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2.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(2): 97, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029701

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137104, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044498

RESUMO

As an important method of enriching, separating and removing nanoparticles, colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) need to be investigated for the fate and interfacial behaviors of particles during the process. It is beneficial to sufficiently interpreting the process performance and mechanisms. This study employed complementary tracking technologies to analyze the extensively-used engineered nanoparticles - TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in effluent and floats of CGA process. Results denote that, at the optimum SDS relative dosage of 0.78 mg/mg TiO2, the particle number concentration was largely reduced by 2-4 orders of magnitude based on nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) whilst approximately 84.0% of TiO2-NPs were separated according to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). NTA shows the change of overall particle dispersion status in the water phase while ICP-MS provides the Ti-related separation effect. Particularly, the particle size variation for the scenario of overdosing CGAs was clearly observed by NTA. Micro-Raman, dynamic laser scattering and small angle laser light scattering exhibited advantages in obtaining the configuration and morphology of flocs. The large flocs with open structure were apt to form and be favorably separated at the appropriate CGA dosage. However, overdosing CGAs weakened the capture capacity of bubbles and gave rise to small and dense aggregates. This work, for the first time, shows the change of nanoparticles in water and solid phases using the important and novel nanoparticle collection method - CGA technology. It also provides a reference to other flotation-related technologies for studying the nanoparticle fate and the process performance.

4.
Ther Drug Monit ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the serum concentrations of olanzapine in relation to age, sex, and other factors in Chinese patients aged between 10 and 90 years. METHODS: Data for 884 olanzapine patients, deposited between 2016 and 2017, were retrieved from the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database of the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The effects of covariates on serum olanzapine concentration, dose-normalized concentration (C/D ratio), and normalized concentration (C/D/weight) were investigated. RESULTS: Generally, males had lower olanzapine concentration, C/D ratio, and C/D/weight than females (p<0.001). Smoking and drinking reduced olanzapine concentration, C/D ratio, and C/D/weight (p<0.001). Co-administration with valproate decreased olanzapine concentration, C/D ratio, and C/D/weight by about 16%, 30% and 40%, respectively (p<0.001). Patients younger than 60 years had higher olanzapine concentrations (p<0.05), but lower C/D ratios and C/D/weight (p<0.001) than patients older than 60. Age was correlated with olanzapine concentration (r = -0.082, p<0.05), C/D ratio (r = 0.196, p<0.001), and C/D/weight (r = 0.169, p<0.001). Sample timing post-dose and diagnostic factors also contributed to the olanzapine concentrations. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant influences of dosage, age, sex, valproate comedication, smoking, post-dose interval, and schizophrenia (vs bipolar affective disorders) on serum olanzapine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolism of olanzapine may be altered by several factors. Patients characterized with a combination of factors may benefit from TDM for the adjustment of olanzapine dose to minimize adverse reactions.

5.
Langmuir ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053373

RESUMO

Intercalation of carbon nanosheets into two-dimensional (2D) inorganic materials could enhance their properties in terms of mechanics and electrochemistry, but sandwiching these two kinds of materials in alternating sequence is a great challenge on synthesis. Herein, we report a novel strategy to construct TiO2 nanosheets into 2D pillar-layer architectures by employing benzidine molecular assemble as pillars. Then the 2D carbon/TiO2 nanosheets composite with a periodic interlayer distance of 1.1 nm was obtained following a polymerization and carbonization. This method not only alleviates the strain arisen from the torsion of binding during the carbonization, but also hinders the structural collapse of TiO2 due to the intercalation of carbon layer by rational control of annealing conditions. The composite material possesses a large carbon/TiO2 interface, providing abundant active sites for ultrafast pseudocapacitive charge storage, thus displaying a superior high-rate performance with a specific capacity of 67.8 mAh/g at the current of 12.8 A/g based on the total electrode and excellent cyclability with 87.4 % capacity retention after 3000 cycles.

6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 873: 172955, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001218

RESUMO

Glomerular mesangial matrix expansion and cell autophagy are the most important factors in the development of kidney damage under diabetic conditions. The activation of AMPK might be an important treatment target for diabetic nephropathy. Berberine has multiple effects on all types of diabetic complications as an activator of AMPK. However, the poor bioavailability of berberine limits its clinical applications. Huang-Gui Solid Dispersion (HGSD), a new formulation of berberine developed in our lab, has 4-fold greater bioavailability than berberine. However, its therapeutic application and mechanism still need to be explored. In the present study, the effect of HGSD on kidney function in type 2 diabetic rats and db/db mice was investigated. The results demonstrated that HGSD improved kidney function in these two animal models, decreased the glomerular volume and increased autophagy. Meanwhile, AMPK phosphorylation levels and autophagy-related protein expression were significantly increased, and extracellular matrix protein deposition-related protein expression was decreased after treatment. The present study indicated that HGSD protected against diabetic kidney dysfunction by inhibiting glomerular mesangial matrix expansion and activating autophagy. The mechanism of HGSD in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy might be connected to the activation of AMPK phosphorylation.

7.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and identify a MRI-based radiomics nomogram for the preoperative prediction of parametrial invasion (PMI) in patients with early-stage cervical cancer (ECC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 137 patients with ECC (FIGO stages IB-IIA) underwent T2WI and DWI scans before radical hysterectomy surgery. The radiomics signatures were calculated with the radiomics features which were extracted from T2WI and DWI and selected by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operation regression. The support vector machine (SVM) models were built using radiomics signatures derived from T2WI and joint T2WI and DWI respectively to evaluate the performance of radiomics signatures for distinguishing patients with PMI. A radiomics nomogram was drawn based on the radiomics signatures with a better performance, patient's age, and pathological grade; its discrimination and calibration performances were estimated. RESULTS: For T2WI and joint T2WI and DWI, the radiomics signatures yielded an AUC of 0.797 (95% CI, 0.682-0.911) vs 0.946 (95% CI, 0.899-0.994), and 0.780 (95% CI, 0.641-0.920) vs 0.921 (95% CI, 0.832-1) respectively in the primary and validation cohorts. The radiomics nomogram, integrating the radiomics signatures from joint T2WI and DWI, patient's age, and pathological grade, showed excellent discrimination, with C-index values of 0.969 (95% CI, 0.933-1) and 0.941 (95% CI, 0.868-1) in the primary and validation cohorts, respectively. The calibration curve showed a good agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The radiomics nomogram performed well for the preoperative prediction of PMI in patients with ECC and may be used as a supplementary tool to provide individualized treatment plans for patients with ECC. KEY POINTS: • No previously reported study that has utilized radiomics nomogram to preoperatively predict PMI for patients with ECC. • Radiomics model involves radiomics features extracted from joint T2WI and DWI which characterize the heterogeneity between tumors in patients with ECC. • Radiomics nomogram can assist clinicians with individualized treatment decision-making for patients with ECC.

8.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065478

RESUMO

The geomagnetic field (GMF) is well documented for its essential role as a cue used in animal orientation or navigation. Recent evidence indicates that the absence of GMF (mimicked by the near-zero magnetic field, NZMF) can trigger stress-like responses such as reduced body weight, as we have previously shown in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. In this study, we found that consistent with the significantly decreased body weight of newly emerged female (-14.67%) and male (-13.17%) adult N. lugens, the duration of the phloem ingestion feeding waveform was significantly reduced by 32.02% in 5th instar nymphs reared under the NZMF vs. GMF. Interestingly, 5th instar nymphs that exhibited reduced feeding had significantly higher glucose levels (+16.98% and +20.05%; 24 h and 48 h after molting), which are associated with food aversion, and expression patterns of their appetite-related neuropeptide genes (neuropeptide F, down-regulated overall; short neuropeptide F, down-regulated overall; adipokinetic hormone, up-regulated overall; and adipokinetic hormone receptor, down-regulated overall) were also altered under the absence of GMF in a manner consistent with diminishing appetite. Moreover, the expressions of the potential magnetosensor cryptochromes (Crys) were found significantly altered under the absence of GMF, indicating the likely upstream signaling of the Cry-mediated magnetoreception mechanisms. These findings support the hypothesis that strong changes in GMF intensity can reduce adult body weight through affecting insect feeding behavior and underlying regulatory processes including appetite regulation. Our results highlight that GMF could be necessary for the maintenance of energy homeostasis in insects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Mol Divers ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056130

RESUMO

Based on the strategy of diversity-oriented synthesis and the structures of natural product pimprinine and streptochlorin, two series of novel pimprinine derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-thioether moieties were efficiently synthesized under the optimized reaction conditions. Biological assays conducted at Syngenta showed the designed derivatives displayed an altered pattern of biological activity, of which 5h was identified as the most promising compound with strong activity against Pythium dissimile and also a broad antifungal spectrum in primary screening. Further structural optimization of pimprinine and streptochlorin derivatives is well under way, aiming to discover synthetic analogues with improved antifungal activity. Two series of novel pimprinine derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-thioether moieties were efficiently synthesized through diversity-oriented synthesis strategy under the optimized conditions. Biological assays showed the designed derivatives exhibited potential activity.

10.
Environ Int ; 137: 105536, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036122

RESUMO

Long-term PM2.5 levels with high precision at fine spatiotemporal resolution are essential for quantitatively understanding the health risk of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and making effective air pollution control policies. The emerging statistically derived PM2.5 estimations from satellite remote sensing observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) data are an effective alternative to reconstruct global, long-term, high spatiotemporal resolution PM2.5 information. However, studies on PM2.5 estimation and its application to exposure and health-related studies are limited in China due to the lack of historical in-situ measurements before 2013. In this study, we explored the long-term trends of PM2.5 exposure in central China, a hotspot that has recently been experiencing severe particulate pollution, at the local scale. We first developed a spatiotemporal model incorporating periodical characteristics within the data to estimate daily concentrations of historical PM2.5 at a fine scale of 1 km for 2003-2018. The linear effects of predictors including AOD, meteorological and land-use parameters and the non-linear interaction between AOD and meteorological parameters were considered in the modeling process. The most recently released high-resolution satellite aerosol product, Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) was used to help to represent the fine-scale particle gradients. Our daily estimates correlated well with in-situ observations (cross-validation R2 = 0.59), achieving precision comparable to previous statistical models. Through linking with gridded demographic data, the population-weighted PM2.5 average during 2003 to 2018 was found to be high (62.23 µg/m3 for the whole domain) with obvious spatial variations and seasonality. An inverse U pattern was seen in the time series, with two inflection points around 2008 and 2015. Our model provides reliable particulate information with high spatial resolution and long-term temporal coverage, which can inform local-scale PM2.5-related epidemiological studies and health-risk assessments for central China.

11.
Sleep Med ; 69: 71-77, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between sleep duration and general and abdominal obesity in adults, especially in the rural Chinese population, remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the association between sleep duration and general and abdominal obesity in rural Chinese adults. METHODS: We included 12,446 adults aged 18-75 years old who completed a baseline examination during 2007-2008 and follow-up during 2013-2014. We prospectively investigated the sleep-obesity association over an average of six-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the probability of new-onset general and abdominal obesity, estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: As compared with sleep duration 6.5-7.5 h, short sleep duration (<6.5 h) was significantly associated with increased probability of abdominal obesity in men (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45) after controlling for multiple covariates. A similar association was found in men aged >60 years but not in women or in men ≤60 years. We found no significant association between sleep duration and general obesity. The results were consistent when restricting the analysis to participants without cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus or cancer at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration was significantly associated with abdominal obesity in rural Chinese adults, and the association varied by sex and age.

12.
Menopause ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the association between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and whether the association is mediated by adiposity and insulin resistance (IR) in rural Chinese women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data for 7,460 women (median age 56 y) from a rural Chinese area from 2013 to 2014. Data were collected by standardized interviews and anthropometric and laboratory measurements. Adiposity was measured by body mass index (BMI), and IR was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence limits (CLs) for the association between age at menarche and T2DM. Mediation analysis was performed to explore the contribution of BMI and HOMA-IR to the association between age at menarche and T2DM. RESULTS: Among 7,460 women, 840 (11.26%) had T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds of T2DM with the latest age at menarche 18 years or older versus 13 years was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CL: 0.47, 0.91), and age at menarche was negatively associated with T2DM (per additional year of menarche, OR = 0.95, 95% CL: 0.91, 0.99). BMI and HOMA-IR completely mediated the association between age at menarche and T2DM (total indirect effect: OR = 0.973, 95% CL: 0.961, 0.986; direct effect: OR = 0.974, 95% CL: 0.930, 1.021). CONCLUSIONS: Late menarche may be negatively associated with T2DM. The potential mechanism is adiposity and IR completely mediating the association between age at menarche and T2DM.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 609, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001710

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages affect tumor progression and resistance to immune checkpoint therapy. Here, we identify the chemokine signal regulator FROUNT as a target to control tumor-associated macrophages. The low level FROUNT expression in patients with cancer correlates with better clinical outcomes. Frount-deficiency markedly reduces tumor progression and decreases macrophage tumor-promoting activity. FROUNT is highly expressed in macrophages, and its myeloid-specific deletion impairs tumor growth. Further, the anti-alcoholism drug disulfiram (DSF) acts as a potent inhibitor of FROUNT. DSF interferes with FROUNT-chemokine receptor interactions via direct binding to a specific site of the chemokine receptor-binding domain of FROUNT, leading to inhibition of macrophage responses. DSF monotherapy reduces tumor progression and decreases macrophage tumor-promoting activity, as seen in the case of Frount-deficiency. Moreover, co-treatment with DSF and an immune checkpoint antibody synergistically inhibits tumor growth. Thus, inhibition of FROUNT by DSF represents a promising strategy for macrophage-targeted cancer therapy.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012863

RESUMO

Object detection in point cloud data is one of the key components in computer vision systems, especially for autonomous driving applications. In this work, we present Voxel-Feature Pyramid Network, a novel one-stage 3D object detector that utilizes raw data from LIDAR sensors only. The core framework consists of an encoder network and a corresponding decoder followed by a region proposal network. Encoder extracts and fuses multi-scale voxel information in a bottom-up manner, whereas decoder fuses multiple feature maps from various scales by Feature Pyramid Network in a top-down way. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method has better performance on extracting features from point data and demonstrates its superiority over some baselines on the challenging KITTI-3D benchmark, obtaining good performance on both speed and accuracy in real-world scenarios.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum albumin level and its dynamic change with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in a large Chinese cohort study. METHODS: This cohort study included 30,442 adults without T2DM at first entry, who completed at least one follow-up of annual examinations between 2009 and 2016. Serum albumin level was measured at baseline and at every annual check-up. The dynamic change in serum albumin level (∆ALB) was calculated by subtracting serum albumin level at baseline from that at the last follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox regression models. RESULTS: During 7 years of follow-up, we identified 1,634 T2DM events. From the lowest to highest quartile of serum albumin level, adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.00 (reference), 0.96 (0.94, 1.01), 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) and 0.88 (0.85, 0.98), respectively. As compared with stable change in serum albumin (-0.2 ≤ ∆ALB < 1.0 g/L), the risk of T2DM increased for ∆ALB < -2.0 g/L (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.24-1.68) and decreased for ∆ALB ≥ 3.0 g/L (0.81, 0.68-0.97) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response association between baseline serum albumin level and T2DM risk (Pnon-linearity 0.715) and a non-linear dose-response association between ∆ALB and T2DM risk (Pnon-linearity 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline serum albumin level appears to be inversely associated with T2DM risk. Adults with reduced serum albumin level could be early identified for diabetes risk in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
J Med Chem ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026684

RESUMO

Iodide homeostasis and thyroid hormone metabolism in the brain are potentially related to changes in activity of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). No radiotracers are currently available for imaging brain NIS activity. Here, we synthesized 6-[124I]iodo-9-pentylpurine that can noninvasively measure iodide efflux from the brain and showed that the efflux rate of [124I]I- in NIS knockout mice was 84% lower than that of wild-type mice. Thus, 6-[124I]iodo-9-pentylpurine would be useful for imaging brain NIS activity.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1548, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The underlying anatomical mechanism of the ultrasound-guided fascia iliaca compartment (FIC) block for anaesthesia and analgesia in the lower limb has not been illuminated and numerous variations were attempted to achieve an optimal needle placement. This study aimed to define the fibrous configuration of the FIC. METHODS: A total of 46 adult cadavers were studied using dissection, latex injection, epoxy sheet plastination and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: (1) The fascia iliaca originated from the peripheral fascicular aponeurotic sheet of the iliopsoas. (2) The FIC was a funnel-shaped adipose space between the fascia iliaca and the epimysium of the iliopsoas, had a superior and an inferior opening and contained the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves but not obturator nerve. (3) The estimated volume of the FIC in the cadavers was about 23 mls, of which about one third was below the level of the anterior superior iliac spine. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the fascia iliaca was aponeurotic and may be less permeable for the local anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: The FIC contained only the femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves and communicated with the extraperitoneal space and femoral triangle adipose space via its superior and inferior opening, respectively.

18.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002530

RESUMO

In this work, we developed multi-shelled hollow nanospheres [RGD@am-ZnO@CuO@Au@DOX HNSs] as multifunctional therapeutic agents to achieve effective and targeted Zn2+/Cu2+ therapy, induced drug delivery under low pH/red-light conditions, and enhanced phototherapy under single red-light. The photothermal and photodynamic performance of am-ZnO@CuO@Au HNSs was enhanced relative to that of am-ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) or am-ZnO@CuO HNSs by utilizing the resonance energy transfer process and broad red-light absorption. The pH-sensitive am-ZnO@CuO@Au HNSs were dissolved to Zn2+/Cu2+ in the acidic endosomes/lysosomes of cancer cells, resulting in a cancer cell killing effect. The release performance of doxorubicin (DOX) from RGD@am-ZnO@CuO@Au@DOX HNSs was evaluated under low pH and red-light-irradiated conditions, and targeting of HNSs was confirmed by dual-modal imaging (magnetic resonance/fluorescence) of the tumor area. Moreover, in vivo synergistic therapy using RGD@am-ZnO@CuO@Au@DOX HNSs was further evaluated in mice bearing human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) cells, achieving a remarkable synergistic antitumor effect superior to that obtained by monotherapy. This study validated that RGD@am-ZnO@CuO@Au@DOX HNSs can be a promising candidate for efficient postoperative cancer therapy.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046258

RESUMO

In this paper, biochar (BC) was prepared from discarded grapefruit peel and modified to prepare magnetic biochar (MBC). Physical and chemical properties of BC and MBC were characterized, and the results showed that the type of iron oxide loaded by MBC was γ-Fe2O3. Compared with BC, MBC has a larger specific surface area and pore volume, with more oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. BC and MBC were used to adsorb and remove endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) bisphenol A (BPA) from simulated wastewater. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of BPA adsorption by BC and MBC were mainly in accordance with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir model. This indicates that the adsorption of BPA on BC and MBC is mainly a chemically controlled monolayer adsorption. Adsorption thermodynamics show that BC and MBC adsorption of BPA is a spontaneous exothermic reaction, and lowering the temperature is conducive to the adsorption reaction. The effect of solution pH on the adsorption of BPA by both was significant. The optimum pH for BC and MBC to absorb BPA was 6 and 3, respectively. The concentration of Na+ in the range of 0-0.10 mol·L-1 can promote the adsorption of BPA to MBC. MBC loaded with γ-Fe2O3 not only has excellent magnetic separation ability, but can also reach about 80% of the initial adsorption capacity after four cycles of adsorption. By analyzing the adsorption mechanism, it was found that the H-bond and the π-π electron donor-acceptor interaction (EDA) were the main forces for BC and MBC to adsorb BPA.

20.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046440

RESUMO

Results of previous epidemiology studies on BPA exposure and endometriosis (EMs) risk were inconsistent, and were limited by inappropriate control selection, incorrect BPA detection method, and the generalization of different subtypes of EMs. Upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 are involved in the development of EMs. We conducted a case-control study among 120 EMs patients and 100 healthy women to evaluate the relationships between BPA exposure and MMP2, MMP9 expressions, and the risk of EMs subtypes. Besides, we used human endometrial stromal cell lines (HESCs) to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentrations were positively correlated with serum MMP2, MMP9 levels, and the risk of peritoneal EMs (third vs lowest quartile: OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.47, 16.50; fourth versus lowest quartile: OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.07, 12.74, Ptrend = 0.030). The risk of peritoneal EMs increased approximately tenfold when creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentration was 2 µg/g. In vitro study found that BPA exposure increased MMP2, MMP9 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of BPA on HESCs could be blocked by G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibitor or mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) inhibitor. This study provides evidence that BPA exposure promotes peritoneal EMs, and raises a concern about the potential toxicity of BPA on the female reproductive system.

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