and effective procedure with satisfied early clinical outcomes for pannus overgrowth in mechanical aortic valve. However, further randomized and long-term follow-up studies were warranted to determine the clinical effects of the simple aortic pannus removal.

19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765753

RESUMO

Insects can exhibit flexible olfaction that is sensitive to complex natural chemical environments. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects' antennal chemosensilla can act as transporters of plant volatiles and pheromones across the sensillar lymph. Although the physiological functions of OBPs have been widely reported, it is still unclear how OBP binds to ligands with various structures in detail. Here, we further investigated the ligand-binding modes and characteristics of AcerOBP2 from the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana). The results showed that, as a specific protein distributed below the base of chemosensilla on the antennal surface, AcerOBP2 was strongly bound with the candidate floral volatiles and bee pheromones. By docking analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, four different binding modes were found in the five AcerOBP2 mutants between six ligands. Two key amino acids, Ser123 and Lys51, play a key role in AcerOBP2 binding to odors, depending on the presence or absence of hydrogen bonds. In addition, the binding modes depend on their chemical structures and the binding poses of the diverse ligands. These results not only further prompted the functional basis of the relationship between the chemical structures of odorants and bee OBPs, but also revealed the complexity of the flexible behavioral modes of odor binding in insect olfactory systems.

20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 795, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666006

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Drought stress is one of the major factors that affects wheat yield. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional enzyme that plays the important role in abiotic stress and plant development. However, in wheat, limited information about drought-responsive GAPC genes has been reported, and the mechanism underlying the regulation of the GAPC protein is unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we evaluated the potential role of GAPC1 in drought stress in wheat and Arabidopsis. We found that the overexpression of TaGAPC1 could enhance the tolerance to drought stress in transgenic Arabidopsis. Yeast one-hybrid library screening and EMSA showed that TaWRKY40 acts as a direct regulator of the TaGAPC1 gene. A dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that TaWRKY40 improved the TaGAPC1 promoter activity. The results of qRT-PCR in wheat protoplast cells with instantaneous overexpression of TaWRKY40 indicated that the expression level of TaGAPC1 induced by abiotic stress was upregulated by TaWRKY40. Moreover, TaGAPC1 promoted H2O2 detoxification in response to drought. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the inducible transcription factor TaWRKY40 could activate the transcription of the TaGAPC1 gene, thereby increasing the tolerance of plants to drought stress.

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