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1.
Food Chem ; 338: 128015, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932085

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hot air drying, microwave vacuum drying and freeze drying combined with explosion puffing drying (HDEPD, MDEPD and FDEPD) on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and flavor characteristics of apples. The results showed that MDEPD and FDEPD products had better color and textural properties, exhibited a homogeneous porous structure. MDEPD and FDEPD better preserved scavenging abilities of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and FRAP, retained values of TFC and TPC. Aroma characteristics and taste properties of apples obviously changed with different drying methods, and drying qualities of products could be classified in terms of volatile compounds and taste profiles. Two principal components were able to describe 90.12% and 69.43% of the total volatile compound variance and total taste profile variance, respectively. Three main clusters of dried apples were identified, MDEPD and FDEPD can be used to enhance drying qualities of apple products.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048065

RESUMO

A practical copper and palladium co-catalyzed highly regio-selective hydroarylation of terminal 1,3-dienes has been developed. This chemistry afforded the terminal alkenyl group containing products, which are a kind of versatile precursor for organic synthesis, from 1,3-dienes by a practical one-step reaction. With good functional group tolerance, this protocol could be used to make a series of bio-active compounds using readily accessible starting materials. The mechanism of this reaction was explored by control experiments and kinetics studies.

3.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 255: 56-62, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to further explore the effectiveness of multidose metronidazole (MTZ) and single-dose MTZ in the treatment of trichomoniasis. STUDY DESIGN: Search all the literature on MTZ for trichomoniasis in the Pubmed, Ovid Embase, Ovid MEDLIN and Cochrane Library databases. The search period is from the establishment of the database to September 10, 2020. Two authors independently screened the literatures based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and independent extraction and integration of literature data. The main observation indicators were treatment failure rate and side-effects. Data analysis was performed using RevMan5.2 software. The risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used as the effect scale indicators of the counting data. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 2114 articles were retrieved. After screening, a total of 7 articles were included, including 5 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 2 case-control studies. 745 cases were treated with single-dose MTZ, and 732 cases were treated with multidose MTZ. The single-dose MTZ had a higher failure rate for trichomoniasis than the multidose MTZ, and the difference was statistically significant (RR = 1.07, 95 %CI, 1.03-1.11, P = 0.0003). When a HIV-positive study was excluded, the failure rate of the single-dose MTZ was still significantly higher than that of the multidose MTZ (RR = 1.62, 95 %CI, 1.19-2.22, P = 0.002). The side-effects of the single-dose MTZ were higher than those of the multidose MTZ, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR = 1.06, 95 %CI, 0.88-1.27, P = 0.53). CONCLUSION: Although based on available data, multidose MTZ is more effective than single-dose MTZ for trichomoniasis, this advantage is not as obvious as previously proven. This small advantage may be lower if considering the compliance of multidose MTZ in the real world. Therefore, more high-quality studies are needed to confirm this before suggesting a multidose MTZ as the first line treatment for HIV-negative trichomoniasis.

4.
Hortic Res ; 7: 165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082971

RESUMO

Cerasus serrulata is a flowering cherry germplasm resource for ornamental purposes. In this work, we present a de novo chromosome-scale genome assembly of C. serrulata by the use of Nanopore and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The assembled C. serrulata genome is 265.40 Mb across 304 contigs and 67 scaffolds, with a contig N50 of 1.56 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 31.12 Mb. It contains 29,094 coding genes, 27,611 (94.90%) of which are annotated in at least one functional database. Synteny analysis indicated that C. serrulata and C. avium have 333 syntenic blocks composed of 14,072 genes. Blocks on chromosome 01 of C. serrulata are distributed on all chromosomes of C. avium, implying that chromosome 01 is the most ancient or active of the chromosomes. The comparative genomic analysis confirmed that C. serrulata has 740 expanded gene families, 1031 contracted gene families, and 228 rapidly evolving gene families. By the use of 656 single-copy orthologs, a phylogenetic tree composed of 10 species was constructed. The present C. serrulata species diverged from Prunus yedoensis ~17.34 million years ago (Mya), while the divergence of C. serrulata and C. avium was estimated to have occurred ∼21.44 Mya. In addition, a total of 148 MADS-box family gene members were identified in C. serrulata, accompanying the loss of the AGL32 subfamily and the expansion of the SVP subfamily. The MYB and WRKY gene families comprising 372 and 66 genes could be divided into seven and eight subfamilies in C. serrulata, respectively, based on clustering analysis. Nine hundred forty-one plant disease-resistance genes (R-genes) were detected by searching C. serrulata within the PRGdb. This research provides high-quality genomic information about C. serrulata as well as insights into the evolutionary history of Cerasus species.

5.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5: 31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083009

RESUMO

Recent advances in Bionano optical mapping (BOM) provide a great insight into the determination of structural variants (SVs), but its utility in identification of clinical likely pathogenic variants needs to be further demonstrated and proved. In a family with two consecutive pregnancies affected with ventriculomegaly, a splicing likely pathogenic variant at the LAMA1 locus (NM_005559: c. 4663 + 1 G > C) inherited from the father was identified in the proband by whole-exome sequencing, and no other pathogenic variant associated with the clinical phenotypes was detected. SV analysis by BOM revealed an ~48 kb duplication at the LAMA1 locus in the maternal sample. Real-time quantitative PCR and Sanger sequencing further confirmed the duplication as c.859-153_4806 + 910dup. Based on these variants, we hypothesize that the fetuses have Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome (PBS) presenting with ventriculomegaly. With the ability to determine single nucleotide variants and SVs, the strategy adopted here might be useful to detect cases missed by current routine screening methods. In addition, our study may broaden the phenotypic spectrum of fetuses with PBS.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084206

RESUMO

The development of streamlined synthetic routes to spirofluorene derivatives, in particular those with a donor-acceptor (D-A) system, is an appealing task in the field of organic functional materials. In this work, we disclose a palladium-catalyzed direct [4+1] spiroannulation of ortho-C-H bonds of naphthols with cyclic diaryliodonium salts to construct spirofluorenyl naphthalenones (SFNP) under mild reaction conditions. This spiroannulation not only directly transforms the hydroxyl group into the carbonyl group, but also tolerates reactive functional groups such as the halo groups, which provide an opportunity to rapidly assemble structurally non-traditional thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials that feature a carbonyl group with an adjacent spirofluorenyl unit as the acceptor. As an illustrated example, the OLED device utilizing the assembled DMAC-SFNP as the host material exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 2.5 V and an ultra-high external quantum efficiency of 32.2%. This work not only gives us an inspiration for designing structurally non-traditional TADF materials, but also displays the charm of C-H activation as a revolutionary synthetic strategy in the innovation of optoelectronic materials.

7.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128395, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007567

RESUMO

Superhydrophilic membranes with simultaneous underwater superoleophobicity are highly desirable and worth exploring for separation of emulsified oil from water. In this work, combining the strong negative charges of phytic acid (PA) and the high cationic charge density of polyethyleneimine (PEI), an eco-friendly PA@PEI polyelectrolyte complex was synthetized in aqueous solution. And then the polyelectrolyte complex was deposited onto hydrophobic PVDF membranes through a one-step assembly approach with high convenience, endowing the membranes with superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic property. The as-prepared PA@PEI/PVDF membrane shows outstanding static and dynamic water stability, and was successfully used to separate multiple oil-in-water emulsions, with an average rejection rate exceeding 98.5% and a water flux up to 12203.6 L m-2∙h-1∙bar-1. Furthermore, the water flux can be recovered to a high level after four separation-washing cycles, showing excellent antifouling performance and recovery capability. Together with its natural raw materials and environmentally friendly preparation strategy, the PA@PEI/PVDF membrane shows great potential in practical treatment of emulsified oily wastewater.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(10): e009155, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential impact of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) based functional Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score (FSSQFR) on prognostication and revascularization strategy choice has not been fully investigated, and the discriminant ability of FSSQFR needs further validation. METHODS: QFR was retrospectively analyzed in left main or patients with multivessel coronary artery disease from the PANDA III trial. A total of 607 patients with analyzable QFR in all vessels were included. FSSQFR was counted by summing the individual scores only in ischemia-producing lesions (vessel QFR ≤0.8). Patients were stratified according to tertiles of SYNTAX score (SS), and 3 groups of FSS were divided by the same cutoff score. The primary end point was 2-year major adverse cardiac events (a composite of cardiac death, any myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization). RESULTS: After calculating the FSSQFR, 16% (96/607) of study patients moved from higher-risk group by SS to lower-risk group. In the low, intermediate, and high FSSQFR group, the cumulative incidence of 2-year major adverse cardiac events was 9.1%, 13.5%, and 22.3% (P=0.0004), and the rate of a composite of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (3.8%, 7.3%, and 13.7%, P=0.0006) was also increased. Compared with SS, FSSQFR significantly improved risk classification and prognostication (area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics 0.65 versus 0.62, P=0.0009). Moreover, 6% (38/607) of patients, for whom coronary artery bypass grafting would be recommended according to SS, converted to favor percutaneous coronary intervention after FSSQFR calculation. After multivariate adjustment, FSSQFR was an independent predictor of 2-year major adverse cardiac events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02-1.07]; P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with left main or multivessel coronary artery disease, FSSQFR showed applicability in prognostication and revascularization strategy choice. An improved scoring system combining anatomy and physiology (FSSQFR) discriminated the risk of adverse events modestly better than anatomic assessment (SS) alone. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02017275. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.

9.
Toxicology ; 446: 152587, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017620

RESUMO

As an important cholesterol oxide, 7-ketocholesterol plays a deleterious role in the occurrence of cancer. Although the fact had been proved that 7-ketocholesterol could induce several biological phenomena, including apoptosis, DNA damage, et al., this issue whether 7-ketocholesterol led to mutagenesis in mammalian cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the major role of lipid peroxidation in the genotoxic response to 7-ketocholesterol in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The results showed that 7-ketocholesterol induced gene mutation and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in concentration- and time-dependent manner. After CHO cells were treated with 25 µM 7-ketocholesterol for 48 h, the mutation frequency at hprt gene loci and the level of γ-H2AX protein were both significantly increased. Exposure to 7-ketocholesterol resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in the apoptotic rate and the protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and -7 in CHO cells. Moreover, a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also observed. Using a inhibitor of lipid peroxidation (butylated hydroxytoluene), it was found to remarkably inhibit the genotoxicity and MDA levels caused by 7-ketocholesterol. These findings indicated that lipid peroxidation was involved in the mutagenic process of 7-ketocholesterol in CHO cells.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142476, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035973

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a chemical plasticizer that has been commonly used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. DEHP is one of the environmental pollution sources. In this study, a gram-negative strain RX bacterium utilizing DEHP as sole carbon source was isolated from activated sludge through screening test. This strain RX was identified as Achromobacter sp. RX based on its morphology, physiological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that the optimal conditions for the DEHP degradation were 30.0 °C and pH 7.0. The DEHP degradation induced by strain RX demonstrated nitrogen source dependent, while followed a decreasing degradation rate under the source of: NO3- > NH4+ > NO2-. The biodegradability of Achromobacter sp. RX was enhanced with Masson pine seed powder as a co-metabolic substrate and Tween-80 as a solubilizing agent. Meanwhile, the degrading kinetics analysis was performed in the condition of DEHP as sole carbon source. The DEHP degradation curves fitted well with the first-order kinetic model at 50-300 mg/L of DEHP, with the half-life ranging from 13.0 to 16.4 h. During the biodegradation of DEHP, mono-(2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) was firstly generated through de-esterification, followed by the formation of phthalic acid and benzoic acid after further de-esterification of MEHP. Benzoic acid was finally mineralized to CO2 and H2O. The decontamination of DEHP-contaminated soil by Achromobacter sp. RX was investigated using a rotating-drum bioreactor. Evolution of total organic carbon from the contaminated soil showed that 86.4%-91.7% of DEHP was mineralized at pH 7.0 and 30.0 °C within 96 h. Reusability of Achromobacter sp. RX and its lifetime were observed over six consecutive cycles. Thus, Achromobacter sp. RX possessed high DEHP biodegradability, which provided a good potential in dealing with DEHP-contaminated soil.

11.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 33(11): 1-5, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the treatment of superficial incision dehiscence after abdominal surgery by Z-plasty combined with negative-pressure wound therapy. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on seven patients with superficial abdominal incision dehiscence from October 2018 to February 2019. All patients were given systemic antibiotics and nutrition support. During the first stage, surgical debridement with negative-pressure wound therapy was performed. Local Z-plasty was performed in the second stage. RESULTS: The incision healed well in all patients, and no infection or necrosis occurred in the flaps. During the follow-up of 7.3 months (range, 5-10 months), no incision rupture or redehiscence occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical debridement, negative-pressure wound therapy, and Z-plasty can be used to treat superficial abdominal incision dehiscence and achieve good therapeutic effect and prognosis. Z-plasty can be used as an alternative to direct suture of incisions because of its simplicity and excellent results.

12.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058325

RESUMO

Although anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy has achieved great success in some cancers, most colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remain unresponsive, which need further clarify the underlying mechanisms for improving the therapy. In this study, we explored the distinct functions of different PD-L1 alternative splicing isoforms in CRC. We investigated the biological function in PD-L1 knocked down/out cells, which were verified through overexpression of PD-L1 isoform a, b and c. Then the immune surveillance resistant roles of PD-L1 isoforms were analyzed. Meanwhile, we performed RNA-seq to screen the downstream molecules regulated by PD-L1 isoforms. Finally, we detected PD-L1 and PD-L1 isoforms levels in two cohorts of CRC tissue samples, a cohort of serum samples, and analyzed correlation of PD-L1 isoforms with PD-1 blockade therapy response in two clinical CRC cases. The results indicated that PD-L1 knockout inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, and isoform b exerted a more significant inhibitory effect on T cells than other two isoforms. Moreover, isoform c could promote CRC progression through regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition. And clinical data showed that CRC patients with positive PD-L1 expression were associated with poorer overall survival, high serum PD-L1 level was associated with poor prognosis; and the level of isoforms b/c was negatively associated with prognosis; and a higher level of isoform b was associated with a good response to anti-PD-1 therapy. In conclusion, isoform b should be considered as the biomarker for clinical responsiveness to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy; isoforms c functioned a pro-metastatic role which might be a new potential target for CRC therapy.

13.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; : e12811, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation (STE) in lead aVR is a useful tool in recognizing patients with left main or left anterior descending coronary obstruction during acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The prognostic implication of STE in lead aVR on outcomes has not been established. METHODS: We performed a systematic search for clinical studies about STE in lead aVR in four databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital (re)infarction, in-hospital heart failure, and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 7 studies with a total of 7,700 patients. The all-cause in-hospital mortality of patients with STE in lead aVR during ACS was significantly higher than that of patients without STE (OR: 4.37, 95% CI 1.63 to 11.68, p = .003). Patients with greater STE (>0.1 mV) in lead aVR had a higher in-hospital mortality when compared to lower STE (0.05-0.1 mV) (OR: 2.00, 95% CI 1.11-3.60, p = .02), However, STE in aVR was not independently associated with in-hospital mortality in ACS patients (OR: 2.72, 95% CI 0.85-8.63, p = .09). The incidence of in-hospital myocardial (re)infarction (OR: 2.77, 95% CI 1.30-5.94, p = .009), in-hospital heart failure (OR: 2.62, 95% CI 1.06-6.50, p = .04), and 90-day mortality (OR: 10.19, 95% CI 5.27-19.71, p < .00001) was also noted to be higher in patients STE in lead aVR. CONCLUSIONS: This contemporary meta-analysis shows STE in lead aVR is a poor prognostic marker in patients with ACS with higher in-hospital mortality, reinfarction, heart failure and 90-day mortality. Greater magnitude of STE portends worse prognosis. Further studies are needed to establish an independent predictive role of STE in aVR for these adverse outcomes.

14.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058540

RESUMO

The high-mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is associated with the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Recent investigations have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) exert vital functions in the apoptosis of cardiomyocyte cell. Nevertheless, the potential role of miR-30a-5p in the regulation of cardiomyocyte cell apoptosis needs to be illuminated. In the current study, we observed that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) remarkably raised the level of miR-30a-5p but reduced the expression of E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In vivo, miR-30a-5p was found to be significantly upregulated in the hearts of rats following I/R. Downregulation of miR-30a-5p using anti-miR-30a-5p decreased H9c2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis caused by H/R and promoted the proliferation of H9c2 inhibited by H/R. Moreover, E2F3 was a possible target gene of miR-30a-5p and upregulation of miR-30a-5p reduced the expression level of E2F3 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. We further identified that E2F3 silencing reversed the effect of anti-miR-30a-5p on the proliferation and apoptosis in H/R treated H9c2 cells. These studies suggested that downregulation of miR-30a-5p attenuated the impact of H/R on H9c2 cardiomyocytes through targeting E2F3.

15.
Acta Otolaryngol ; : 1-4, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many reports on the role of the malleus handle in ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR). However, the effect of the presence of the malleus handle is not clear. AIM/OBJECTIVES: To compare the hearing outcomes of using a partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) to reconstruct the ossicular chain under otoendoscopy with and without a malleus handle. METHODS: Records of 57 patients requiring OCR were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into the malleus handle-present group (group 1) and the malleus handle-absent group (group 2). The audiometric results were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. A postoperative air-bone gap (ABG)≤20 dB was considered successful. RESULTS: The mean improvement in air conduction hearing thresholds was 19.80 dB in group 1 and 16.70 dB in group 2. The mean ABG improvement was 18.09 ± 12.79 dB for group 1 and 17.20 ± 16.44 dB for group 2. The malleus handle-present group achieved higher success (65.63%) than the malleus handle-absent group (52%; p> .05). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Improvements in hearing outcomes were similar for the two groups. However, the malleus handle-present group showed a better reconstruction success rate. Our results suggest that if there is no lesion in the malleus handle, it is recommended to be retained.

16.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063800

RESUMO

To elucidate the anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRa05 through the analysis of gut microbiota and liver metabolomics, we investigated changes in gut microbiota and liver metabolomic phenotypes in mice by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. C57BL/6J male mice were orally administered with LRa05 for 8 weeks. Body weight, serum lipid levels, and the lipid accumulation of liver cells and epididymal fat tissues in the mice fed with a high-fat diet were inhibited after treatment with LRa05 at 1 × 109 CFU per day per mouse. LRa05 also reshaped the gut microbiota, reduced the abundance of the pro-pathogen bacterial Streptococcus, suppressed blood and liver glucose content, and promoted liver carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Moreover, Intestinimonas and palmitoyl ethanolamide exhibited a positive correlation, whereas Enterorhabdus and vitamin B2 showed a negative correlation. Therefore, LRa05 can potentially be used as an anti-obesity probiotic in further interventions.

17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a volatile organic compound with a potent insecticidal activity to the stored-grain pest Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, which severely damages grain storage and container transport worldwide. Our previous study showed that mitochondrial complex IV was the primary target of AITC in adult S. zeamais. To further verify the targets of AITC, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) by using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to knockdown three core subunits of Cytochrome C Oxidase (COX) I, II and III in 18-day-old larvae prior to their exposure to AITC to detect susceptibility changes. RESULTS: The susceptibility of dsRNACOX I and II injection treatments to AITC significantly increased at 72 h while the mortality reached up to 85.56% and 67.78%, respectively, and dsRNACOX I and dsRNACOX II injection showed the same subcellular structural characteristics appearing vacuolization and vague mitochondrial cristae and decrease of COX activity as AITC fumigation treatment, suggesting the potential of COX I and COX II as the targets of AITC. High mortality reaching up to 75.55%, 71.88% and 82.22% and the phenotype that larvae turning from milky white to dark brown in the thorax and death eventually were showed after dsRNACOX I, II and III injection. CONCLUSION: COX I and II were elucidated as the potential targets of AITC and dsRNACOX I, II and III have the potential to be developed into nucleic acid pesticides for their robust lethal effects and are worth pursuing for improving AITC fumigation activity in S. zeamais control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent advances in deep convolutional neural network (CNN) have proven remarkable results in digestive endoscopy. In this study, we aimed to develop CNN-based methodologies models for differential diagnosis of benign esophageal protruded lesions using endoscopic images acquired during real clinical settings. METHODS: We retrospectively collected 1217 patients who underwent the white-light endoscopy (WLI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) between January 2015 and April 2020. Three deep CNN models were developed to accomplish the following tasks: (1) identification of esophageal benign lesions from healthy controls using WLI images; (2) differentiation 3 subtypes of esophageal protruded lesions (including EL: esophageal leiomyoma, EC: esophageal cyst, and EP: esophageal papilloma) using WLE images; and (3) discrimination between EL and EC using EUS images . Six endoscopists blinded to patients' clinical status were enrolled to interpret all images independently. Their diagnostic performance were evaluated and compared with the CNN models using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: For task 1, the CNN model achieved the AUC of 0.751 (95% CI, 0.652 - 0.850) in identifying benign esophageal lesions. For task 2, the proposed model using WLI images for esophageal protruded lesions differentiation achieved the AUC of 0.907 (95% CI, 0.835 - 0.979), 0.897 (95% CI, 0.841 - 0.953) and 0.868 (95% CI, 0.769 - 0.968) for EP, EL, and EC, respectively. The CNN model achieved equivalent or higher identification accuracy of EL and EC compared with skilled endoscopists. In the task of discrimination of EL from EC (task 3), the proposed CNN model had the AUC values of 0.739 (EL, 95% CI, 0.600 - 0.878) and 0.724 (EC, 95% CI, 0.567 - 0.881), that outperformed seniors and novices. In attempts of combining CNN and endoscopists predictions lead to significantly improved diagnostic accuracy compared with endoscopists interpretations alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our team managed to establish CNN-based methodologies to recognize benign esophageal protruded lesions using routinely obtained WLI and EUC images. Preliminary results that combining models and endoscopists results underscored the potential of ensemble models for improved lesions differentiation in real endoscopic settings.

19.
Mol Plant ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065270

RESUMO

Trichomes are universally present in plants and trichome development is delicately regulated. Trichomes are responsible for pubescence, and their density is associated with agronomical traits related to insect resistance, evapotranspiration and yield. Almost a century ago, three dominant alleles related to pubescence density in soybean, namely Pd1 (dense pubescence), Ps (sparse pubescence) and P1 (glabrous), were identified. However, their identity and inheritance remain unclear. Here, through genome-wide association study (GWAS) and map-based cloning, we determined the genetic basis of these three traits. The sparse pubescence phenotype of Ps was attributed to a copy number variation (CNV) of a 25.6-kb sequence that includes a gene encoding a protein with WD40 and RING domains, the dense pubescence phenotype of Pd1 was attributed to a T-C transition in the last exon of a HD-Zip transcription factor gene, and the glabrous phenotype of P1 was attributed to a G-A transition in the first exon of a lipid transfer protein gene. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that Pd1 functions as a transcriptional activator that binds to the promoters of the P1 and Ps genes to induce their expression and that binds to its own promoter to act as a transcriptional inhibitor. In addition, Ps can interact with Pd1 and weaken the transcriptional activity of Pd1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Pd1, Ps, and P1 form a complex feedback loop to regulate pubescence formation.

20.
Food Chem ; 340: 128209, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032146

RESUMO

To improve the stabilities of low methoxy pectin (LMP) stabilized O/W emulsions for the delivery of bioactive substances, LMP was firstly modified with soy peptide (SP), corn peptide (CP) and whey protein peptide (WPP), respectively, by using dry-heat method, then the properties of LMP-peptide complexes stabilized O/W emulsions were characterized and the in vitro digestion of emulsions with ß-carotene was test to evaluate the potential applications. LMP-peptide complexes were formed by covalent bonds according to FT-IR spectroscopy. Compared to LMP stabilized emulsions, LMP-peptide complexes stabilized emulsions had smaller droplet sizes and higher stabilities in the changed pH value, temperature and ionic strength. Based on the results of in vitro digestion tests, LMP-SP and LMP-WPP obtained by incubating LMP with peptides at 60 °C for 12 h at the weight ratio of 4:1 were more suitable for the preparation of O/W emulsions to deliver camellia oil and ß-carotene.

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