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1.
Avian Pathol ; : 1-26, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208867

RESUMO

Waterfowl parvoviruses (WPVs) including goose parvovirus (GPV), novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) cause significant economic losses and epizootic threat to the waterfowl industries and little is known about the B-cell epitope of WPVs. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 5B5 against the VP3 protein of NGPV was used to identify the possible epitope in the three kinds of WPVs. The mAb 5B5 had neutralizing activities to the three viruses, and reacted with the conserved linear B-cell epitopes of 438LHNPPP443 in VP3 protein of GPV, NGPV and MDPV. To the author's best knowledge, this appears to be the first report on identification of the common conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope on VP3 protein of three different WPVs, which would facilitate the development of a novel immunodiagnostic assay for rapid detection of WPVs infection.

2.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; : e8721, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899842

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Organophosphorus nerve agents are highly toxic because they inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity, thereby causing a series of symptomatic poisoning. Upon entering the body, nerve agents bind active amino acid residues to form phosphonylated adducts. A potentially beneficial method for specific verification of exposure of nerve agents is based on albumin adducts, which have a half-life of 18 days. This appears to be more effective than the fluoride reactivation method, based on acetylcholinesterase. METHODS: After the exposure of human serum albumin to nine nerve agents, human serum albumin was denatured, reduced, alkylated and digested with trypsin according to standard mass spectrometry-based proteomics procedures. The phosphonylated peptides of human serum albumin were identified using positive ion electrospray ionization with a quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer. RESULTS: The peptide KVPQVSTPTLVESR showed a good mass spectrometric response to the nine nerve agents. The tendency of sarin and cyclosarin was to bind to S419 on the peptide, while the other nerve agents (tabun, soman, and V-type nerve agents) were shown to bind more readily to K414 on the peptide. CONCLUSIONS: This research revealed the new site, S419, of the tryptic peptide KVPQVSTPTLVEVSR on human albumin to be a valuable biomarker for sarin/cyclosarin exposure, helping to further distinguish sarin and cyclosarin poisoning from nerve agents and providing an important tool for identification of sarin or cyclosarin in terrorist attacks.

3.
Trends Biotechnol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954530

RESUMO

Proteins found in nature have traditionally been the most frequently used biocatalysts to produce numerous natural products ranging from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. Protein engineering has emerged as a powerful biotechnological toolbox in the development of metabolic engineering, particularly for the biosynthesis of natural products. Recently, protein engineering has become a favored method to improve enzymatic activity, increase enzyme stability, and expand product spectra in natural product biosynthesis. This review summarizes recent advances and typical strategies in protein engineering, highlighting the paramount role of protein engineering in improving and diversifying the biosynthesis of natural products. Future prospects and research directions are also discussed.

4.
Cytokine ; 126: 154868, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629110

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a common malignant disease, nearly 2.09 million new patients occurred last year. Approximately 85% of the patients are classified as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is therefore important to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. The presented study identifies biomarkers in the serum of NSCLC patients. The expression of 274 cytokines was measured by a novel antibody array methodology and ELISA was applied to validate the array results. The levels of MIP-1 α, IL-8, MIP-1 ß, Resistin, GDF-15, HGF, CA125, FLRG, VCAM-1, DKK-3, sTNF-R1, CTACK, Acrp30, CXCL-16 and LYVE-1 were significantly higher in serum from NSCLC patients, while the level of TIMP-2 and IGFBP-6 were lower. More importantly, the validation supported the result of the antibody array. The result of the antibody array indicates that these cytokines might be novel auxiliary biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC.

5.
Brain Stimul ; 13(1): 109-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been explored in epilepsy with limited samples, varied parameters, and inconclusive results. We aimed to study the efficacy of tDCS for patients with refractory focal epilepsy. METHOD: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, and three-arm (Group 1 (sham), Group 2 (20-min), and Group 3 (2 × 20-min)) tDCS parallel multicenter study. The primary outcome measurement was seizure frequencies (SFs). The study consisted of 28-days baseline, 14-days treatment, and 56-days follow-up. The cathode was placed over the epileptogenic focus, and the current intensity was 2 mA. The generalized estimating equations model, one-way analysis of variance, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analysis. RESULTS: Of the 82 enrolled patients, 70 patients were included for final analysis (Group 1, n = 21; Group 2, n = 24; and Group 3, n = 25). There was a significant reduction in SFs for both active tDCS groups compared with the sham group. Patients in Group 2 showed a significantly 50.73-21.91% greater reduction in SFs that lasted for 4 weeks (p = 0.008-0.060). Patients in Group 3 showed a significantly 63.19-49.79% greater reduction in SFs compared with the sham group that lasted for 5 weeks (p = 0.011-0.045). Patients in Group 3 had a 64.98-66.32% greater reduction in SFs at W9-W10, when compared with Group 2 (p = 0.021-0.022). CONCLUSION: Fourteen consecutive days tDCS significantly decreased SFs in patients with refractory focal epilepsy, with 2 × 20-min daily stimulation protocol being superior to 20-min daily stimulation protocol.

6.
Toxicol Lett ; 321: 1-11, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846690

RESUMO

Upon entering the body, nerve agents can bind active amino acid residues to form phosphonylated adducts. Tabun derivatives (O-alkyl-N,N-dialkyl phosphoroamidocyanidates) have strikingly different structural features from other G-series nerve agents, such as sarin and soman. Here, we investigate the binding mechanism for the phosphonylated adducts of nerve agents of tabun derivatives. Binding sites for three tabun derivatives, O-ethyl-N,N- dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate (GA), O-ethyl-N,N-ethyl(methyl) phosphoramidocyanidate, and O-ethyl-N,N-diethylphosphoramidocyanidate were studied. Quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap-MS) coupled to proteomics was used to screen adducts between tabun derivatives and albumin, immunoglobulin, and hemoglobin. The results reveal that all three tabun derivatives exhibit robust selectivity to lysine residues, rather than other amino acid residue types. A set of 10 lysine residues on human serum albumin are labeled by tabun derivatives in vitro, with K525 (K*QTALVELVK) and K199 (LK*CASLQK) peptides displaying the most reactivity. Tabun derivatives formed stable adducts on K525 and K414 (K*VPQVSTPTLVEVSR) for at least 7 days and on K351 (LAK*TYETTLEK) for at least 5 days in a rabbit model. Three of these peptides-K525, K414, and K351-have the highest homology with human serum albumin of all 5 lysine residues that bound to examined rabbit blood proteins in vivo. Molecular simulation of the tabun-albumin interaction using structural analysis and molecular docking provided theoretical evidence supporting lysine residue reactivity to phosphonylation by tabun derivatives. K525 has the lowest free binding energy and the strongest hydrogen bonding to human albumin. In summary, these findings identify unique binding properties for tabun derivatives to blood proteins.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Lisina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Organofosfatos/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Coelhos , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817666

RESUMO

Autophagy is a tightly regulated catabolic process and is activated in cells in response to stress signals. Despite extensive study, the interplay between duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and the autophagy of host cells is not clear. In this study, we applied proteomics analysis to investigate the interaction mechanism between DHAV-1 and duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. In total, 507 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified, with 171 upregulated proteins and 336 downregulated proteins. The protein expression level of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and their response to stimulus proteins and zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) were significantly increased while the same aspects of ribosome proteins declined. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that DEPs were mainly involved in the "response to stimulus", the "defense response to virus", and the "phagosome pathway". Furthermore, Western blot results showed that the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to the lipidation form of LC3-II increased, and the conversion rate decreased when DEF cells were processed with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA). These findings indicated that DHAV-1 infection could cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy in DEF cells, and that ER stress was an important regulatory factor in the activation of autophagy. Our data provide a new clue regarding the host cell response to DHAV-1 and identify proteins involved in the DHAV-1 infection process or the ER stress-induced autophagy process.

8.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810309

RESUMO

Duck astrovirus type 1 (DAstV-1) infection constitutes a cause of viral hepatitis in ducklings and little is known about the B-cell epitope of DAstV-1. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3D2 against open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of DAstV-1 was used to identify the possible epitope in the four serotypes of DAstV. The mAb 3D2 showed no neutralization activity to DAstV-1, and reacted with the conserved linear B-cell epitopes of 454STTESA459 in DAstV-1 ORF2 protein. Sequence analysis, dot blot assay, and cross-reactivity test indicated that the epitope peptide was highly conserved in DAstV-1 sequence and mAb 3D2 had no cross-reactivity with other DAstV serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about identification of the specific conserved linear B-cell epitope of DAstV-1, which will facilitate the serologic diagnosis of DAstV-1 infection.

9.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658691

RESUMO

As a disease characterized by severe liver necrosis and hemorrhage, duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is mainly caused by duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). The positive-strand RNA genome of DHAV type 1 (DHAV-1) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element within the 5' untranslated region (UTR), structured sequence elements within the 3' UTR, and a poly(A) tail at the 3' terminus. In this study, we first examined that insulin-like growth factor-2 mRNA-binding protein-1 (IGF2BP1) specifically interacted with the DHAV-1 3' UTR by RNA pull-down assay. The interaction between IGF2BP1 and DHAV-1 3' UTR strongly enhanced IRES-mediated translation efficiency but failed to regulate DHAV-1 replication in a duck embryo epithelial (DEE) cell line. The viral propagation of DHAV-1 strongly enhanced IGF2BP1 expression level, and viral protein accumulation was identified as the key point to this increment. Collectively, our data demonstrated the positive role of IGF2BP1 in DHAV-1 viral proteins translation and provided data support for the replication mechanism of DHAV-1.

10.
Virol J ; 16(1): 112, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and therefore serve as robust reverse genetic tools to study RNA viruses. A DNA-launched rescue system initiates the transcription of viral genomic cDNA from eukaryotic promoter in transfected cells, generating homogenous RNA transcripts in vitro and thus enhancing virus rescue efficiency. As one of the hazardous pathogens to ducklings, the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of duck astrovirus type 1 (DAstV-1) is limited. The construction of a DNA-launched rescue system can help to accelerate the study of the virus pathogenesis. However, there is no report of such a system for DAstV-1. METHODS: In this study, a DNA-launched infectious clone of DAstV-1 was constructed from a cDNA plasmid, which contains a viral cDNA sequence flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HdvRz) sequence at both terminals of the viral genome. A silent nucleotide mutation creating a Bgl II site in the ORF2 gene was made to distinguish the rescued virus (rDAstV-1) from the parental virus (pDAstV-1). Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and western blot were conducted for rescued virus identification in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells pre-treated with trypsin. The growth characteristics of rDAstV-1 and pDAstV-1 in DEF cells and the tissue tropism in 2-day-old ducklings of rDAstV-1 and pDAstV-1 were determined. RESULTS: The infectious DAstV-1 was successfully rescued from baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and could propagate in DEF cells pre-treated with 1 µg/ml trypsin. Upon infection of DEF cells pre-treated with trypsin, DAstV-1 mRNA copies were identified after serial passaging, and the result showed that rDAstV-1 and pDAstV-1 shared similar replication kinetics. Animal experiment showed that the rDAstV-1 had an extensive tissue tropism, and the virus was capable of invading both the central and the peripheral immune organs in infected ducklings. CONCLUSIONS: An improved DNA-launched reverse genetics system for DAstV-1 was firstly constructed. Infectious virus recovered from BHK-21 cells could propagate in DEF cells pre-treated with trypsin. This is the first report of the successful in vitro cultivation of DAstV-1. We believe this valuable experimental system will contribute to the further study of DAstV-1 genome function and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Avastrovirus/genética , Avastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Patos/virologia , Genética Reversa/métodos , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Avastrovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Genoma Viral , Plasmídeos , RNA Viral/genética , Transfecção , Tropismo Viral , Vírion/genética
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 74: 105737, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288152

RESUMO

Influenza A virus usually leads to economic loss to breeding farms and pose a serious threat to human health. Virus infecting tissues directly and influenza virus-induced excessive production of inflammatory factors play the key role in pathogenesis of the disease, but the mechanism is not well clarified. Here, the role of autophagy was investigated in H9N2 influenza virus-triggered inflammation. The results showed that autophagy was induced by H9N2 virus in A549 cells and in mice. Inhibiting autophagy by an autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA) or knockdown of Atg5(autophagy-related gene) by Atg5 siRNA significantly suppressed H9N2 virus replication, H9N2 virus-triggered inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-8, and CCL5 in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed H9N2 virus-triggered acute lung injury as indicated as accumulative mortality of mice, inflammatory cellular infiltrate and interstitial edema, thickening of the alveolar walls in mice lung tissues, increased inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, increased W/D ratio in mice. Moreover, autophagy mediated inflammatory responses through Akt-mTOR, NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. Our data showed that autophagy was essential in H9N2 influenza virus-triggered inflammatory responses, and autophagy could be target to treat influenza virus-caused lung inflammation.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Células A549 , Animais , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Virus Res ; 270: 197670, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330206

RESUMO

The nuclear localization signals (NLS) were usually composed of basic residues (K and R) and played an important role in delivery of genomes and structural protein into nucleus. In this research, we identified that 3Dpol/3CD entered into nucleus during viral propagation of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1). To investigate the reason that 3Dpol/3CD entered into nucleus, the amino acid sequence of 3CD was analyzed through NLS Mapper program. The basic region 17PRKTAYMRS25 was subsequently proved to be a functional NLS to guide 3Dpol/3CD into nucleus. 18R, 19K and 24R were found essential for maintaining the nuclear targeting activity, and exchange between 24R and 24K had no impact on cellular localization of 3Dpol. Since the entry of 3Dpol/3CD into nucleus was essential for shutoff of host cell transcription and maintaining the viral propagation of picornavirus numbers, our study provided new insights into the mechanism of DHAV-1 propagation.

13.
Metab Eng ; 55: 191-200, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348998

RESUMO

Microbial-based chemical synthesis serves as a promising approach for sustainable production of industrially important products. However, limited production performance caused by metabolic burden or genetic variations poses one of the major challenges in achieving an economically viable biomanufacturing process. To address this issue, one superior strategy is to couple the product synthesis with cellular growth, which renders production obligatory for cell survival. Here we create a pyruvate-driven metabolic scenario in engineered Escherichia coli for growth-coupled bioproduction, with which we demonstrate its application in boosting production of anthranilate and its derivatives. Deletion of a minimal set of endogenous pyruvate-releasing pathways engenders anthranilate synthesis as the salvage route for pyruvate generation to support cell growth, concomitant with simultaneous anthranilate production. Further introduction of native and non-native downstream pathways affords production enhancement of two anthranilate-derived high-value products including L-tryptophan and cis, cis-muconic acid from different carbon sources. The work reported here presents a new growth-coupled strategy with demonstrated feasibility for promoting microbial production.

14.
Metab Eng ; 55: 85-91, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229565

RESUMO

Plasmid-based microbial systems have been a major workhorse for chemical and pharmaceutical production. The biosafety issues and elevated industrial cost of antibiotic usage have led to the development of alternative strategies for plasmid selection and maintenance. Such strategies, including auxotrophy complementation, post-segregational killing, operator-repressor and RNA-based interactions often require extensive engineering of various elements and may result in extra metabolic burden in the cells. Herein, we report a design of synthetic symbiosis combining plasmid displacement to construct a phenotype-stable microbial system. By sequestrating an endogenous essential gene folP, cells obtained long-term plasmid maintenance with minimum cost. The phenotype performance was also inherited for up to 80 generations demonstrated by the production of salicylic acid in Escherichia coli. Meanwhile, the temperature-induced curing method of the intermediate plasmids enables rapid engineering. This design can lead to broad applications as a reliable and convenient plasmid-based expression system.

15.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(7): 1853-1863, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161358

RESUMO

A major challenge in organophosphate compound (OP) and OP nerve agent (OPNA) research has been in the identification and utilization of reliable biomarkers for rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection of OP exposure. Albumin has been widely studied as a biomarker for retrospective verification of exposure to OPNAs, including soman (GD), by detecting the phosphonylation of specific amino acid residues. The aim of the present study was to identify binding sites between GD and rabbit serum albumin in vitro and in vivo. A nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (nLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS) was used to examine the GD-modified adducts of rabbit albumin. A total of 11 GD-modified sites were found in rabbit serum albumin across three experimental models. The following five GD-modified rabbit albumin sites, which were all lysine residues, were established in vivo: K188, K329, K162, K233, and K525. Two of these five lysine residues, K188 in peptide EK*ALISAAQER and K162 in peptide YK*AILTECCEAADK, were stable for at least 7 days in vivo. Molecular simulation of the GD-albumin interaction provided theoretical evidence for reactivity of the identified lysine residues. The findings suggest that these modifiable lysine residues are potential biomarkers of GD exposure for retrospective analysis by Q-Orbitrap-MS.

16.
Vaccine ; 37(31): 4364-4369, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227355

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is the major pathogen of duck viral hepatitis, which has caused great economic losses to duck breeding industry. As an effective delivery tool for protein antigens, Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) has been successfully used to stimulate mucosal and systemic immune response. In this study, a recombinant L. lactis named NZ3900-VP1 was constructed, which could express VP1 protein of DHAV type 3 (DHAV-3) by using a nisin-controlled expression (NICE) system. The animal experiment in both mice and ducklings were performed to detect the immune response and protection effect of oral vaccination by the recombinant L. lactis. The results showed that oral vaccination with L. lactis NZ3900-VP1 significantly induced specific anti-VP1 IgG antibodies and mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) of DHAV-3 in mice and ducklings, and cytokines including interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Notably, the ducklings vaccinated with L. lactis NZ3900-VP1 were effectively protected when facing natural infestation of DHAV-3, which indicated that the recombinant L. lactis could serve as an effective vaccine to prevent DHAV-3 infection in ducklings.

17.
J Autoimmun ; 102: 50-64, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080014

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can function as an inflammatory mediator, but whether GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells (TH-GM-CSF) are a distinct T helper cell subset is lacking. Herein we demonstrate that interleukin (IL)-1ß exclusively drives differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into TH-GM-CSF cells via inducing ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (NF-κB), independent of RAR-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγt) required for TH17 differentiation. In vivo, TH-GM-CSF cells are present in murine Citrobacter Rodentium infections and mediate colitis following adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells into Rag1-/- mice via GM-CSF-induced macrophage activation. The TH-GM-CSF cell phenotype is stable and distinct from the TH17 genetic program, but IL-1ß can convert pre-formed TH17 cells into TH-GM-CSF cells, thereby accounting for previously reported associations between IL-17 and GM-CSF. Together, our results newly identify IL-1ß/NF-κB-dependent TH-GM-CSF cells as a unique T helper cell subset and highlight the importance of CD4+ T cell-derived GM-CSF induced macrophage activation as a previously undescribed T cell effector mechanism.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7087, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068633

RESUMO

4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (EcHpaB) from Escherichia coli is capable of efficient ortho-hydroxylation of a wide range of phenolic compounds and demonstrates great potential for broad chemoenzymatic applications. To understand the structural and mechanistic basis of its catalytic versatility, we elucidated the crystal structure of EcHpaB by X-ray crystallography, which revealed a unique loop structure covering the active site. We further performed mutagenesis studies of this loop to probe its role in substrate specificity and catalytic activity. Our results not only showed the loop has great plasticity and strong tolerance towards extensive mutagenesis, but also suggested a flexible loop that enables the entrance and stable binding of substrates into the active site is the key factor to the enzyme catalytic versatility. These findings lay the groundwork for editing the loop sequence and structure for generation of EcHpaB mutants with improved performance for broader laboratory and industrial use.

19.
Water Res ; 159: 55-64, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078752

RESUMO

Nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in chlorinated drinking water are receiving increasing attention due to their elevated toxicities. An effective strategy to control the formation of N-DBPs is to reduce their nitrogenous precursors (e.g., amino acids [AAs], believed to be the important N-DBP precursors) before disinfection. So far, little information is available about the effectiveness of conventional microbial degradation at controlling the formation of N-DBPs. In this study, the biodegradability of 20 AAs was investigated, and the impacts of microbial degradation for the selected 6 typical AAs on the formation of N-DBPs (haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides) and traditional carbonaceous DBP (chloroform) were investigated. The results indicated that glycine, arginine, aspartic acid, asparagine, alanine and serine were susceptible to biodegradation, and the formation potentials (FPs) of DBPs were remarkably reduced after biodegradation. The highest chloroform FP reduction rates from tryptophan and tyrosine were 85.4% and 56.2%, respectively. The FPs of dichloroacetonitrile and trichloroacetamide were also reduced after biodegradation of the all selected AA samples during chlor(am)ination. Dichloroacetamide FPs decreased continuously with incubation time during chlorination for phenylalanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, and the mixed AAs, and the highest reduction rates were 78.7%, 74.6%, 46.7% and 35.3% respectively. The results of integrated toxicity analysis indicated that the pre-treatment of microbial degradation significantly decreased the integrated toxicity of DBPs formed from AAs. Moreover, the microbial community analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was predominant at phylum level in the mixed AA sample, and the dominant genera were Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. Proteobacteria may play an important role in controlling DBP precursor.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Aminoácidos , Cloraminas , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos
20.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(3): 84-88, 2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942159

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the novel missense eya4 mutation which cause autosomal dominant non syndromic hearing loss In a Chinese family. Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit in humans, but the middle-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (MFSNHL) is rare among hereditary non-syndromic hearing loss, and EYA4 is one of the genes reported to be associated with MFSNHL. A genetic analysis of a Chinese family with autosomal dominant non­syndromic progressive hearing impairment was conducted and assessed. Targeted exome sequencing, conducted using DNA samples of an affected member in this family, revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation c.1855T>G in exon 20 of EYA4, causing amino-acid (aa) substitution Gly for Trp at a conserved position aa-619. The p.W619G mutation related to hearing loss in this Chinese family was validated by Sanger sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis confirmed the pathogenic effects of this mutation. We identified the novel missense mutation c.1855T>G (p.W619G) in EYA4 causing autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing impairment in the selected Chinese family.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genes Dominantes , Perda Auditiva/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Simulação por Computador , Exoma/genética , Família , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Software
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