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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 147: 111752, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630033

RESUMO

The sensitive and efficient strategy remains a central challenge for early diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria. Herein, an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor was proposed based on the multiple amplification strategy via the 3D DNA walker, rolling circle amplification (RCA) and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for the accurate detection of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). Firstly, the target sequence extracted from E. coli O157:H7 was transformed and amplified by the DNA walker firstly. Subsequently, a large number of transformed nucleic acid sequences were amplified by the RCA reaction. And then, the progress of HCR was triggered by every fragment in RCA products to form a long double-stranded DNA sequence to immobilize electrochemical indicators, generating a significantly enhanced electrochemical signal. As expected, a high sensitivity with a detection limit of 7 CFU/mL was achieved based on the proposed multiple amplification strategy, which is superior to most current methods for E. coli O157: H7 assay. The multiple amplification strategy could be readily expanded for the detection of various pathogenic bacteria, providing a new approach for early diagnosis of pathogenic microorganisms or other diseases.

2.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 86: 103964, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683175

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that emotional support may promote cognition; however, the effects of giving or receiving emotional support on incident dementia remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate the relationship between emotional support (giving or receiving) and incident dementia. In December 2006, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,694 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 years who lived in Ohsaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. A self-reported questionnaire including items on emotional support and lifestyle factors was distributed. After excluding those who did not provide consent or responses to all items, 13,636 eligible responses were analyzed for this study. According to responses of "yes" or "no" for emotional support, we made two categories for both giving (gave or did not give) and receiving (received or did not receive) emotional support. Furthermore, we combined giving and receiving emotional support into four categories ("giving = no & receiving = no", "giving = no & receiving = yes", "giving = yes & receiving = no", "giving = yes & receiving = yes"). Data on incident dementia were retrieved from the Long-term Care Insurance Database in which participants were followed up for 5.7 years. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we found that compared with participants who did not give emotional support to others, those who did give had a lower risk of dementia (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52, 0.71)). However, a nonsignificant relationship was observed for receiving emotional support. Additionally, compared to "giving = no & receiving = no" for emotional support, "giving = no & receiving = yes" showed a higher risk of dementia (multivariate-adjusted HR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.07, 2.14]).

3.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although it has been reported that the Japanese dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability among older people, the potential benefits of improving adherence to the Japanese diet remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between 12-year change in adherence to the Japanese diet and the subsequent risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from a cohort study of 2923 Japanese older adults (age ≥65 years) in 2006. We collected dietary information using a validated 39-item food frequency questionnaire at two time points (1994 and 2006). Adherence to the Japanese diet (high intake of rice, miso soup, seaweeds, pickles, green and yellow vegetables, fish, green tea; low intake of beef and pork, and coffee) was assessed using the Japanese Diet Index (JDI), which ranges from 0 to 9. Participants were categorized into five groups according to changes in the JDI score at these two time points. Data on incident functional disability from December 2006 to November 2016 were retrieved from the public long-term care insurance database. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident functional disability. RESULTS: During 22,466 person-years of follow-up, 1093 cases of incident functional disability were documented. Compared with participants in the group with the largest decrease in the JDI score (≤-2), the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.77 (0.61-0.98) for those in the largest increase group (≥+2). CONCLUSIONS: Improved adherence to the Japanese diet was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17878, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702658

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Donor-derived bacterial infection is a rare cause of morbidity after solid organ transplantation (SOT) but associated with significant morbidity and mortality, deaths caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection account for a considerable proportion of postoperation mortality rate in liver and kidney recipients. The arterial rupture as a result of fungal arteritis is occasionally described, while the rupture of graft vascular anastomosis after SOT due to donor-derived CRKP infection is rarely reported. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We reported 1 patient with donor-derived CRKP infection following liver transplantation and 2 patients following renal transplantation (1 liver and 2 kidneys were from the same donor), who experienced sudden abdominal pain and abdominal hemorrhage almost at the same time after organ transplantation. DIAGNOSIS: The patients were diagnosed as graft arteries rupture due to corrosion caused by CRKP infection based on computed tomography scan, blood culture, laparotomy, and pulse-field gel electrophoresis. INTERVENTIONS: Anti-shock treatment, exploratory laparotomy, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and abdominal puncture and drainage were given. OUTCOMES: The liver recipient survived as well as the liver graft, still under treatment of multiple abdominal infections. The 2 renal recipients were alive after resection of the renal grafts and underwent hemodialysis. LESSONS: Rupture of graft artery should be foreseen when donor-derived CRKP infection was confirmed and broad-spectrum antibiotics and other interventions need to be considered.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Klebsiella/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Artéria Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura/etiologia , Doadores de Tecidos
5.
J Electrocardiol ; 58: 46-50, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of early recurrence (ER) of atrial tachyarrhythmia (ATA) defined as atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial tachycardia (AT), or atrial flutter (AFL) during a 90-day blanking period after pulmonary vein isolation by cryoablation (PVI-C) in patients with symptomatic drug refractory AF. Specifically, to determine if ER of ATA during the blanking period can predict late recurrence (LR) during a 12-month follow-up period. METHOD: A total of 51 patients with symptomatic AF (who received PVI-C) were monitored by trans-telephonic wireless electrocardiogram (TWECG) event recording during the landmark 90-day blanking period following an index ablation. Recurrent ATA was defined as any AF, AT, or AFL lasting longer than 30 s (as recorded by 12­lead ECG, 24-hour Holter monitor, or TWECG). For data analysis, patients were grouped into ER and non-ER cohorts during the 90-day blanking period and then cohorted into LR or non-LR groups during the 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: During the 90-day blanking period, 23 patients had an ER event of ATA while 28 patients had a non-ER experience. Also, during the 12-month follow-up period, 15 patients had a LR event while 36 patients were free from ATA (and placed in the non-LR cohort). Overall, the average success rate of cryoablation for AF was 70.6% at the 12-month follow-up period. Compared to the non-LR group, patients with LR showed a higher average percentage of diabetes mellitic (33.3% vs. 5.56%; P = 0.008) and had a larger mean left atrium diameter (41.2 ±â€¯4.3 mm vs. 36.5 ±â€¯4.2 mm; P = 0.0006). During evaluation of the 90-day blanking period, the LR group had more frequent attacks of ATA than compared to the non-LR group (27.7% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Only two patients (7.1%) without ER in the blanking period (non-ER cohort) had relapsed into a LR of ATA during the one-year period. After multi-logistic regression analysis, ER could individually predict the risk of LR (RR = 58.8; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In our study, ER of ATA was a common phenomenon during the 90-day blanking period after PVI-C for AF, and it mostly occurred in the first month following the index ablation across all patients. ER is not equal to the LR of ATA; however, patients with an ER event had a higher risk of a LR during the 12-month follow-up period.

6.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773361

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase-associated protein 1 (MAPKAP1) is a unique component of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway which plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. The role of enhancer variant in carcinogenesis receives increased attentions. However, the significance of enhancer variants of MAPKAP1 in glioma has not yet been investigated. The associations of enhancer variants of MAPKAP1 with glioma susceptibility were evaluated in a cohort of 400 glioma patients and 651 controls. The function of glioma susceptibility locus was examined by a set of biochemical assays. We found that an enhancer variant of MAPKAP1 rs473426 was associated with a significantly increased risk of glioma in a dominant manner (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.13-2.06; P = 0.006). The association for rs1339499 located in the same enhancer approached the borderline of significance after multiple testing correction (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.98; P = 0.037). Furthermore, cumulative associations of rs473426 and rs1339499 with glioma risk were observed (P = 0.011). Functional analyses showed that the risk allele rs473426 C downregulated the regulatory activity of enhancer by reducing the binding affinity of a transcriptional activator NFΙC, which resulted in lower gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate for the first time that enhancer variant of MAPKAP1 confers susceptibility to glioma by downregulation of MAPKAP1 expression, and provide further evidence highlighting MAPKAP1 as a cancer suppressor in glioma carcinogenesis.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 892, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767832

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the selective autoimmune destruction of the islet ß cells, and macrophages play a significant role in this process. Small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) is an important posttranslational modification involved in T1D pathogenesis, but its function in macrophages remains unexplored. We presently developed and used macrophage-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (Ubc9) knockout (LyzM-Cre-Ubc9fl/fl, KO) mice to address the impact of SUMOylation on macrophage function in a T1D model. We observed that blocking Ubc9 in macrophages exacerbated multiple-low dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ)-induced diabetes. Specifically, after STZ treatment, blood glucose levels were consistently elevated in the KO mice. The KO mice exhibited a higher diabetes incidence than WT controls (85% vs. 55%, P < 0.01) along with a higher insulitis severity. The loss of Ubc9 impaired macrophage energy metabolism and attenuated macrophage M2 program, thereby enhancing T cell activation. Pancreas-resident macrophages, rather than migrant macrophages, played a predominant role in MLD-STZ-induced diabetes. Mechanistically, Ubc9-mediated SUMOylation of interferon regulator factor 4 (IRF4) enhanced its nuclear localization and stability, thereby transcribing IL-4 and arginase 1 (Arg1) to promote the macrophage M2 program. Ubc9-mediated SUMOylation modulates T1D risk at least in part by regulating macrophage function. Modulation of disturbed SUMOylation process in macrophages, either through cell adoptive transfer or targeted drug-delivery, could help to establish a tolerant pancreatic microenvironment and promote inflammation resolution in early insulitis stage, thus hindering T1D progression.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696523

RESUMO

This case demonstrates the feasibility of placing the pacing lead helix at the His bundle distal to the region of left bundle branch block and reveals three types of electrocardiographic characteristics of distal His bundle pacing during correction of left bundle branch block in a patient. As the pacing lead helix was placed distal to the block, left bundle branch block correction was achieved by pacing with a low and stable capture threshold.

9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725259

RESUMO

Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) allow optical recording of neuronal activities with high spatial resolution. While most existing GEVIs emit in the green range, red-shifted GEVIs are highly sought after because they would enable simultaneous stimulation and recording of neuronal activities when paired with optogenetic actuators, or two-color imaging of signaling and neuronal activities when used along with GFP-based indicators. In this study, we present several improved red-shifted GEVIs based on the electrochromic Förster resonance energy transfer (eFRET) between orange/red fluorescent proteins/dyes and rhodopsin mutants. Through structure-guided mutagenesis and cell-based sensitivity screening, we identified a mutant rhodopsin with a single mutation that exhibited more than 2-fold improvement in voltage sensitivity. Notably, this mutation has been independently discovered by Pieribone et al. ( Pieribone, V. A. et al. Nat Methods 2018 , 15 ( 12 ), 1108 - 1116 ). In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, our sensors faithfully reported action potential waveforms and subthreshold activities. We also demonstrated that this mutation could enhance the sensitivity of hybrid indicators, thus providing insights for future development.

10.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 7024905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737687

RESUMO

Objective: Asthma is a syndrome that incorporates many immune phenotypes. The immunologic effects of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) exerts on allergic asthma remain still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of SCIT on cytokine production and peripheral blood levels of lymphocyte subtypes in children with mite-induced moderate and severe allergic asthma. Methods: The study included 60 kids with mite-induced allergic asthma from 5 to 10 years old. All subjects had received antiasthmatic pharmacologic for 3 months at baseline. Half of the children were treated with SCIT combined with pharmacologic treatment named the SCIT group and the other half only with pharmacologic therapy named the no-SCIT group. Total asthma symptom score (TASS) and total medication score (TMS) were recorded. Flow cytometry was used to identify lymphocyte subtypes: type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s), type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) helper T cells, T helper 17 (Th17) cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells. ELISA, flow cytometry, and cytometric bead array were used to assess cytokines IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, and TGF-ß, at baseline and 3 and 6 months after study treatment in both groups of patients. Results: Both groups can significantly improve clinical symptoms in children with asthma. SCIT can significantly reduce asthma medication after 6 months of treatment. SCIT induced a significantly higher and progressive reduction in ILC2 percentage and IL-13 levels after 3 and 6 months of treatment compared with baseline and compared with no-SCIT patients. Significant differences were detected in the Th1/Th2 cell ratio and IFN-γ/IL-4 cytokine ratio between groups after 6 months of treatment. Similarly, the Th17/Treg ratio and IL-17/TGF-ß ratio in the SCIT group were much lower than those in the no-SCIT group after 3-6 months of treatment. Conclusion: SCIT is a promising option to reduce the percentage of ILC2 and regulate Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg immune balance in the peripheral blood of children with asthma.

12.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 22(5): 256-261, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ventricular tachyarrhythmia is the leading cause of death in post-infarction patients. Big endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide and plays a role in ventricular tachyarrhythmia development. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the serum concentration of big ET-1 and ventricular tachyarrhythmia in post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm (PI-LVA) patients. METHODS: A total of 222 consecutive PI-LVA patients who had received medical therapy were enrolled in the study. There were 43 (19%) patients who had ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) at the time of admission. The clinical characteristics were observed and the plasma big ET-1 level was measured. Associations between big ET-1 and the presence of VT/VF were assessed. Patients were followed up to check for outcomes related to cardiovascular mortality, VT/VF attack, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The median concentration of big ET-1 was 0.635 pg/mL. Patients with big ET-1 concentrations above the median were more likely to have higher risk clinical features. There was a positive correlation between the level of big ET-1 with VT/VF attack (r=0.354, p<0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, big ET-1 (OR=4.06, 95% CI: 1.77-9.28, p<0.001) appeared as an independent predictive factor for the presence of VT/VF. Multiple Cox regression analysis suggested that big ET-1 concentration was independently predictive of VT/VF attack (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5, p<0.001). NT-proBNP and left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤35% were demonstrated to be independently predictive of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Increased big ET-1 concentration in PI-LVA patients is a valuable independent predictor for the prevalence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and VT/VF attacks during follow-up after PI-LVA treatment.

13.
Europace ; 21(11): 1686-1693, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681964

RESUMO

AIMS: Patient selection is a key component of securing optimal patient outcomes with leadless pacing. We sought to describe and compare patient characteristics and outcomes of Micra patients with and without a primary pacing indication associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Micra IDE trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome (risk of cardiac failure, pacemaker syndrome, or syncope related to the Micra system or procedure) was compared between successfully implanted patients from the Micra IDE trial with a primary pacing indication associated with AF or history of AF (AF group) and those without (non-AF group). Among 720 patients successfully implanted with Micra, 228 (31.7%) were in the non-AF group. Reasons for selecting VVI pacing in non-AF patients included an expectation for infrequent pacing (66.2%) and advanced age (27.2%). More patients in the non-AF group had a condition that precluded the use of a transvenous pacemaker (9.6% vs. 4.7%, P = 0.013). Atrial fibrillation patients programmed to VVI received significantly more ventricular pacing compared to non-AF patients (median 67.8% vs. 12.6%; P < 0.001). The overall occurrence of the composite outcome at 24 months was 1.8% with no difference between the AF and non-AF groups (hazard ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 0.45-4.2; P = 0.59). CONCLUSION: Nearly one-third of patients selected to receive Micra VVI therapy were for indications not associated with AF. Non-AF VVI patients required less frequent pacing compared to patients with AF. Risks associated with VVI therapy were low and did not differ in those with and without AF.

14.
Int J Med Robot ; : e2042, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haptic devices with active translation and orientation outputs are highly preferred in surgical teleoperation. However, commercial products are expensive, while state-of-the-art research prototypes are difficult to reproduce outside the original laboratories. METHODS: This paper presents the design and experimental characterizations of two styluses for the CombX, a haptic device with both force and torque outputs constructed from two TouchX haptic devices, which have only force outputs at their styluses. The arrangement was optimized to improve the specifications. Additional functions for surgical teleoperation were also integrated. RESULTS: The CombX has a translation workspace larger than 160×160×160 mm3 . After calibration, it can provide force outputs of up to 16.32 N and torque outputs of up to 316 mNm. The CombX has also been successfully used to teleoperate a continuum surgical manipulator for two surgical tasks. CONCLUSION: The results show that the CombX is a viable option for surgical teleoperation.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134381, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677466

RESUMO

This study investigated the pyrolysis of lignin pyrolysis in a temperature region from 200 to 800 °C, aiming to understand influence of pyrolysis temperature on evolution of structures of the resulting char. The results showed that fusion of the ring structure initiated at 200 °C, where the C/H ratio in the char was equal to that in naphthalene (two fused rings). The C/H ratio in the char obtained at 350 °C corresponded to that in pyrene (four fused rings), while the char produced at 550 °C was equivalent to 20 fused benzene rings in terms of C/H ratio. The increasing pyrolysis temperature also shifted the oxygen-containing functionalities such as the carbonyl, esters, ketones in the bio-oil to the ether functionality that had a higher thermal stability. The DRIFTS study of pyrolysis of lignin showed that drastic changes of the functionalities and the internal structure of the char occurred in a narrow temperature region from 520 to 530 °C. The carbonyl functionality and the aliphatic structure were eliminated, and new conjugated π-bond systems formed.

16.
Neoplasia ; 21(11): 1085-1090, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734629

RESUMO

Differentiating pancreatitis from pancreatic cancer would improve diagnostic specificity, and prognosticating pancreatitis that progresses to pancreatic cancer would also improve diagnoses of pancreas pathology. The high glycolytic metabolism of pancreatic cancer can cause tumor acidosis, and different levels of pancreatitis may also have different levels of acidosis, so that extracellular acidosis may be a diagnostic biomarker for these pathologies. AcidoCEST MRI can noninvasively measure extracellular pH (pHe) in the pancreas and pancreatic tissue. We used acidoCEST MRI to measure pHe in a KC model treated with caerulein, which causes pancreatitis followed by development of pancreatic cancer. We also evaluated the KC model treated with PBS, and wild-type mice treated with caerulein or PBS as controls. The caerulein-treated KC cohort had lower pHe of 6.85-6.92 before and during the first 48 h after initiating treatment, relative to a pHe of 6.92 to 7.05 pHe units for the other cohorts. The pHe of the caerulein-treated KC cohort decreased to 6.79 units at 5 weeks when pancreatic tumors were detected with anatomical MRI, and sustained a pHe of 6.75 units at the 8-week time point. Histopathology was used to evaluate and validate the presence of tumors and inflammation in each cohort. These results showed that acidoCEST MRI can differentiate pancreatic cancer from pancreatitis in this mouse model, but does not appear to differentiate pancreatitis that progresses to pancreatic cancer vs. pancreatitis that does not progress to cancer.

17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761955

RESUMO

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major micronutrient deficiency in children. Although plasma and serum retinol levels are proposed as the key indicators of VAD, collecting and transporting plasma and serum are difficult and inconvenient in field studies. Dried blood spot (DBS) retinol has been used as an alternative to plasma retinol in several epidemiological and clinical studies. A limitation of methods that use DBS retinol is the instability and apparent loss of retinol in DBSs. Therefore, an accurate, reliable method for stabilizing retinol in DBSs and quantifying and comparing DBS retinol concentrations with equivalent plasma retinol levels is required. In this study, antioxidants on paper combined with vacuum treatment were found to greatly increase the stability of DBS retinol during 120 min of air drying and 30 days of room-temperature storage. A surrogate matrix of whole blood prepared using a mixture of human erythrocytes and 2% BSA in PBS was firstly used in DBS retinol determination based on the fact that retinol is excluded from erythrocytes. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.04-300 µg/mL. Both the between-run (n = 5) and within-run (n = 6) precision (relative standard deviations, RSD%) were below 8.42%. The spiked recoveries at 3 concentrations ranged from 86.48 to 98.13%. The internal standard (IS)-normalized matrix factor (MF) was 99.72% with a RSD% of 10.50% (n = 3). The accuracy was calibrated using two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) serum-generated calibrants at concentrations of 0.1962 and 0.3948 g/mL, and relative errors (RE% values) of 0.07% and 4.95% were found, respectively. A simple calibration model was first developed to convert DBS retinol concentration to the equivalent plasma retinol concentration, thereby enabling comparisons with clinical reference ranges and with studies using serum or plasma samples. Graphical abstract.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(21): 9947-9959, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721726

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a well-established defensive mechanism for tumor suppression, and is also proposed to play a crucial role in embryonic development, wound repair, aging and age-related diseases. Senescent cell is characterized by the marked morphological changes and active metabolism along with a distinctive senescence associated secretion phenotype (SASP). Cellular senescence is triggered by multiple endogenous and exogenous stressors, which collectively induce three types of senescence. It is believed that senescence represents a programmed phenomenon to facilitate ß cell functional maturation and, therefore, senescence has been suggested to be involved in ß cell regeneration, insulin secretion and diabetes development. Nevertheless, despite past extensive studies, the exact impact of senescence on ß cell viability, regeneration and functionality, and its relevance to the development of diabetes are yet to be fully addressed. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress in ß cell senescence, through which we intend to spark more instructive discussion and perspective with regard to the mechanisms underlying ß cell senescence and their links to the pathogenesis of diabetes and the development of therapeutic strategies.

19.
J Dig Dis ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756284

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of transparent cap-assisted endoscopy in esophageal foreign body removal. METHODS: Patients with esophageal foreign body ingestion had cap-assisted or conventional endoscopy between October 2004 and July 2018. Propensity score matching was performed. The success rate of the procedure, procedure time, clearness of the endoscopic view and adverse event rates were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the 838 patients with confirmed foreign body ingestion, 728 (86.9%) underwent endoscopic intervention. After matching, there were 224 pairs of patients. There was no difference between transparent cap-assisted endoscopy and conventional endoscopy regarding the success rate of the procedure (100% vs 99.1%, respectively). Transparent cap-assisted endoscopy was associated with shorter procedure times for removing jujube pits, fish bones and other sharp objects (4.24 ± 2.81 minutes vs 7.62 ± 8.15 minutes, P = 0.001; 2.99 ± 2.15 minutes vs 6.49 ± 6.54 minutes, P < 0.001; 4.29 ± 3.36 minutes vs 10.60 ± 19.79 minutes, P = 0.027, respectively) and higher ratios for clear endoscopic view in the extraction of jujube pits, fish bones, poultry bones and other sharp objects (98% vs 43.4%, 97.5% vs 74.1%, 100% vs 81.3%, and 100% vs 82.7%; P < 0.001, P = 0.014, P = 0.049, and P = 0.026, respectively). No significant differences in the adverse event rates were observed between the two groups (P = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: The transparent cap-assisted technique is considered an effective and safe method to remove sharp esophageal foreign bodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757419

RESUMO

Disuse osteoporosis is common in prolonged therapeutic bed rest, space flight and immobilization due to limb fracture, which is related to reduction of mechanical stress on bone. Mechanical unloading can inhibit the differentiation of osteoblasts, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), is an important transcription factor, which plays a crucial role in disuse osteoporosis induced by unloading conditions. In this study, we found that Runx2-targeting mechano-sensitive miR-30 family members, miR-30b, miR-30c, miR-30d and miR-30e increased significantly, and were negatively correlated with the expression of Runx2 under unloading condition. Further studies found that the four miRNAs inhibited the expression of Runx2 and osteoblast differentiation under normal loading, and the knockdown of these miRNAs attenuated partly the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation induced by unloading condition in MC3T3-E1 cells. This study is the first to report miR-30 family members can regulate partly the dysfunction of osteoblasts under unloading condition, which is expected to be targets for the treatment of disuse osteoporosis.

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