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1.
Br J Radiol ; : 20210555, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adrenal adenoma with myelolipomatous degeneration (AMD) is a rarely reported and often overlooked entity. The aim of this study is to improve understanding of these lesions by characterizing the imaging findings with pathologic and clinical correlation. METHODS: In the largest series to date, we report 11 nodules in 11 patients confirmed with a pathologic diagnosis of AMD. The available cross-sectional imaging and histopathologic features were reviewed by two radiologists and two pathologists, respectively. Clinical and laboratory data for each patient were obtained from the electronic medical records, when available. RESULTS: All 11 patients had a CT prior to resection or biopsy of the adrenal nodule, with five having received an adrenal mass protocol study. An MRI was available in three patients. The median size of the nodules on imaging was 4.5 cm (range 2.8-8.7) and all but one had macroscopic fat. The largest focus of macroscopic fat had a median size of 0.7 cm (range 0.2-1.6) and on average was 14.4% the size of the tumor, using greatest dimensions. Four (36.4%) patients had a diagnosis of Cushing syndrome prior to nodule resection. CONCLUSIONS: Not all adrenal nodules with macroscopic fat on imaging are pure myelolipomas. An AMD should be considered, especially if the foci of fat are small and other features of an adenoma are present. Some may also be associated with Cushing syndrome. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Myelolipomatous degeneration within an adrenal adenoma has only rarely been previously reported with very few reports emphasizing the imaging features. There may be an association with cortisol hypersecretion and improved recognition of this entity could lead to changes in clinical management.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642879

RESUMO

Macrobrachium rosenbergii is an economically important source of crustacean seafood worldwide. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important aquatic pathogen that causes epidemics of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis in shrimp populations, which results in significant economic losses to aquaculture farmers. To prevent the antibiotics abuse, which has become a serious threat to human health, novel anti-infective strategies are urgently required to control V. parahaemolyticus. Antimicrobial peptides, which exhibit favourable germicidal activity compared to traditional antibiotics, can be used as a key method to prevent and treat bacterial diseases. Herein, an antimicrobial peptide, bomidin, was expressed through genetic engineering technology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bomidin showed a significant inhibitory effect on V. parahaemolyticus that was equivalent to that of ampicillin. Subsequently, the mechanism of action of recombinant bomidin was explored using PNP and ONPG assays to investigate the effects on membrane permeability. These assays indicated that bomidin penetrated the germ membrane and induced the release of cytoplasmic contents and ultimately interacted with DNA to form a bomidin-DNA complex that inhibits bacterial survival. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bomidin could cause damage and dysfunction to the cell wall and membrane. Bomidin was nontoxic to mouse red blood cells within a concentration range that was much larger than the MIC. Toxicity assays revealed that 0.02 mg/mL bomidin was safe for use with juvenile freshwater prawns of M. rosenbergii and significantly inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus in cultured water. These results demonstrated that synthetic peptide bomidin had great antibacterial effect against V. parahaemolyticus and therefore a therapeutic potential in aquaculture.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(41)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615713

RESUMO

Electrification of chemical reactions is crucial to fundamentally transform our society that is still heavily dependent on fossil resources and unsustainable practices. In addition, electrochemistry-based approaches offer a unique way of catalyzing reactions by the fast and continuous alteration of applied potentials, unlike traditional thermal processes. Here, we show how the continuous cyclic application of electrode potential allows Pt nanoparticles to electrooxidize biomass-derived polyols with turnover frequency improved by orders of magnitude compared with the usual rates at fixed potential conditions. Moreover, secondary alcohol oxidation is enhanced, with a ketoses-to-aldoses ratio increased up to sixfold. The idea has been translated into the construction of a symmetric single-compartment system in a two-electrode configuration. Its operation via voltage cycling demonstrates high-rate sorbitol electrolysis with the formation of H2 as a desired coproduct at operating voltages below 1.4 V. The devised method presents a potential approach to using renewable electricity to drive chemical processes.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19689, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608242

RESUMO

Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has become a prevalent complication in pregnancy. Recent research links SCH to disturbed thyroid lipid profile; however, it is unclear how lipid metabolism disorders contribute to the pathogenesis of SCH during pregnancy. Thus, we used nontargeted lipidomics to identify and compare the lipids and metabolites expressed by pregnant women with SCH and healthy pregnant women. Multivariate analysis revealed 143 lipid molecules differentially expressed between the SCH group and the control group. Based on fold change, 30 differentially expressed lipid metabolites are potential biomarkers. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed metabolites participate in several pathways, including response to pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, metabolic pathways, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fat digestion and absorption pathways. Correlation analyses revealed sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) positively correlate to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), while phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) negatively correlate with them. In addition, PG positively correlates to birth weight. Thus, the lipid profile of pregnant women with SCH is significantly different from that of healthy pregnant women. Lipid molecules associated with the differential lipid metabolism, such as SM, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and PI, should be further investigated for their roles in the pathogenesis of SCH in pregnancy, as they might be targets for reducing the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

5.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 737002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630070

RESUMO

As a central hub in the interconnected brain network, the precuneus has been reported showing disrupted functional connectivity and hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, as a highly heterogeneous cortical structure, little is known whether individual subregion of the precuneus is uniformly or differentially involved in the progression of AD. To this end, using a hybrid PET/fMRI technique, we compared resting-state functional connectivity strength (FCS) and glucose metabolism in dorsal anterior (DA_pcu), dorsal posterior (DP_pcu) and ventral (V_pcu) subregions of the precuneus among 20 AD patients, 23 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 27 matched cognitively normal (CN) subjects. The sub-parcellation of precuneus was performed using a K-means clustering algorithm based on its intra-regional functional connectivity. For the whole precuneus, decreased FCS (p = 0.047) and glucose hypometabolism (p = 0.006) were observed in AD patients compared to CN subjects. For the subregions of the precuneus, decreased FCS was found in DP_pcu of AD patients compared to MCI patients (p = 0.011) and in V_pcu for both MCI (p = 0.006) and AD (p = 0.008) patients compared to CN subjects. Reduced glucose metabolism was found in DP_pcu of AD patients compared to CN subjects (p = 0.038) and in V_pcu of AD patients compared to both MCI patients (p = 0.045) and CN subjects (p < 0.001). For both FCS and glucose metabolism, DA_pcu remained relatively unaffected by AD. Moreover, only in V_pcu, disruptions in FCS (r = 0.498, p = 0.042) and hypometabolism (r = 0.566, p = 0.018) were significantly correlated with the cognitive decline of AD patients. Our results demonstrated a distinctively disrupted functional and metabolic pattern from ventral to dorsal precuneus affected by AD, with V_pcu and DA_pcu being the most vulnerable and conservative subregion, respectively. Findings of this study extend our knowledge on the differential roles of precuneus subregions in AD.

6.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the prediction accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulas, and the impact of anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) measurement errors on IOL power calculation in patients undergoing combined phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) removal and cataract surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, consecutive case-series study. METHODS: Thirty-six PIOL implanted eyes (12 anterior chamber PIOLs [AC-PIOL] and 24 posterior chamber PIOLs [PC-PIOL]) undergoing cataract surgery were included. The prediction accuracy of new formulas (Barrett Universal II [BUII], Emmetropia Verifying Optical [EVO], Kane, and Ladas Super formula [LSF]) and traditional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1 and SRK/T) with or without Wang-Koch (WK) axial length (AL) adjustment was evaluated. The influence of ACD and LT measurement errors of IOLMaster 700 on refractive outcomes was also investigated. RESULTS: The Kane and traditional formulas with WK AL adjustment had no significant systematic prediction error (PE) and displayed smaller median absolute error, while the other formulas showed significant hyperopia shift (P < 0.05) and relatively lower prediction accuracy. The accuracy rate of IOLMaster 700 in measuring ACD and LT was 100% in eyes with AC-PIOL implantation, and 37.50% in the PC-PIOL subgroup. No significant difference was observed in refractive outcomes of formulas using correct and wrong parameters in the PC-PIOL subgroup (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The Kane and traditional formulas with WK AL adjustment exhibited relatively higher prediction accuracy in patients who underwent combined PIOL removal and cataract surgery. The IOLMaster 700 displayed low accuracy in ACD and LT measurements for PC-PIOL implanted eyes, but showed negligible impact on IOL prediction accuracy.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626192

RESUMO

We investigated the efficacy of subxiphoid thoracoscopic thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis. The data of 37 consecutive cases were reviewed. 2 cases of postoperative myasthenia gravis crisis and 4 cases of residual mediastinal fat tissue were recorded. Moreover, 29 patients presented the neurological outcomes, and complete stable remission was achieved in 5 (17.2%) cases. Subxiphoid thymectomy is technically feasible. High-quality evidence is warranted before this approach can be recommended.

8.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 7031178, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659397

RESUMO

Purpose. We investigated the disparate influence of lesion location on functional damage and reorganization of the sensorimotor brain network in patients with thalamic infarction and pontine infarction. Methods. Fourteen patients with unilateral infarction of the thalamus and 14 patients with unilateral infarction of the pons underwent longitudinal fMRI measurements and motor functional assessment five times during a 6-month period (<7 days, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after stroke onset). Twenty-five age- and sex-matched controls underwent MRI examination across five consecutive time points in 6 months. Functional images from patients with left hemisphere lesions were first flipped from the left to the right side. The voxel-wise connectivity analyses between the reference time course of each ROI (the contralateral dorsal lateral putamen (dl-putamen), pons, ventral anterior (VA), and ventral lateral (VL) nuclei of the thalamus) and the time course of each voxel in the sensorimotor area were performed for all five measurements. One-way ANOVA was used to identify between-group differences in functional connectivity (FC) at baseline stage (<7 days after stroke onset), with infarction volume included as a nuisance variable. The family-wise error (FWE) method was used to account for multiple comparison issues using SPM software. Post hoc repeated-measure ANOVA was applied to examine longitudinal FC reorganization. Results. At baseline stage, significant differences were detected between the contralateral VA and ipsilateral postcentral gyrus (cl_VA-ip_postcentral), contralateral VL and ipsilateral precentral gyrus (cl_VL-ip_precentral). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the FC change of cl_VA-ip_postcentral differ significantly among the three groups over time. The significant changes of FC between cl_VA and ip_postcentral at different time points in the thalamic infarction group showed that compared with 7 days after stroke onset, there was significantly increased FC of cl_VA-ip_postcentral at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after stroke onset. Conclusions. The different patterns of sensorimotor functional damage and reorganization in patients with pontine infarction and thalamic infarction may provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying functional recovery after stroke.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 700553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671598

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a highly aggressive tumor, has high incidence and mortality rates. Recently, immunotherapies have been shown to be a promising treatment in HCC. The results of either the CheckMate-040 or IMbrave 150 trials demonstrate the importance of immunotherapy in the systemic treatment of liver cancer. Thus, in this study, we tried to establish a reliable prognostic model for liver cancer based on immune-related genes (IRGs) and to provide a new insight for immunotherapy of HCC. In this study, we used four datasets that incorporated 851 HCC samples, including 340 samples with complete clinical information from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database, to establish an effective model for predicting the prognosis of HCC patients based on the differential expression of IRGs and validated the prognostic model using the data from International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC). The top 6 characteristic IRGs identified by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, MMP9, FOS, CAT, ESR1, ANGPTL3, and KLKB1, were selected for further study. In addition, we assessed the correlations of the six characteristic IRGs with the tumor immune microenvironment, clinical stage, and sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs. We also explored whether the differential expression of the characteristic IRGs was specific to HCC or present in pan-cancer. The expression levels of the six characteristic IRGs were significantly different between most tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. In addition, these characteristic IRGs showed a strong association with immune cell infiltration in HCC patients. We found that MMP9 and ESR1 were independent prognostic factors for HCC, while CAT, ESR1, and KLKB1 were associated with the clinical stage. We collected HCC paraffin sections from 24 patients from Xijing hospital to identify the differential expression of the five genes (MMP9, ESR1, CAT, FOS, and KLKB1). Finally, the results of decision curve analysis (DCA) and nomogram revealed that our models provided a prognostic benefit for most HCC patients and the predicted overall survival (OS) was consistent with the actual OS. In conclusion, we systemically constructed a novel prognostic model that provides new insights into HCC.

10.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932126, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma) is a heterogeneous disease for which radiotherapy is a main treatment. As intrinsic radiosensitivity and immune status affect the initial and effective stage of the radiation-induced cancer immunity cycle, respectively, it is important to consider both of them when we select patients who can benefit from radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included all HNSCC patients with complete survival and radiotherapy information in TCGA database. Patients were divided into RS (radiosensitive), RR (radioresistant), immune, and non-immune groups according to their RSI (radiosensitivity index) and immune score calculated by the ESTIMATE algorithm. Survival analysis was performed to compare OS (overall survival) between patients receiving and not receiving radiotherapy. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was performed for functional analysis. Univariate Cox and ridge regression analysis were performed to construct a predictive gene signature based on the combined stratification. RESULTS Only patients in the RS-immune group could benefit from radiotherapy, and the survival analysis results remained consistent after we performed propensity score matching between patients receiving and not receiving radiotherapy. The differentially expressed genes between the RS-immune and non-RS-immune groups were mainly enriched in pathways related to immune process. The 3-gene signature we built exhibited predictive value in training and validation cohorts when treated as a binary or continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS The combined stratification of intrinsic radiosensitivity and immune status was superior to considering intrinsic radiosensitivity or immune status alone and could be used in preclinical evaluation to select patients or to decide whether radiotherapy sensitizers and immunotherapy should be used at the same time.

11.
J Int Med Res ; 49(10): 3000605211052229, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657512

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma accounts for about 10% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, less than 5% of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma present with hypercalcaemia as the initial symptom, and less than 1% present with primary bone lesions. We herein describe a 76-year-old Chinese man who was diagnosed with primary bone adult T-cell lymphoma with extensive osteolysis, including bone loss in the radius, as the initial manifestation. He had developed severe generalised bone pain and an inability to raise his arms. X-ray examination revealed osteolytic destruction of the forearm with loss of the radial diaphysis. The patient was diagnosed with peripheral T-cell lymphoma based on his immunohistochemical results. He began treatment with the CHOPE chemotherapy regimen, which resulted in significant improvement of his bone pain.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Hipercalcemia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osso e Ossos , Humanos , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Linfócitos T
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 542, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tick Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) is a vital vector tick species mainly distributed in the north of China and overwinters in the unfed adult stage. The knowledge of the mechanism that underlies its molecular adaptation against cold is limited. In the present study, genes of hsp70 and hsp90 cDNA, named Dshsp70 and Dshsp90, and tubulin were cloned and characterized from D. silvarum, and their functions in cold stress were further evaluated. METHODS: The genome of the heat shock proteins and tubulin of D. silvarum were sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Each group of 20 ticks were injected in triplicate with Dshsp90-, Dshsp70-, and tubulin-derived dsRNA, whereas the control group was injected with GFP dsRNA. Then, the total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and subjected to RT-qPCR. After the confirmation of knockdown, the ticks were incubated for 24 h and were exposed to - 20 °C lethal temperature (LT50), and then the mortality was calculated. RESULTS: Results indicated that Dshsp70 and Dshsp90 contained an open reading frame of 345 and 2190 nucleotides that encoded 114 and 729 amino acid residues, respectively. The transcript Dshsp70 showed 90% similarity with that identified from Dermacentor variabilis, whereas Dshsp90 showed 85% similarity with that identified from Ixodes scapularis. Multiple sequence alignment indicates that the deduced amino acid sequences of D. silvarum Hsp90, Hsp70, and tubulin show very high sequence identity to their corresponding sequences in other species. Hsp90 and Hsp70 display highly conserved and signature amino acid sequences with well-conserved MEEVD motif at the C-terminal in Hsp90 and a variable C-terminal region with a V/IEEVD-motif in Hsp70 that bind to numerous co-chaperones. RNA interference revealed that the mortality of D. silvarum was significantly increased after injection of dsRNA of Dshsp70 (P = 0.0298) and tubulin (P = 0.0448), whereas no significant increases were observed after the interference of Dshsp90 (P = 0.0709). CONCLUSIONS: The above results suggested that Dshsp70 and tubulin play an essential role in the low-temperature adaptation of ticks. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the survival and acclimatization of overwintering ticks.

13.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The magnetic compression technique (MCT) is a new surgical method that has been used for gastrointestinal anastomosis, choledochojejunostomy, and intestinal anastomosis, but there are no reports on its use for esophagogastric anastomosis. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using MCT to fashion esophagogastric anastomoses in rabbits. METHODS: Twenty rabbits were randomized into an MCT group (study group, n = 10) and a hand-sewn group (control group, n = 10). The magnetic compression anastomosis device used in this study was made of neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) and possessed parent (PMR) and daughter (DMR) magnetic rings. To fashion the anastomosis, the PMR and DMR were inserted into the lower esophagus and gastric fundus, respectively. The coupled magnets automatically compressed the sandwiched tissues and were expelled once the anastomosis was installed. The two groups were further compared in terms of the anastomosis construction time, survival rate, and postoperative complications. One month after the anastomosis was installed, the burst pressure and gross appearance of the anastomoses were evaluated. RESULTS: The anastomosis construction time in the study group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (10.50 ± 1.58 min vs. 18.60 ± 2.22 min; P < 0.05), and the magnetic rings were defecated out in 10.70 ± 3.49 days. The incidence of anastomotic blockage in both the study and control groups did not differ significantly (0%, 0/10 vs. 20%, 2/10; P > 0.05). Anastomotic leakage was not found in either of the groups, and the anastomoses burst pressures were similar in the two groups. However, the magnetically compressed anastomoses in the study group had a relatively smoother gross appearance than the hand-sewn anastomoses. CONCLUSION: The magnetic compression anastomosis device is a safe and feasible tool for fashioning esophagogastric anastomoses in this animal model.

15.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 272, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal sequence of pulmonary vessel interruption during lung cancer resection remains controversial. This review aimed to elucidate the association of vein-first versus artery-first ligation and survival of the patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar from their inception to September 2021 for published articles that compared vein-first (the pulmonary vein was interrupted first) and artery-first procedure (the pulmonary artery was ligated first) during lung cancer surgery. RESULTS: Finally, a total of 13 full articles were obtained. First, 7 studies with survival information were included for meta-analyses. As compared with the artery-first ligation, vein-first approach did not decrease the risk of local recurrence (risk ratio [RR] 0.92 in favour of vein-first; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-1.39, p = 0.68) or distant metastasis (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.30-2.85, p = 0.89); but it was associated with better disease-free survival (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.37-0.73, p < 0.01) as well as 5-year overall survival (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.41-0.86, p < 0.01). In addition, the operative time, intraoperative blood loss, total complications, and length of postoperative stay were mainly comparable between the two groups. Second, 7 studies provided the data of tumor cells indicated by different biomarkers and detection methods; and 3 of these reports showed that vein-first ligation decreased the extent of intraoperative tumor dissemination. However, a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible due to the significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Vein-first ligation in lung cancer surgery may be associated with improved survival of the patients, which might be ascribed to potentially lower risk of tumor cell dissemination. Well-designed, large-scale trials are warranted to clarify these occasional findings.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Humanos , Ligadura , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pneumonectomia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia
16.
Cell Rep ; 36(12): 109740, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551298

RESUMO

Bub1 is required for the kinetochore/centromere localization of two essential mitotic kinases Plk1 and Aurora B. Surprisingly, stable depletion of Bub1 by ∼95% in human cells marginally affects whole chromosome segregation fidelity. We show that CENP-U, which is recruited to kinetochores by the CENP-P and CENP-Q subunits of the CENP-O complex, is required to prevent chromosome mis-segregation in Bub1-depleted cells. Mechanistically, Bub1 and CENP-U redundantly recruit Plk1 to kinetochores to stabilize kinetochore-microtubule attachments, thereby ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. Furthermore, unlike its budding yeast homolog, the CENP-O complex does not regulate centromeric localization of Aurora B. Consistently, depletion of Bub1 or CENP-U sensitizes cells to the inhibition of Plk1 but not Aurora B kinase activity. Taken together, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of kinetochore function, which may have implications for targeted treatment of cancer cells with mutations perturbing kinetochore recruitment of Plk1 by Bub1 or the CENP-O complex.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18048, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508120

RESUMO

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a new acute respiratory disease that has spread rapidly throughout the world. In this paper, a lightweight convolutional neural network (CNN) model named multi-scale gated multi-head attention depthwise separable CNN (MGMADS-CNN) is proposed, which is based on attention mechanism and depthwise separable convolution. A multi-scale gated multi-head attention mechanism is designed to extract effective feature information from the COVID-19 X-ray and CT images for classification. Moreover, the depthwise separable convolution layers are adopted as MGMADS-CNN's backbone to reduce the model size and parameters. The LeNet-5, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet, VGGNet-16, and three MGMADS-CNN models are trained, validated and tested with tenfold cross-validation on X-ray and CT images. The results show that MGMADS-CNN with three attention layers (MGMADS-3) has achieved accuracy of 96.75% on X-ray images and 98.25% on CT images. The specificity and sensitivity are 98.06% and 96.6% on X-ray images, and 98.17% and 98.05% on CT images. The size of MGMADS-3 model is only 43.6 M bytes. In addition, the detection speed of MGMADS-3 on X-ray images and CT images are 6.09 ms and 4.23 ms for per image, respectively. It is proved that the MGMADS-3 can detect and classify COVID-19 faster with higher accuracy and efficiency.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Raios X
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125935, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571329

RESUMO

At present, sustainable and stable partial nitrification has not been widely achieved in the mainstream PN/ANAMMOX process. Here, the feasibility of sustainable and stable partial nitrification was demonstrated in automatic recycling PN/ANAMMOX reactor under mainstream conditions using both simulation and experimental methods. Stable nitrite accumulation in the aerobic zone could be achieved via regulating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and sludge retention time (SRT). The DO concentrations required for the repression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were lower at longer SRTs. The DO concentrations and SRTs required for NOB repression were lower at lower temperatures. However, NOB repression was diminished by a persistent low DO and short SRT under mainstream conditions. With the introduction of automatic recycling, sustainable and stable partial nitrification was achieved. Effluent recycling could limit the nitrite-nitrogen required for NOB growth. Collectively, effluent recycling may serve as a feasible and useful strategy for NOB inhibition during the PN/ANAMMOX process.

19.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101404, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478911

RESUMO

Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) was firstly identified in 2010 in China; since then, it has caused enormous economic loss to breeding industry. Great efforts have been made to develop drugs and vaccines against DTMUV. However, current available vaccines or anti-DTMUV drugs are consistently inefficient. Hence, various more broadly effective drugs have become important for the treatment of DTMUV infection; among these, lycorine, one of the important sources of active alkaloids, is a promising example. Nevertheless, it is not known whether lycorine has any antiviral activities against DTMUV. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the anti-DTMUV abilities of lycorine. The cytotoxicity of lycorine was evaluated on BHK-21 cells by CCK-8 assay, and its antiviral effect against DTMUV was examined by real-time PCR assays, virus titer determination, Western blot and immunofluorescence (IFA) assays, respectively. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-DTMUV effects of lycorine were also investigated. The results indicated that the highest nontoxicity concentration of lycorine on BHK-21 cells was 5 µM. Lycorine possessed the antiviral ability against DTMUV on BHK-21 cells, as demonstrated by the reduction of virus titers and copy numbers in vitro. Western blot and IFA analysis showed the inhibitory effect of lycorine on DTMUV envelope (E) protein expression. Moreover, using time-of-addition assays, we found that lycorine displays its antivirus and virucidal activities through blocking viral internalization and entry in vitro. Taken together, our findings firstly demonstrate the antiviral activities of lycorine against DTMUV, suggesting that lycorine can be a potential drug for the treatment of DTMUV infection.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Internalização do Vírus , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Galinhas , Patos , Flavivirus , Fenantridinas
20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 721171, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539382

RESUMO

Objective: Amnesia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears early and could be caused by encoding deficiency, consolidation dysfunction, and/or impairment in the retrieval of stored memory information. The relationship between AD pathology biomarker ß-amyloid and memory dysfunction is unclear. Method: The memory task functional MRI and amyloid PET were simultaneously performed to investigate the relationship between memory performance, memory phase-related functional connectivity, and cortical ß-amyloid deposition. We clustered functional networks during memory maintenance and compared network connectivity between groups in each memory phase. Mediation analysis was performed to investigate the mediator between ß-amyloid and related cognitive performance. Results: Alzheimer's disease was primarily characterized by decreased functional connectivity in a data-driven network composed of an a priori default mode network, limbic network, and frontoparietal network during the memory maintenance (0.205 vs. 0.236, p = 0.04) and retrieval phase (0.159 vs. 0.183, p = 0.017). Within the network, AD had more regions with reduced connectivity during the retrieval than the maintenance and encoding phases (chi-square p = 0.01 and < 0.001). Furthermore, the global cortical ß-amyloid negatively correlated with network connectivity during the memory retrieval phase (R = - 0.247, p = 0.032), with this relationship mediating the effect of cortical ß-amyloid on memory performance (average causal mediation effect = - 0.05, p = 0.035). Conclusion: We demonstrated that AD had decreased connectivity in specific networks during the memory retrieval phase. Impaired functional connectivity during memory retrieval mediated the adverse effect of ß-amyloid on memory. These findings help to elucidate the involvement of cortical ß-amyloid (Aß) in the memory performance in the early stages of AD.

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