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1.
J Vis Exp ; (207)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884460

RESUMO

Cerebral conditions often require precise diagnosis and monitoring, necessitating advanced imaging techniques. Current modalities may not adequately detect early signs of reversible tissue damage, underlining the need for innovative diagnostic tools that can quantify changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with high specificity and sensitivity. This study integrates three-dimensional arterial spin labeling (3D-ASL) with structural MRI to develop comprehensive CBF atlases that cover all main functional regions of the brain. This innovative magnetic resonance imaging- arterial spin labeling (MRI-ASL) methodology provides a rapid and noninvasive means of quantifying region-specific CBF, offering a detailed view of CBF levels across different functional regions.The comparison between chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) patients and healthy subjects revealed significantly diminished CBF across the cerebral functional regions in the constructed CBF atlases for the former. This approach not only allows for the efficient identification of CCI by analyzing concurrent decreases in CBF across critical areas relative to healthy distributions but also enables the tracking of treatment responses and rehabilitation progress through longitudinal CBF atlases.The CBF atlas developed using the MRI-ASL technique represents a novel advancement in the field of cerebral diagnostics and patient care. By comparing regional CBF levels against normative standards, this method enhances diagnostic capabilities, enabling clinicians to provide personalized care to patients with cerebral conditions.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Marcadores de Spin , Humanos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Atlas como Assunto
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5002, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866740

RESUMO

Twisted a pair of stacked two-dimensional materials exhibit many exotic electronic and photonic properties, leading to the emergence of flat-band superconductivity, moiré engineering and topological polaritons. These remarkable discoveries make twistronics the focus point of tremendous interest, but mostly limited to the concept of electrons, phonons or photons. Here, we present twist piezoelectricity as a fascinating paradigm to modulate polarization and electromechanical coupling by twisting precisely the stacked lithium niobate slabs due to the interlayer coupling effect. Particularly, the inversed and twisted bilayer lithium niobate is constructed to overcome the intrinsic mutual limitation of single crystals and giant effective electromechanical coupling coefficient k t 2 is unveiled at magic angle of 11 1 ∘ , reaching 85.5%. Theoretical analysis based on mutual energy integrals shows well agreements with numerical and experimental results. Our work opens new venues to flexibly control multi-physics with magic angle, stimulating progress in wideband acoustic-electric, and acoustic-optic components, which has great potential in wireless communication, timing, sensing, and hybrid integrated photonics.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(6): 3553-3561, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897775

RESUMO

This study was conducted to clarify the long-term effects of biochar application on the structure and function of the fungal community in continuous cropping watermelon soil. Taking watermelon root soil as the research object, Illumina NovaSeq high-throughput sequencing and FUNGuild platform were used to analyze the differences in soil fungal community composition, diversity, and function after 3-year biochar additions of 7.5, 15.0, and 30.0 t·hm-2 and to explore the correlation between soil environmental factors and fungal community structure under the control of biochar. The results showed that compared to that in the absence of biochar (control), the soil pH, available phosphorus, available potassium, total nitrogen, organic matter, and cation exchange capacity increased, but available nitrogen decreased with biochar addition. High-throughput sequencing results showed that biochar amendment improved the fungal community structure in continuous cropping watermelon soil and increased the richness and diversity of soil fungi. A total of 922 OTU were obtained from all soil samples, and the species annotation results indicated that the dominant fungal groups were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Glomeromycota, with these phyla accounting for 85.70 %-92.45 % of the total sequences.The relative abundance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota decreased, whereas the abundance of Mortierellomycota and Glomeromycota increased with biochar addition.At the genus level, the application of biochar increased the relative abundance of Mortierella and Rhizophlyctis but decreased the abundance of Fusarium. The Mantel test showed that soil available potassium, available nitrogen, organic matter, and pH were the main environmental factors leading to the shift in the soil fungal community composition.The functional prediction with FUNGuild showed that the many nutrient types among the different treatments were saprotrophic, pathotrophic, and symbiotrophic. The relative abundance of pathotrophs significantly decreased, but the abundance of symbiotrophs significantly increased with the medium and high doses of biochar treatment. In conclusion, the application of biochar changed the soil physicochemical properties, promoted the development of soil fungal community structure and functional groups in a healthy and beneficial direction, and improved the quality of continuous cropping watermelon soil.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Citrullus , Fungos , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/classificação , Solo/química , Micobioma , Fertilizantes
4.
Biochem Genet ; 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877158

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi associated with plants may contain undiscovered bioactive compounds. Under standard laboratory conditions, most undiscovered compounds are inactive, whereas their production could be stimulated under different cultivation conditions. In this study, six endophytic fungi were isolated from the bark of Koelreuteria paniculata in Quancheng Park, Jinan City, Shandong Province, one of which was identified as a new subspecies of Aureobasidium pullulans, named A. pullulans KB3. Additionally, metabolomic tools were used to screen suitable media for A. pullulans KB3 fermentation, and the results showed that peptone dextrose medium (PDM) was more beneficial to culture A. pullulans KB3 for isolation of novel compounds. Sphaerolone, a polyketone compound, was initially isolated from A. pullulans KB3 via scaled up fermentation utilizing PDM. Additionally, the whole-genome DNA of A. pullulans KB3 was sequenced to facilitate compound isolation and identify the biosynthesis gene clusters (BGCs). This study reports the multi-omics (metabolome and genome) analysis of A. pullulans KB3, laying the foundation for discovering novel compounds of silent BGCs and identifying their biosynthesis pathway.

5.
Front Genet ; 15: 1383696, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836040

RESUMO

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) frequently presents with oral manifestations, including gingival inflammation, loose teeth, and mouth ulcers; however, the causal connections between these conditions remain unclear. This study aims to explore the genetic correlations and causal relationships between RA and prevalent oral phenotypes. Methods: Using summary data from genome-wide association studies of European populations, a cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was conducted to estimate the genetic correlations between RA and six oral phenotypes. Subsequently, a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was employed to assess the causal relationships, corroborated by various sensitivity analyses. Heterogeneity was addressed through the RadialMR method, while potential covariates were corrected using the multivariable MR approach. Results: A significant negative genetic correlation was detected between RA and denture usage (rg = -0.192, p = 4.88 × 10-8). Meanwhile, a heterogenous causal relationship between RA and mouth ulcers was observed (OR = 1.027 [1.005-1.05], p = 0.016, P heterogeneity = 4.69 × 10-8), which remained robust across sensitivity analyses. After excluding outlier variants, the results demonstrated robustly consistent (OR = 1.021 [1.008-1.035], p = 1.99 × 10-3, P heterogeneity = 0.044). However, upon adjusting for covariates such as smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and obesity, the significance diminished, revealing no evidence to support independent genetic associations. Conclusion: Genetically predicted RA increases the risk of mouth ulcers, and a negative genetic correlation is identified between RA and denture use. The observed heterogeneity suggests that shared immunological mechanisms and environmental factors may play significant roles. These findings highlight the importance of targeted dental management strategies for RA patients. Further clinical guidelines are required to improve oral health among vulnerable RA patients.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842938

RESUMO

Cinnamoyl-containing nonribosomal peptides (CCNPs) constitute a unique family of natural products. The enzyme mechanism for the biaryl phenol coupling reaction of the bicyclic CCNPs remains unclear. Herein, we report the discovery of two new arabinofuranosylated bicyclic CCNPs cihanmycins (CHMs) A (1) and B (2) from Amycolatopsis cihanbeyliensis DSM 45679 and the identification of the CHM biosynthetic gene cluster (cih BGC) by heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans SBT18 to afford CHMs C (3) and D (4). The structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Three cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP)-encoding genes cih26, cih32, and cih33 were individually inactivated in the heterologous host to produce CHMs E (5), F (6), and G (7), respectively. The structures of 5 and 6 indicated that Cih26 was responsible for the hydroxylation and epoxidation of the cinnamoyl moiety, and Cih32 should catalyze the ß-hydroxylation of three amino acid residues. Cih33 and its homologues DmlH and EpcH were biochemically verified to convert CHM G (7) with a monocyclic structure to a bicyclic skeleton of CHM C (3) through an intramolecular C-O phenol coupling reaction. The substrate 7-bound crystal structure of DmlH not only established the structure of 7, which was difficult for NMR analysis for displaying anomalous splitting signals, but also provided the binding mode of macrocyclic peptides recognized by these intramolecular C-O coupling CYPs. In addition, computational studies revealed a water-mediated diradical mechanism for the C-O phenol coupling reaction. These findings have shed important mechanistic insights into the CYP-catalyzed phenol coupling reactions.

7.
J Nat Prod ; 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862138

RESUMO

Mangrove derived actinomycetes are a rich reservoir of bioactive natural products and play important roles in pharmaceutical chemistry. In a screen of actinomycetes from mangrove rhizosphere sedimental environments, the isolated strain Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 40068 displayed strong antibacterial activity. Further fractionation of the extract yielded four new compounds kebanmycins A-D (1-4) and two known analogues FD-594 (5) and the aglycon (6). The structures of 1-6 were determined based on extensive spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. 1-3 featured a fused pyranonaphthaxanthene as an integral part of a 6/6/6/6/6/6 polycyclic motif, and showed bioactivity against a series of Gram-positive bacteria and cytotoxicity to several human tumor cells. In addition, the kebanmycins biosynthetic gene cluster (keb) was identified in Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 40068, and KebMT2 was biochemically characterized as a tailoring sugar-O-methyltransferase, leading to a proposed biosynthetic route to 1-6. This study paves the way to further investigate 1 as a potential lead compound.

8.
Anal Sci Adv ; 5(1-2): 2300054, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828084

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Soil microbial heterotrophic C-CO2 respiration is important for C cycling. Soil CO2 differentiation and quantification are vital for understanding soil C cycling and CO2 emission mitigation. Presently, soil microbial respiration (SR) quantification models are based on native soil organic matter (SOM) and require consistent monitoring of δ13C and CO2. METHODS: We present a new apparatus for achieving in situ soil static chamber incubation and simultaneous CO2 and δ13C monitoring by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) coupled with a soil culture and gas introduction module (SCGIM) with multi-channel. After a meticulous five-point inter-calibration, the repeatability of CO2 and δ13C values by using CRDS-SCGIM were determined, and compared with those obtained using gas chromatography (GC) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. We examined the method regarding quantifying SR with various concentrations and enrichment of glucose and then applied it to investigate the responses of SR to the addition of different exogenous organic materials (glucose and rice residues) into paddy soils during a 21-day incubation. RESULTS: The CRDS-SCGIM CO2 and δ13C measurements were conducted with high precision (< 1.0 µmol/mol and 1‰, respectively). The optimal sampling interval and the amount added were not exceeded 4 h and 200 mg C/100 g dry soil in a 1 L incubation bottle, respectively; the 13C-enrichment of 3%-7% was appropriate. The total SR rates observed were 0.6-4.2 µL/h/g and the exogenous organic materials induced -49%-28% of priming effects in native SOM mineralisation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that CRDS-SCGIM is a method suitable for the quantification of soil microbial CO2 respiration, requiring less extensive lab resources than GC/IRMS.

9.
Compr Psychiatry ; 133: 152487, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been on the rise in recent years. Studies have shown that people with NSSI have difficulties in emotion regulation and cognitive control. In addition, some studies have investigated the cognitive emotion regulation of people with NSSI which found that they have difficulties in cognitive emotion regulation, but there was a lack of research on cognitive emotion regulation strategies and related neural mechanisms. METHODS: This study included 117 people with NSSI (age = 19.47 ± 5.13, male = 17) and 84 non-NSSI participants (age = 19.86 ± 4.14, male = 16). People with NSSI met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, and non-NSSI participants had no mental or physical disorders. The study collected all participants' data of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the differences in psychological performance and brain between two groups. Afterwards, Machine learning was used to select the found differential brain regions to obtain the highest correlation regions with NSSI. Then, Allen's Human Brain Atlas database was used to compare with the information on the abnormal brain regions of people with NSSI to find the genetic information related to NSSI. In addition, gene enrichment analysis was carried out to find the related pathways and specific cells that may have differences. RESULTS: The differences between NSSI participants and non-NSSI participants were as follows: positive refocusing (t = -4.74, p < 0.01); refocusing on plans (t = -4.11, p < 0.01); positive reappraisal (t = -9.22, p < 0.01); self-blame (t = 6.30, p < 0.01); rumination (t = 3.64, p < 0.01); catastrophizing (t = 9.10, p < 0.01), and blaming others (t = 2.52, p < 0.01), the precentral gyrus (t = 6.04, pFDR < 0.05) and the rolandic operculum (t = -4.57, pFDR < 0.05). Rolandic operculum activity was negatively correlated with blaming others (r = -0.20, p < 0.05). Epigenetic results showed that excitatory neurons (p < 0.01) and inhibitory neurons (p < 0.01) were significant differences in two pathways, "trans-synaptic signaling" (p < -log108) and "modulation of chemical synaptic transmission" (p < -log108) in both cells. CONCLUSIONS: People with NSSI are more inclined to adopt non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Rolandic operculum is also abnormally active. Abnormal changes in the rolandic operculum of them are associated with non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Changes in the excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide hints to explore the abnormalities of the neurological mechanisms at the cellular level of them. Trial registration number NCT04094623.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Cognição/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Explore (NY) ; 20(4): 588-591, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder with significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) offers an alternative approach to standard pharmacological and surgical interventions, which are often associated with adverse side effects. This case report details the clinical remission of a 50-year-old male with moderate generalized MG following exclusive treatment with a modified Buzhong Yiqi decoction (BYD), a TCM formula, without the use of immunosuppressive agents. CASE SUMMARY: The patient presented with diplopia, bilateral ptosis, weakness in chewing, limb weakness, and other symptoms indicative of spleen and stomach qi deficiency. Modified BYD was prescribed, focusing on strengthening the spleen, nourishing qi and blood, and enhancing immune response. The treatment included ingredients such as Radix Astragali, Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala, and others, aiming to restore balance and improve the patient's condition. After two weeks of TCM treatment, the patient showed significant improvement in symptoms of myasthenia. By the second month, all clinical symptoms had disappeared. The patient continued to receive the TCM regimen until the thirtieth month of treatment. At the time of writing this report, the patient has no clinical symptoms and has experienced no relapse. Notably, no obvious adverse effects were reported throughout the treatment. CONCLUSION: The success of this case suggests that TCM may serve as an independent treatment option for moderate MG, offering a steroid-free alternative, which would be particularly valuable for patients who are intolerant of or refuse steroid therapy, potentially with significant clinical implications. However it needs a randomized clinical trial comparing TCM to conventional Western medicine treatment to validate it.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Miastenia Gravis , Humanos , Masculino , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento , Fitoterapia/métodos
11.
Seizure ; 119: 28-35, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772097

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore seizure semiology and the effects of intracerebral electrical stimulation on the human posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) using Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) to deepen our comprehension of posterior cingulate epilepsy (PCE). METHODS: This study examined the characteristics of seizures through video documentation, by assessing the outcomes of intracranial electrical stimulation (iES) during SEEG. We further identified the connection between the observed semiology and precise anatomical locations within the PCC subregions where seizure onset zones (SOZ) were identified. RESULTS: Analysis was conducted on 59 seizures from 15 patients recorded via SEEG. Behavioural arrest emerged as the predominant manifestation across the PCC subregions. Where ictal activity extended to both the mesial and lateral temporal cortex, automatism was predominantly observed in seizures originating from the ventral PCC (vPCC). The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is associated with complex motor behaviour, with seizure discharges spreading to the temporal lobe. Seizures originating from the PCC include axial tonic and autonomic seizures. Only one case of positive clinical seizures was documented. High frequencies of iES within the PCC induced various clinical responses, categorised as vestibular, visual, psychological, and autonomic, with vestibular reactions primarily occurring in the dorsal PCC (dPCC) and RSC, visual responses in the left RSC, and autonomic reactions in the vPCC and RSC. CONCLUSION: The manifestations of seizures in PCE vary according to the SOZ and the patterns of seizure propagation. The occurrence of seizures induced by iES is exceedingly rare, indicating that mapping of the PCC could pinpoint the primary sector of PCC.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(10)2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794602

RESUMO

Interest in the development of eco-friendly, sustainable, and convenient bio-based coatings to enhance flame retardancy and antibacterial properties in cotton fabrics is growing. In this work, chitosan was protonated at its amino groups using a method with a high atom economy using an equimolar amount of amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP), resulting in the fabrication of a single-component chitosan-based multifunctional coating (ATMP-CS), thereby avoiding any additional neutralization or purification steps. Cotton fabrics coated with various loads of ATMP-CS were prepared through a padding-drying-curing process. The morphology, thermal stability, mechanical properties, antibacterial properties, flame-retardant behavior, and flame-retardant mechanism of these fabrics were investigated. The coating exhibited excellent film-forming properties, and it imparted a uniform protective layer onto the surfaces of the cotton fabrics. When the load capacity reached 11.5%, the coated fabrics achieved a limiting oxygen index of 29.7% and successfully passed the VFT test. Moreover, the ATMP-CS coating demonstrated antibacterial rates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus reaching 95.1% and 99.9%, respectively. This work presents a straightforward and gentle approach to fabricating colorless, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient fabric coatings that have potential applications in promoting the use of bio-based materials.

13.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 316, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714959

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is the most common histiocytic disorder in children, and liver involvement in LCH is rare. This retrospective study reported the clinical features and prognosis of patients with hepatic LCH. Liver involvement was defined by histopathological findings, liver dysfunction or abnormalities, or ultrasound imaging. A total of 130 patients (14.5%) with hepatic LCH out of 899 in the LCH population were enrolled. Patients with liver involvement had greater frequencies of skin, lung, hearing system, and haematologic system involvement, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (P<0.001, 0.001, 0.002, 0.009, and <0.001, respectively). Overall survival and progression-free survival were lower in LCH patients with liver involvement than in those without liver involvement (P<0.001 and <0.001). In patients with liver involvement, the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were lower in patients with cholangitis than in those without cholangitis (P<0.020 and 0.030). For the treatment response, the response rate of hepatic LCH patients to initial first-line therapy (n=89) was 22.5%. However, there was no significant difference in the response rate or recurrence rate between patients who shifted from first-line treatment to second-line treatment (n=29) or to targeted therapy (n=13) (P=0.453 and 1.000). The response rate of hepatic LCH patients who received initial second-line therapy (n=13) was 38.5%. Two of these patients subsequently experienced bone recurrence. The response rate of hepatic LCH patients who received initial targeted therapy (n=16) was 75.0%. Three patients subsequently experienced recurrence, including 2 in the bone and 1 in the liver and skin. A total of 39.3% of patients who received second-line treatment had severe myelosuppression (grade III-IV), and 50.8% had varying degrees of gastrointestinal events, whereas there was no severe toxicity in patients who received first-line treatment and targeted therapy. Four patients underwent liver transplantation because of liver cirrhosis. The patients' liver disease improved within a follow-up period of 18-79 months. This study demonstrated that LCH with liver involvement, especially cholangitis, indicates a poor prognosis. Targeted therapy provides a good treatment response and less toxicity. However, it may relapse after withdrawal. Liver transplantation is still a reliable salvage option for patients with end-stage liver disease.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans , Hepatopatias , Humanos , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/complicações , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/mortalidade , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Criança , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Prognóstico
14.
Antiviral Res ; 226: 105900, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) through aerosol droplets among cloven-hoofed ungulates in close contact is a major obstacle for successful animal husbandry. Therefore, the development of suitable mucosal vaccines, especially nasal vaccines, to block the virus at the initial site of infection is crucial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Here, we constructed eukaryotic expression plasmids containing the T and B-cell epitopes (pTB) of FMDV in tandem with the molecular mucosal adjuvant Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 3 ligand (Flt3 ligand, FL) (pTB-FL). Then, the constructed plasmid was electrostatically attached to mannose-modified chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres (MCS-PLGA-NPs) to obtain an active nasal vaccine targeting the mannose-receptor on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). RESULTS: The MCS-PLGA-NPs loaded with pTB-FL not only induced a local mucosal immune response, but also induced a systemic immune response in mice. More importantly, the nasal vaccine afforded an 80% protection rate against a highly virulent FMDV strain (AF72) when it was subcutaneously injected into the soles of the feet of guinea pigs. CONCLUSIONS: The nasal vaccine prepared in this study can effectively induce a cross-protective immune response against the challenge with FMDV of same serotype in animals and is promising as a potential FMDV vaccine.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal , Quitosana , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Nanosferas , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Camundongos , Nanosferas/química , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Ácidos Nucleicos/administração & dosagem , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 931: 172909, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703834

RESUMO

The concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in aquaculture pond sediments significantly affects aquatic food safety and environmental quality. The contamination characteristics, drivers and potential sources of HMs in typical bulk freshwater aquaculture pond sediments in major provinces of China were systematically investigated using a variety of methods and models. Specifically, 130 surface sediment samples were collected from the study area, and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to jointly evaluate the characteristics of the HMs. Spearman's correlation and redundancy analysis revealed the main drivers of the HMs. Additionally, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) model were used to identify the sources of HMs. The results revealed that the pond sediments were safe for fish culture in most of the study areas. Aquafeed protein content is an important driver of HM concentrations in sediments. The total organic carbon (TOC) content, percentage of clay particles, and pH of the aquaculture pond sediments determined the sediment HMs enrichment abilities as 13.6 %, 52 %, and 9.8 %, respectively. Cd, a significantly enriched pollutant, posed a greater ecological risk than the other five HMs (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb). Three sources of HMs were identified, including agricultural activity (e.g., aquafeeds, pesticides, and fertilizers), industrial production, and natural sources, with contributions of 44.29 %, 36.66 %, and 19.05 %, respectively. This study provides a scientific basis for minimizing the input and accumulation of HMs in freshwater aquaculture pond sediments, and this can provide insights into the prevention and control of the ecological risks posed by HMs.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados , Lagoas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Lagoas/química , Água Doce/química
16.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749502

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm that predominantly affects young children. OBJECTIVE.­: To investigate genetic alterations and their correlation with clinical characteristics and prognosis in pediatric LCH. DESIGN.­: We performed targeted sequencing to detect mutations in LCH lesions from pediatric patients. RESULTS.­: A total of 30 genomic alterations in 5 genes of the MAPK pathway were identified in 187 of 223 patients (83.9%). BRAF V600E (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) was the most common mutation (51.6%), followed by MAP2K1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1) alterations (17.0%) and other BRAF mutations (13.0%). ARAF (A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) and KRAS (KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase) mutations were relatively rare (2.2% and 0.9%, respectively). Additionally, FNBP1 (formin-binding protein 1)::BRAF fusion and MAP3K10 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 10) mutations A17T and R823C were identified in 1 case each, with possible constitutive activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. BRAF V600E was more frequent in patients with risk organ involvement, while MAP2K1 mutation was more prevalent in patients with single-system LCH (P = .001). BRAF V600E was associated with craniofacial bone, skin, liver, spleen, and ear involvement (all P < .05). Patients with other BRAF mutations had a higher proportion of spinal column involvement (P = .006). Univariate analysis showed a significant difference in progression-free survival among the 4 molecular subgroups for patients treated with first-line therapy (P = .02). According to multivariate analysis, risk organ involvement was the strongest independent adverse prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 8.854; P < .001); BRAF or MAP2K1 mutation was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS.­: Most pediatric patients with LCH carry somatic mutations involving the MAPK pathway, correlating with clinical characteristics and outcomes for first-line chemotherapy.

17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 211: 108672, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718531

RESUMO

Luminescent materials can adjust the spectrum of light energy utilization by plants. However, current research on the effects of luminescent materials on aquatic plants and periphytic biofilms is limited. This study investigated the effects of the luminescent materials 4-(di-p-tolylamino) benzaldehyde-A (DTB-A) and 4-(di-p-tolylamino) benzaldehyde-M (DTB-M) on the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (V. natans) and periphytic biofilm. Result demonstrated that low concentrations of DTB (0.1 µM) significantly promoted the growth and photosynthetic rate of V. natans. In terms of enzyme activity, exposure to a higher concentration of DTB (10 µM) increased the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). A combination of DTB-A and DTB-M treatment significantly changed the V. natans morphology and physiological characteristics, reducing the thickness of the cell wall and subsequently, promoting protein accumulation in leaves. There was no difference in the removal of ammonia or phosphate by V. natans at the 0.1 µM concentration, and the removal of ammonia and phosphate by V. natans decreased significantly as the concentration of luminescent material increased. A total of 3563 OTUs were identified in the biofilm community. The microbial community was dominated by Pseudomonas and Fusobacteria. Furthermore, results showed that an obvious decrease in diversity in the DTB-A and DTB-M mixed treatment group. In addition, the migratory aggregation of DTB molecules in plants was observed by fluorescence imaging. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of the mechanism of effect of luminescent materials on submerged macrophytes and their periphytic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Hydrocharitaceae , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/microbiologia , Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Luminescência , Catalase/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Luminescentes/metabolismo
18.
Opt Lett ; 49(10): 2681-2684, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748135

RESUMO

A type of circular Airyprime function of complex-variable Gaussian vortex (AFCGV) wave packets in a strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium is introduced numerically, combining the properties of helicity states and abrupt autofocusing. We investigate the effects of the chirp factor, distribution parameter, and decay factor on the AFCGV wave packets in the strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium. Interestingly, by adjusting the distribution parameter, the AFCGV wave packets can exhibit stable rotational motions in various shapes, such as symmetric lobes and doughnuts. In addition, the Poynting vector and the gradient force of the AFCGV wave packets are also discussed. Our research not only explains the theoretical model for controlling AFCGV wave packets but also advances fundamental research on self-bending and autofocusing structured light fields.

19.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(9)2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730741

RESUMO

In this study, an effective numerical model was developed for the calculation of the deformation of laser-welded 3 mm 304L stainless steel plates with different gaps (0.2 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1.0 mm). The welding deformation would become larger when the welding gaps increased, and the largest deformation values along the Z direction, of 4 mm, were produced when the gap value was 1.0 mm. A larger plastic strain region was generated in the location near the weld seam, since higher plastic deformation had occurred. In addition, the tensile stress model was also applied at the plastic strain zone and demonstrated that a larger welding gap led to a wider residual stress area. Based on the above results, inherent deformations for butt and corner joints were calculated according to inherent strain theory, and the welding formation for the complex structure was calculated with different gaps. The numerical results demonstrated that a larger deformation was also produced with a larger welding gap and that it could reach the highest value of 10.1 mm. This proves that a smaller welding gap should be adopted during the laser welding of complex structures to avoid excessive welding deformation.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(18): 12556-12564, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38660792

RESUMO

Transition metal nitride (TMN)-based nanostructures have emerged as promising materials for diverse applications in electronics, photonics, energy storage, and catalysis due to their highly desirable physicochemical properties. However, synthesizing TMN-based nanostructures with designed compositions and morphologies poses challenges, especially in the solution phase. The cation exchange reaction (CER) stands out as a versatile postsynthetic strategy for preparing nanostructures that are otherwise inaccessible through direct synthesis. Nevertheless, exploration of the CER in TMNs lags behind that in metal chalcogenides and metal phosphides. Here, we demonstrate cation exchange in colloidal metal nitride nanocrystals, employing Cu3N nanocrystals as starting materials to synthesize Ni4N and CoN nanocrystals. By controlling the reaction conditions, Cu3N@Ni4N and Cu3N@CoN core@shell heterostructures with tunable compositions can also be obtained. The Ni4N and CoN nanocrystals are evaluated as catalysts for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Remarkably, CoN nanocrystals demonstrate superior OER performance with a low overpotential of 286 mV at 10 mA·cm-2, a small Tafel slope of 89 mV·dec-1, and long-term stability. Our CER approach in colloidal TMNs offers a new strategy for preparing other metal nitride nanocrystals and their heterostructures, paving the way for prospective applications.

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