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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112283, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605736

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bulbus Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don (BFC) is a Chinese traditional herbal medicine that has long been used as an indispensable component in herbal prescriptions for bronchopulmonary diseases due to its well-established strong anti-inflammation and pulmonary harmonizing effects. Interestingly, there are few case reports in traditional Chinese medicine available where they found it to contribute in anti-tumor therapies. Imperialine is one of the most favored active substances extracted from BFC and has been widely recognized as an anti-inflammatory agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the current work is to provide first-hand evidences both in vitro and in vivo showing that imperialine exerts anti-cancer effects against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to explore the molecular mechanism of this anti-tumor activity. It is also necessary to examine its systemic toxicity, and to investigate how to develop strategies for feasible clinical translation of imperialine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate anti-NSCLC efficacy of imperialine using both in vitro and in vivo methods where A549 cell line were chosen as in vitro model NSCLC cells and A549 tumor-bearing mouse model was constructed for in vivo study. The detailed underlying anti-cancer mechanism has been systematically explored for the first time through a comprehensive set of molecular biology methods mainly including immunohistochemistry, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The toxicity profile of imperialine treatments were evaluated using healthy nude mice by examining hemogram and histopathology. An imperialine-loaded liposomal drug delivery system was developed using thin film hydration method to evaluate target specific delivery. RESULTS: The results showed that imperialine could suppress both NSCLC tumor and associated inflammation through an inflammation-cancer feedback loop in which NF-κB activity was dramatically inhibited by imperialine. The NSCLC-targeting liposomal system was successfully developed for targeted drug delivery. The developed platform could favorably enhance imperialine cellular uptake and in vivo accumulation at tumor sites, thus improving overall anti-tumor effect. The toxicity assays revealed imperialine treatments did not significantly disturb blood cell counts in mice or exert any significant damage to the main organs. CONCLUSIONS: Imperialine exerts anti-cancer effects against NSCLC both in vitro and in vivo, and this previously unknown function is related to NF-κB centered inflammation-cancer feedback loop. Imperialine mediated anti-cancer activity is not through cytotoxicity and exhibit robust systemic safety. Furthermore, the liposome-based system we commenced would dramatically enhance therapeutic effects of imperialine while exhibiting extremely low side effects both on cellular and in NSCLC model. This work has identified imperialine as a promising novel anti-cancer compound and offered an efficient target-delivery solution that greatly facilitate practical use of imperialine.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2592-2597, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492281

RESUMO

Graphene-based nanocomposites of graphene-Co, graphene-Ni, and graphene-Fe3O4 were synthesized via improved chemical-carbothermal reduction using graphite and nitrates as starting materials. The Co, Ni, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles are uniformly loaded on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets without serious folds and conglomeration. The average dimensions of the Co, Ni, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles attached to graphene are approximately 50, 60, and 5 nm, respectively. Subsequently, three novel types of graphene-Co/Ni/Fe3O4 nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were fabricated, and their electrocatalytic activity for reduction of p-nitrophenol was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in phosphate buffer solution. Results show that the current values increase as the scanning rate is increased from 70 mV·s-1 to 100 mV·s-1 and that the electrochemical reactions on the surface of the graphene-Co/Ni/Fe3O4-modified GCEs are diffusion controlled. Compared with the bare GCE, the graphene-Co/Ni/Fe3O4 nanocomposite-modified GCEs display considerably higher reduction peak current, which proves that the graphene-Co/Ni/Fe3O4 nanocomposites possess favorable electrocatalytic ability for reduction of p-nitrophenol.

3.
Food Chem ; 304: 125446, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491715

RESUMO

Fused coumarins recently attracted strong scientific interest due to their potent pharmacological activities. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to evaluate the antiradical activities of a series of coumarin-fused coumarins. By calculating the thermodynamic parameters, three primary mechanisms including hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) were examined. It was found that in the gas and benzene phases, the studied compounds prefer to undergo HAT mechanism, while SPLET is more favored in polar media. The results also reveal the possibility of double HAT and double SPLET mechanisms for compound CC-6. Interestingly, a new polycyclic compound was generated by forming a new C5-O5' bond during the second HAT process at the 5'-OH in CC-6-R6 radical. In addition, the SPLHAT mechanism is proposed as a competitive pathway for radical scavenging by CC-4, CC-5 and CC-6.

4.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670441

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of the prime-and-rinse approach, using a 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-containing primer, on the short- and long-term dentin microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of mild self-etch adhesives. Half of sixty human midcoronal dentin surfaces were polished as control (self-etch approach), and the other half were polished and further treated with a 15% MDP-containing primer and thoroughly sprayed with water as prime-and-rinse approach. The dentin surfaces were treated with a self-etch adhesive, and a composite resin was placed on the surfaces. The following materials were used: Clearfil S3 Bond+Clearfil Majesty; G-Bond+Gradia Direct; Adper Easy One+Z250; and i Bond+Charisma. The MTBS was examined after 24 h and 14 months in water storage. The resin-dentin interfaces were analysed using scanning electron microscopy/transmission electron microscopy. Pretreated dentin surfaces were further analysed using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Compared with the self-etch approach, the prime-and-rinse approach significantly increased the dentin MTBS, regardless of the duration of storage. The scanning electron microscopy/transmission electron microscopy findings revealed that the prime-and-rinse approach removed most of the dentin smear layer. The Raman spectra of the MDP-treated dentin reveal the characteristic spectra of collagen, hydroxyapatite, and the monomer. Therefore, the prime-and-rinse approach using MDP-containing primers prior to the application of mild self-etch adhesives significantly increases the short- and long-term MTBS of dentin.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670874

RESUMO

This was a post hoc analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), aimed to investigate whether intensive blood pressure treatment has differential therapeutic outcomes on patients with different baseline Framingham risk score (FRS). The 9298 SPRINT participants were categorized into low-risk (baseline FRS < 10%), intermediate-risk (FRS = 10%-20%), or high-risk (FRS > 20%) arms. The primary outcome was a composite of myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome not resulting in myocardial infarction, stroke, acute decompensated heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes. Serious adverse events were defined as hypotension, syncope, and bradycardia. Multiple Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for study outcomes with intensive compared with standard SBP treatment between these three groups. After a median follow-up time of 3.26 years, the primary outcome hazard ratio (HR) for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.61-0.88, P = .0044) in the high-risk arm. And, for all-cause mortality, the hazard ratio with intensive SBP treatment was 1.58 (95% CI: 0.55-1.06), 0.9 (95% CI: 0.26-9.50), and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.34-0.82) in three arms (all P values for interaction > 0.05). Effects of intensive versus standard SBP control on serious adverse events were similar among patients with different FRS. Our results suggested that regardless of the FRS level, the intensive blood pressure control was beneficial.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the effect of changes in dialysis hours on patient-reported outcome measures. We report the effect of doubling dialysis hours on a range of patient-reported outcome measures in a randomized trial, overall and separately for important subgroups. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The A Clinical Trial of IntensiVE Dialysis trial randomized 200 participants to extended or standard weekly hours hemodialysis for 12 months. Patient-reported outcome measures included two health utility scores (EuroQOL-5 Dimensions-3 Level, Short Form-6 Dimension) and their derived quality-adjusted life year estimates, two generic health scores (Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, Mental Component Summary), and a disease-specific score (Kidney Disease Component Score). Outcomes were assessed as the mean difference from baseline using linear mixed effects models adjusted for time point and baseline score, with interaction terms added for subgroup analyses. Prespecified subgroups were dialysis location (home- versus institution-based), dialysis vintage (≤6 months versus >6 months), region (China versus Australia, New Zealand, Canada), and baseline score (lowest, middle, highest tertile). Multiplicity-adjusted P values (Holm-Bonferroni) were calculated for the main analyses. RESULTS: Extended dialysis hours was associated with improvement in Short Form-6 Dimension (mean difference, 0.027; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.00 to 0.05; P=0.03) which was not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (Padjusted =0.05). There were no significant differences in EuroQOL-5 Dimensions-3 Level health utility (mean difference, 0.036; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.09; P=0.2; Padjusted =0.2) or in quality-adjusted life years. There were small positive differences in generic and disease-specific quality of life: Physical Component Summary (mean difference, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.6 to 4.1; P=0.01; Padjusted =0.04), Mental Component Summary (mean difference, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.5 to 4.6; P=0.02; Padjusted =0.05) and Kidney Disease Component Score (mean difference, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 5.5; P=0.001; Padjusted =0.005). The results did not differ among predefined subgroups or by baseline score. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of extended hours hemodialysis on patient-reported outcome measures reached statistical significance in some but not all measures. Within each measure the effect was consistent across predefined subgroups. The clinical importance of these differences is unclear.

7.
Opt Express ; 27(19): 27062-27075, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674574

RESUMO

We investigate the performance of coherent free-space optical (FSO) system in terms of bit error rate (BER) evaluation by adopting the modified Rician distribution based coherent channel model which allows taking into consideration the composite effects of both Rician turbulence, including amplitude fluctuation and optical phase distortion, and pointing errors (PEs). By expanding the Rician distribution, a mathematically traceable expression of the probability density function (PDF) for the composite channel is derived in the form of the Meijer-G function. Based on the composite channel PDF, the exact BER expression is obtained, allowing the analysis of BER performance for single-input single-output (SISO) links. This analysis is extended to single-input multi-output (SIMO) links with maximal ratio combining (MRC). With the help of the moment generating function (MGF), the exact BER expression can be simplified into a single integral, facilitating the analysis with high accuracy and reducing calculation complexity. Engineering insights including high-SNR approximated channel PDF, asymptotic BER expression, coding and diversity gains, are investigated and cross-validated for both SISO and SIMO links. Through both analytical and numerical verifications, the impairment due to PEs as well as the effect of modal compensation on the BER performance are discussed in detail, unveiling the fact that their inner relations should be taken into account for optimization. These verify the effectiveness of our models for both SISO and SIMO links with a wide range of different conditions and can be feasibly applied for different types of coherent FSO links.

8.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675163

RESUMO

CONTRACT GRANT SPONSOR: National Natural Science Foundation of China; Contract grant number: 81260214. BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the diagnostic value of Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI in small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ki67 and CD34 are histologic markers that reflect the proliferation of tumor cells and the microvascular density (MVD). PURPOSE: To explore the diagnostic value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for Ki67 expression and MVD in HCC. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: In all, 180 patients with HCC. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 WI volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) axial fat suppression plain, and enhanced scanning. ASSESSMENT: The T1 relaxation time (T1 rt) and signal intensity (SI) of the lesion were measured. The Ki67 expressions and MVD were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. STATISTICAL TEST: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of T1 rt for high Ki67 expression (≥50%) and high MVD (≥100). RESULTS: The T1 rt-20min, rrT1 rt-20min, and SI-hepatobiliary phase (SI-HBP) were strongly correlated with Ki67, the r values were 0.846, -0.765, and -0.760 (P < 0.05), respectively. There were moderate correlations with CD34, with r values -0.444, 0.336, and -0.463 (P < 0.05), respectively. The T1 rt-Pre, T1 rt-20min, SI-Pre, and SI-HBP were significantly different both between the high and low ki67 expression groups (P < 0.05) and between the high MVD and low MVD groups (P < 0.05). In the two groups the T1 rt-20min and SI-HBP was 800.06 ± 128.91 vs. 530.06 ± 139.29 (P < 0.05) and 122.29 ± 39.39 vs. 173.49 ± 46.15 (P < 0.05); T1 rt-20min was found to have high diagnostic efficiency for high ki67 expression (area under the curve [AUC], 0.937; P < 0.05) T1 rt-20min had moderate diagnostic value for high MVD (AUC, 0.716; P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: The T1 rt and SI of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were correlated with Ki67 expression and MVD. T1 rt-20min has a high diagnostic value for high ki67 expression and high MVD in HCC tissues. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2019.

9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 560: 177-185, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670015

RESUMO

Energy-efficient membranes are urgently needed for water desalination and separation due to ever-increasing demand for fresh water. However, it is extremely challenging to increase membrane water flux and simultaneously achieve high rejection rates of cations or organic dyes. Herein, we report a tannic acid (TA) assisted exfoliation method to fabricate TA-modified MoS2 (TAMoS2) nanosheets with high production yield (90 ±â€¯5%). The TAMoS2 nanosheets membranes show excellent non-swelling stability in water. It is found that a hybrid membrane with 1 wt% of TAMoS2 in MoS2 nanosheets demonstrates overall better performance than pure MoS2 and TAMoS2 membrane. Such a hybrid membrane with a thickness of 5 µm shows fast water flux at around 32 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) and >97% rejection of various cations under static diffusion mode. Under vacuum-driven filtration condition, the as-prepared hybrid membrane demonstrates ultrafast water flux of 15,000 ±â€¯100 L/(m2 h bar) and 99.87 ±â€¯0.1% rejection of multiple model organic dyes. To the best of our knowledge, the above performances are superior to those of all MoS2-based membranes reported previously in terms of water flux and ion/dye rejection. This work represents a leap forward towards the practical applications of 2D TAMoS2 membranes in various engineering and environmental areas.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(21)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671637

RESUMO

Based on the up-regulation of the proviral integration site of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Pim) kinase family (Pim1, 2, and 3) observed in several types of leukemias and lymphomas, the development of pan-Pim inhibitors is an attractive therapeutic strategy. While only PIM447 and AZD1208 have entered the clinical stages. To elucidate the interaction mechanisms of three Pim kinases with PIM447 and AZD1208, six Pim/ligand systems were studied by homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) binding free energy calculation. The residues of the top group (Leu44, Val52, Ala65, Lys67, and Leu120 in Pim1) dominated the pan-Pim inhibitors binding to Pim kinases. The residues of the bottom group (Gln127, Asp128, and Leu174 in Pim1) were crucial for Pims/PIM447 systems, while the contributions of these residues were decreased sharply for Pims/AZD1208 systems. It is likely that the more potent pan-Pim inhibitors should be bound strongly to the top and bottom groups. The residues of the left, right and loop groups were located in the loop regions of the binding pocket, however, the flexibility of these regions triggered the protein interacting with diverse pan-Pim inhibitors efficiently. We hope this work can provide valuable information for the design of novel pan-Pim inhibitors in the future.

11.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 3862024, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636735

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a promising alternative biomarker of chronic liver diseases, but most data are from patients with HBV infection rather than HCV. Materials and Methods: Two independent cohorts of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients from the 5th Medical Centre of the Chinese PLA General Hospital (n = 174) and Beijing Youan Hospital (n = 120) with different histories of HCV infection were enrolled. The correlations between serum GP73 and other biochemical indices, as well as its correlations with different stages of liver disease progression, were investigated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of serum GP73 for liver necroinflammation and fibrosis, and comparisons of the diagnostic efficiency with traditional indices of hepatic liver injuries were further investigated. Results: Levels of serum GP73 were found significantly elevated in patients with moderate to severe inflammatory grade (G ≥ 2) and/or with advanced fibrotic stages (F ≥ 3) in both cohorts (P < 0.05, respectively), as compared to those with a normal or mild liver lesion. Further ROC analysis demonstrated that serum GP73 was comparable to serum ALT and AST in diagnosing the liver necroinflammation grade at G ≥ 2, but its diagnostic values for advanced fibrosis (F ≥ 3) and cirrhosis (F = 4) were limited when compared to APRI and FIB-4, and FIB-4 exhibited the best performance. Notably, an obvious elevation of serum GP73 was observed after patients received PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment. Conclusions: Serum GP73 is an important biomarker in evaluating and monitoring the disease progression including liver necroinflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection, but the value is limited for diagnosing advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in comparison with APRI and FIB-4.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647401

RESUMO

A novel Gram-negative bacterium, designated CFH 10530T, was isolated from the intestine of grass carp. The sample was collected from the aquaculture training base at the College of Fisheries, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, PR China. Cells of strain CFH 10530T were coccoid, ovoid or short-rod-shaped, aerobic, non-spore-forming and non-motile. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that strain CFH 10530T was closely related to Paracoccus endophyticus SYSUP0003T (97.7 % sequence similarity), Paracoccus halophilus HN-182T (96.5 %) and Paracoccus panacisoli DCY94T (96.1 %). The strain grew optimally at 25-28 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Cells were positive for catalase and oxidase, nitrate was reduced and H2S was not produced. The isoprenoid quinone was Q-10. Major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8, C18 : 0 and C18 : 03-OH. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminolipid and five unidentified polar lipids. The genome size was 3 331 229 bp with a G+C content of 69.6 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between CFH 10530T and the other species of the genus Paracoccus were found to be below the recommended levels for species delineation (ANIm <85, ANIb <80 and dDDH <24 %). Based on its physiological properties, chemotaxonomic characteristics and low ANI and dDDH results, strain CFH 10530T is considered to represent a novel species for which the name Paracoccus luteus sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is CFH 10530T (=KCTC 62919T=CGMCC 1.16597T).

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(21)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652768

RESUMO

Expansins, cell-wall loosening proteins, play an important role in plant growth and development and abiotic stress tolerance. Ammopiptanthus nanus (A. nanus) is an important plant to study to understand stress resistance in forestry. In our previous study, two α-type expansins from A. nanus were cloned and named AnEXPA1 and AnEXPA2. In this study, we found that they responded to different abiotic stress and hormone signals. It suggests that they may play different roles in response to abiotic stress. Their promoters show some of the same element responses to abiotic stress and hormones, but some special elements were identified between the expansins that could be essential for their expression. In order to further testify the reliability of the above results, we conducted an analysis of ß-glucuronidase (GUS) dyeing. The analysis showed that AnEXPA1 was only induced by cold stress, whereas AnEXPA2 responded to hormone induction. AnEXPA1 and AnEXPA2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed better tolerance to cold and drought stresses. Moreover, the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly improved in the transgenic plants, and expansin activity was enhanced. These results suggested that AnEXPA1 and AnEXPA2 play an important role in the response to abiotic stress. Our research contributes to a better understanding of the regulatory network of expansins and may benefit agricultural production.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654228

RESUMO

Riemerella anatipestifer is a gram-negative bacterium that leads to severe contagious septicemia in ducks, turkeys, chickens, and wild waterfowl. Here, a pan-genome with 32 R. anatipestifer genomes is re-established, and the mathematical model is calculated to evaluate the expansion of R. anatipestifer genomes, which were determined to be open. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) and phylogenetic analysis preliminarily clarify intraspecies variation and distance. Comparative genomic analysis of R. anatipestifer found that horizontal gene transfer events, which provide an expressway for the recruitment of novel functionalities and facilitate genetic diversity in microbial genomes, play a key role in the process of acquiring and transmitting antibiotic-resistance genes in R. anatipestifer. Furthermore, a new antibiotic-resistance gene cluster was identified in the same loci in 14 genomes. The uneven distribution of virulence factors was also confirmed by our results. Our study suggests that the ability to acquire foreign genes (such as antibiotic-resistance genes) increases the adaptability of R. anatipestifer, and the virulence genes with little mobility are highly conserved in R. anatipestifer.

15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572398

RESUMO

Alphaherpesviruses are a large family of highly successful human and animal DNA viruses that can establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. All alphaherpesviruses have a protein-rich layer called the tegument that, connects the DNA-containing capsid to the envelope. Tegument proteins have a variety of functions, playing roles in viral entry, secondary envelopment, viral capsid nuclear transportation during infection, and immune evasion. Recently, many studies have made substantial breakthroughs in characterizing the innate immune evasion of tegument proteins. A wide range of antiviral tegument protein factors that control incoming infectious pathogens are induced by the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and other innate immune responses. In this review, we discuss the immune evasion of tegument proteins with a focus on herpes simplex virus type I.

16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 558: 173-181, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586737

RESUMO

Wetting phenomena of oil/water/solid systems are fundamentally governed by the stability of confined water film and interaction mechanism between oil droplet and solid surface in water. Herein, droplet probe AFM was used to quantify the surface forces of model oil droplets including toluene and heptol in presence of interfacial asphaltenes interacting with mica surfaces of varied hydrophobicity in different water environments. It was found that adsorption of asphalenes at oil/water interface could result in the enhanced electrical double layer (EDL) repulsion at low salinity while strengthen the steric repulsion at high salinity, both of which contributed to a more stable water film between oil droplets and mica surfaces, inhibiting oil droplet attachment. Addition of heptane strengthened the repulsive EDL force and steric hindrance since more asphaltenes were adsorbed onto the interface. For hydrophobized mica surface, the attractive hydrophobic interaction could overcome steric hindrance due to interfacially adsorbed asphaltenes, thereby inducing strong attachment and adhesion of oil droplet. Our results demonstrate the nanomechanical mechanism underlying the interactions between oil droplets and solid surfaces in presence of interfacial materials, which can further explain the wetting of oil/water/solid systems in many engineering applications such as oil fouling and corrosion, and oil/water separation.

17.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648654

RESUMO

AIMS: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with a high risk of suicide. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of suicide attempts (SA) in patients with BD and its associated factors. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from their inception to 11 June 2018. The prevalence of SA in BD was synthesised using the random-effects model. RESULTS: The search identified 3451 articles of which 79 studies with 33 719 subjects met the study entry criteria. The lifetime prevalence of SA was 33.9% (95% CI 31.3-36.6%; I2 = 96.4%). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was positively associated with female gender, BD-I, BD Not Otherwise Specified and rapid cycling BD subtypes, income level and geographic region. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirmed that SA is common in BD and identified a number of factors related to SA. Further efforts are necessary to facilitate the identification and prevention of SA in BD. Long-term use of mood stabilisers coupled with psycho-social interventions should be available to BD patients to reduce the risk of suicidal behaviour.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651377

RESUMO

A novel Gram-staining negative, aerobic, motile by flagellum, rod-shaped bacterium, designated CFH 70021T was isolated from a hot spring soil sample collected from Tengchong, Yunnan province, PR China. Growth of CFH 70021T occurred at 15-50 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 5.0-7.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %, w/v). The genome of CFH 70021T consisted of four complete circular chromosomes and five plasmids, the genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3 mol%. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that CFH 70021T represented a member of the genus Azospirillum and showed close relationship with the type strains of Azospirillum agricola CC-HIH038T (97.8 %), Azospirillum rugosum IMMIB AFH-6T (97.6 %), Azospirillum doebereinerae GSF71T (97.6 %), Azospirillum thiophilum DSM 21654T (97.4 %) and Azospirillum picis IMMIB TAR-3T (97.2 %). The polar lipids of CFH 70021T contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmehtylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two aminolipids and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) included C19:0cyclo ω8c (11.4 %), C16 : 0 (27.6 %) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c/C18:1ω6c, 40.9 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10. On the basis of the low ANIb result (<78 %) and different phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characters, we conclude that strain CFH 70021T represents a novel member of the genus Azospirillum, for which the name Azospirillum thermophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CFH 70021T (=KCTC 62259T= CCTCC AB2018121T).

19.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658680

RESUMO

Flaviviruses, most of which are emerging and re-emerging human pathogens and significant public health concerns worldwide, are positive-sense RNA viruses. Flavivirus replication occurs on the ER and is regulated by many mechanisms and factors. NS5, which consists of a C-terminal RdRp domain and an N-terminal methyltransferase domain, plays a pivotal role in genome replication and capping. The C-terminal RdRp domain acts as the polymerase for RNA synthesis and cooperates with diverse viral proteins to facilitate productive RNA proliferation within the replication complex. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the functions and characteristics of the RdRp, including the subcellular localization of NS5, as well as the network of interactions formed between the RdRp and genome UTRs, NS3, and the methyltransferase domain. We posit that a detailed understanding of RdRp functions may provide a target for antiviral drug discovery and therapeutics.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577511

RESUMO

GMAP210 is a cis-Golgi network-associated protein and Golgi membrane receptor for IFT20, intraflagellar transport component essential for male fertility and spermiogenesis in mice. To investigate the role of GMAP210 in male fertility and spermatogenesis, floxed Gmap210 mice were bred with Stra8-iCre mice so that Gmap210 is disrupted in spermatocytes and spermatids in this study. The Gmap210flox/flox: Stra8-iCre mutant mice showed no gross abnormalities and survived to adulthood. In adult males, testis and body weights showed no difference between controls and mutant mice. Low magnification histological examination of the testes revealed normal seminiferous tubule structure but sperm counts and fertility were significantly reduced in mutant mice. Higher resolution examination of the mutant seminiferous epithelium discovered that nearly all sperm had more oblong, abnormally shaped heads, while the sperm tails appeared to have normal morphology. Electron microscopy also revealed abnormally shaped sperm heads but normal axoneme core structure; some sperm showed membrane defects in the midpiece. In mutant mice, expression levels of IFT20 and other selective acrosomal proteins were significantly reduced, and their localization was also affected. Peanut-lectin, an acrosome maker, was almost absent in the spermatids and epididymal sperm. Mitochondrion staining was highly concentrated in heads of sperm, suggesting that midpieces were coiling around or aggregating near the heads. Defects in acrosome biogenesis were further confirmed by electron microscopy. Collectively, our findings suggest that GMAP210 is essential for acrosome biogenesis, normal mitochondrial sheath formation and male fertility, and it determines expression levels and acrosomal localization of IFT20 and other acrosomal proteins.

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