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2.
Brain Struct Funct ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989870

RESUMO

Postnatal development of cerebral cortex is associated with a variety of neuronal processes and is thus critical to development of brain function and cognition. Longitudinal changes of cortical morphology and topology, such as postnatal cortical thinning and flattening have been widely studied. However, thorough and systematic investigation of such cortical change, including how to quantify it from multiple spatial directions and how to relate it to surface topology, is rarely found. In this work, based on a longitudinal macaque neuroimaging dataset, we quantified local changes in gyral white matter's surface area and sulcal depth during early development. We also investigated how these two metrics are coupled and how this coupling is linked to cortical surface topology, underlying white matter, and positions of functional areas. Semi-parametric generalized additive models were adopted to quantify the longitudinal changes of surface area (A) and sulcal depth (D), and the coupling patterns between them. This resulted in four classes of regions, according to how they change compared with global change throughout early development: slower surface area change and slower sulcal depth change (slowA_slowD), slower surface area change and faster sulcal depth change (slowA_fastD), faster surface area change and slower sulcal depth change (fastA_slowD), and faster surface area change and faster sulcal depth change (fastA_fastD). We found that cortex-related metrics, including folding pattern and cortical thickness, vary along slowA_fastD-fastA_slowD axis, and structural connection-related metrics vary along fastA_fastD-slowA_slowD axis, with which brain functional sites align better. It is also found that cortical landmarks, including sulcal pits and gyral hinges, spatially reside on the borders of the four patterns. These findings shed new lights on the relationship between cortex development, surface topology, axonal wiring pattern and brain functions.

3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1192: 339366, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057941

RESUMO

A miniaturized/portable visual colorimetric system based on hydride generation headspace solid phase extraction (HG-HS-SPE) was proposed for arsenic detection by naked eyes. As(III) was transformed into AsH3via hydride generation process, the volatile AsH3 was introduced into reaction bottle and reacted with AgNO3 subsequently. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were generated in situ, resulting in the color changed from white to black, it could be readout by naked eyes or a smartphone application (color extraction, for RGB readout). The interferences from 9 common ions and 10 conventional hydride generation elements were discussed, the results demonstrated that the proposed method exhibit a good anti-interference. The proposed visual colorimetric method was further applied to seven water samples and their spiked samples, and a certified reference water sample (GBW08605) for demonstrating its accuracy and applicability.

4.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 195-205, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060427

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Folium Ginkgo extract and tetramethylpyrazine sodium chloride injection (Xingxiong injection) is a compound preparation commonly used for treating cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury in ischaemic stroke in China. However, its potential mechanisms on ischaemic stroke remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the potential mechanisms of Xingxiong injection in vivo or in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the sham (normal saline), the model (normal saline) and the Xingxiong injection groups (12.5, 25 or 50 mL/kg). The rats were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion for 14 d. Xingxiong injection was administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection immediately after ischaemia induction for 14 d. Afterwards, rats were sacrificed at 14 d induced by administration of Xingxiong injection. RESULTS: Xingxiong injection significantly reduces infarct volume (23%) and neurological deficit scores (93%) compared with the MCAO/R group. Additionally, Xingxiong injection inhibits the loss in mitochondrial membrane potential (43%) and reduces caspase-3 level (44%), decreases NOX (41%), protein carbonyl (29%), 4-HNE (40%) and 8-OhdG (41%) levels, inhibits the expression of inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α (26%), IL-1ß (34%), IL-6 (39%), MCP-1 (36%), CD11a (41%) and ICAM-1 (43%). Moreover, Xingxiong injection can increase p-Akt/Akt (35%) and Nrf2 (47%) protein expression and inhibit NLRP3 (42%) protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: Xingxiong injection prevents cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury via activating the Akt/Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome. These findings provide experimental evidence for clinical use of drugs in the treatment of ischaemic stroke.

6.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The amount of breakfast protein intake is important for maintaining muscle strength. However, the effect of breakfast protein quality (ie, bioavailability) remains unclear. We investigated the association between breakfast protein quality and the incidence of muscle weakness. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthy older adults age 60-83 years without stroke, arthritis, Parkinson disease, or muscle weakness at baseline (maximum follow-up period and participations were 9.2 years and 5 times, respectively). METHODS: Weakness was defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 criteria, using grip strength. Breakfast protein quality was evaluated using the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), where higher scores represent higher quality, calculated from 3-day dietary records. Participants were classified according to sex-stratified tertiles of breakfast PDCAAS (ie, low to high groups). The association between PDCAAS and incident weakness was analyzed using the generalized estimating equation, after adjusting for sex, age, follow-up time, grip strength, body mass index, physical activity, cognition, education, smoking, economics, medical history, lunch and dinner PDCAASs, and energy and protein intake during 3 regular meals at baseline. RESULTS: Overall, 14.4% of the initial sample was excluded owing to a diagnosis of weakness-related diseases, and 58.3% (n = 701) had at least 1 follow-up measurement for inclusion in the analysis. The mean ± SD follow-up period was 6.9 ± 2.1 years; the cumulative number of participants was 3019, and 282 developed weakness. Using the low PDCAAS group as the reference, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) for incident weakness in the middle and high PDCAAS groups were 0.71 (0.43-1.18) and 0.50 (0.29-0.86), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Higher breakfast protein quality was associated with a reduction in incident weakness in older adults, independent of protein intake. These findings may highlight the role of protein quality for muscle health in older adults.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 87, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013253

RESUMO

A profound transformation of China's energy system is required to achieve carbon neutrality. Here, we couple Monte Carlo analysis with a bottom-up energy-environment-economy model to generate 3,000 cases with different carbon peak times, technological evolution pathways and cumulative carbon budgets. The results show that if emissions peak in 2025, the carbon neutrality goal calls for a 45-62% electrification rate, 47-78% renewable energy in primary energy supply, 5.2-7.9 TW of solar and wind power, 1.5-2.7 PWh of energy storage usage and 64-1,649 MtCO2 of negative emissions, and synergistically reducing approximately 80% of local air pollutants compared to the present level in 2050. The emission peak time and cumulative carbon budget have significant impacts on the decarbonization pathways, technology choices, and transition costs. Early peaking reduces welfare losses and prevents overreliance on carbon removal technologies. Technology breakthroughs, production and consumption pattern changes, and policy enhancement are urgently required to achieve carbon neutrality.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer (OC) is a common tumour that poses a threat to human health and imposes a heavy burden on countries. This study assessed the burden imposed by OC on the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 on the basis of gender, age and socio-demographic index. METHODS: Data on incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) for OC in the 10 most populous countries from 1990 to 2019 were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Estimated annual percentage changes were calculated to assess the trends of morbidity, mortality and DALY. The indicator that served as a proxy for survival rate was the supplement of mortality-to-incidence ratio (SMIR) (1 - (M/I)). RESULTS: The number of new cases, deaths and DALY have increased in all 10 countries in the past 30 years. Trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), age-standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age-standardised DALY for OC in the 10 most populous countries varied. The SMIR increased in all countries, with most countries having an SMIR between 30% and 50%. In 2019, the United States had the highest SMIR at 76%, whereas Russia had the lowest at 21.7%. Incidence and mortality were close between male and female subjects in Japan, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The incidence and mortality in male subjects in the United States, Russia, China and Brazil were two or more times those of female subjects. Gender difference was highest among patients aged 40-69 years. CONCLUSION: Trends and gender differences in ASIR, ASMR and age-standardised DALY for OC vary in the 10 most populous countries. Government cancer programs are often expensive to run, especially in countries with large populations. Policy makers need to take these differences into account when formulating policies.

9.
Genes Dis ; 9(1): 151-164, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005115

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the relationships between LPCAT1 expression and clinicopathologic parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), further, to explore the effect of LPCAT1 on overall survival (OS) in patients with HCC, and its possible mechanism. Bioinformatics analysis using high throughput RNA-sequencing data from TCGA was utilized to explore the differential expression of LPCAT1 between normal and tumor tissues, and the associations between LPCAT1 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Survival analyses and subgroup survival analyses were utilized to elucidate the effect of LPCAT1 on OS in patients with HCC. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the prognostic factors. Potential LPCAT1 related tumor genes were identified by the methodology of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening. GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway analysis and the PPI network were used to explore the potential mechanism. LPCAT1 was significantly overexpressed in HCC tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. The LPCAT1 expression was related to tumor grade, ECOG score, AFP and TNM stage, with P values of 0.000, 0.000, 0.007 and 0.000, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that LPCAT1 expression was independently associated with OS, with an HR of 1.04 (CI: 1.01-1.06, P = 0.003). The KEGG pathway enrichment analyses showed that overlapped DEGs mainly participate in the cell cycle. Finally, we identified a hub gene, CDK1, which has been reported to act on the cell cycle, consistent with the result of KEGG enrichment analysis. Collectively, these data confirmed LPCAT1 was upregulated in HCC, and was an independent predictor of the prognosis.

10.
Bioengineered ; 13(2): 3275-3283, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048779

RESUMO

It has been reported that the expression of tumor suppressor gene N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) was significantly reduced in human solid tumors, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to explore whether the difference of NDRG2 expression exists in different stages of ESCC and provides a basis for the early diagnosis and prognosis of ESCC. Immunohistochemical staining was used to investigate the expression level of NDRG2 in samples from 91 patients with mild-to-moderate dysplasia, early ESCC, and advanced ESCC. The relationship between the expression of NDRG2 and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients was analyzed. The results showed that positive expression rates of NDRG2 in tissues adjacent to early ESCC (76.7%), or from mild-to-moderate dysplasia (74.1%), and early ESCC (83.3%) were significantly higher than in tissue from advanced ESCC (55.9%). The positive expression rate in advanced ESCC was significantly lower than in the other three tissue types (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) and correlation (Cramer's V = 0.351, p = 0.019, <0.05) between the expression of NDRG2 and the clinical stage in the 64 patients with ESCC. In conclusion, this study found that the expression of NDRG2 gradually decreased with the progression of esophageal lesions into advanced ESCC. This difference in positive expression rate was more obvious in male patients and patients under 60 years of age. Therefore, the detection of NDRG2 plays an important role in differentiating early ESCC from advanced ESCC.

11.
Anal Chem ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041378

RESUMO

Macrocyclic peptides (MCPs) are an emerging class of promising drug modalities that can be used to interrogate hard-to-drug ("undruggable") targets. However, their poor intestinal stability is one of the major liabilities or obstacles for oral drug delivery. We therefore investigated the metabolic stability and biotransformation of MCPs via a systematic approach and established an integrated in vitro assay strategy to facilitate MCP drug discovery, with a focus on oral delivery liabilities. A group of diverse MCPs were incubated with representative matrices, including simulated intestinal fluid with pancreatin (SIFP), human enterocytes, liver S9 fractions, liver lysosomes, plasma, and recombinant enzymes. The results revealed that the stability and biotransformation of MCPs varied, with the major metabolic pathways identified in different matrices. Under the given conditions, the selected MCPs generally showed better stability in plasma compared to that in SIFP. Our data suggest that pancreatic enzymes act as the primary metabolic barrier for the oral delivery of MCPs, mainly through hydrolysis of their backbone amide bonds. Whereas in enterocytes, multiple metabolic pathways appeared to be involved and resulted in metabolic reactions such as oxidation and reduction in addition to hydrolysis. Further studies suggested that lysosomal peptidase cathepsin B could be a major enzyme responsible for the cleavage of side-chain amide bonds in lysosomes. Collectively, we developed and implemented an integrated assay for assessing the metabolic stability and biotransformation of MCPs for compound screening in the discovery stage toward oral delivery. The proposed question-driven assay cascade can provide biotransformation insights that help to guide and facilitate lead candidate selection and optimization.

12.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2022 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064655

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to develop and validate a competing risk nomogram for predicting all-cause mortality and heart transplantation (HT) before first appropriate shock in non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 218 consecutive DCM patients implanted with ICD between 2010 and 2019 at our institution were retrospectively enrolled. Cox proportional hazards model was primarily built to identify variables associated with death and HT. Then, a Fine-Gray model, accounting for the appropriate shock as a competing risk, was constructed using these selected variables along with implantation indication (primary vs. secondary). Finally, a nomogram based on the Fine-Gray model was established to predict 1-, 3-, and 5-year probabilities of all-cause mortality and HT before first appropriate shock. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), Harrell's C-index, and calibration curves were used to evaluate and internally validate the performance of this model. The decision curve analysis was applied to assess its clinical utility. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and HT without former appropriate shock were 5.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9-9.9%], 16.6% (95% CI 11-25.0%), and 25.3% (95% CI 17.2-37.1%), respectively. Five variables including implantation indication, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, and amiodarone treatment were independently associated with it (all P < 0.05) and were used for constructing the nomogram. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year AUC of the nomogram were 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.94, P < 0.001), 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.93, P < 0.001), and 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.94, P < 0.001), respectively. The Harrell's C-index was 0.788 (95% CI 0.697-0.877, P < 0.001; 0.762 for the optimism-corrected C-index), showing the good discriminative ability of the model. The calibration was acceptable (optimism-corrected slope 0.896). Decision curve analysis identified our model was clinically useful within the entire range of potential treatment thresholds for ICD implantation. Three risk groups stratified by scores were significantly different between cumulative incidence curves (P < 0.001). The identified high-risk group composed 17.9% of our population and did not derive long-term benefit from ICD. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed nomogram is a simple, useful risk stratification tool for selecting potential ICD recipients in DCM patients. It might facilitate the shared decision-making between patients and clinicians.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127441, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673396

RESUMO

The natural ecosystem will continually deteriorate for decades by the leakage of Cs and Sr isotopes. The exploration of the new materials or techniques for the efficient treatment of radioactive wastewater is critically important. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration was constructed to operate the non-thermal plasma (NTP). The NTP was incorporated into the synthesis of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) in two different procedures to intensify the synthesis of PAC (NTP-PAC) and enhance the further removal of Cs and Sr from wastewater. The employment of NTP in two procedures both had significantly changed the physicochemical characteristics of PAC materials, which facilitated the further adsorption application of NTP-PAC on the treatment of Cs+ and Sr2+. Different molecular, morphological, and adsorption characteristics were confirmed to the NTP-PAC materials. The heterogeneous adsorption of the NTP-PAC can be appropriately fitted by both the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the Elovich model. Both physisorption and chemisorption reaction mechanisms were ensured for the heterogeneous adsorption of the NTP-PAC material towards Cs+ and Sr2+, which guaranteed the excellent adsorption performance of NTP-PAC materials compared to PAC. The electron collisions caused by NTP with alum pulp created highly reactive growth precursors and intensified the nucleation and hydrolysis polymerization of PAC. The employment of NTP explicitly broadens the reaction pathways between PAC and cationic contaminants in the aqueous environment, which expands the application area of PAC materials in environmental sustainability.

14.
J Virol Methods ; 299: 114343, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728269

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a serious disease affecting feedlot cattle in China and likely other places worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) are principally responsible for causing BRDC, and are a major strain to the industrial economy. Eradication of these viruses/disease requires swift viral identification and treatment. Hence, this study established a fast and easy procedure of BVDV and BPIV3 identification that employs reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) and lateral flow dipstick (LFD), and uses primers and lateral flow (LF) probe targeting the 5'-UTR gene of BVDV and phosphoprotein P gene of BPIV3, respectively. Our assay was able to successfully amplify BVDV and BPIV3 RNA within 25 min at 35 °C using RT-RPA, with products visible on the LFD within 5 min at room temperature (RT). The lowest detection limits were 50 RNA molecules for BVDV and 34 RNA molecules for BPIV3 per reaction. We also demonstrated that the established dual RT-RPA LFD assay was precise and targeted, harboring excellent potential to become an onsite molecular diagnostic tool in the detection of BVDV and BPIV3. This method can detect BVDV (Pestivirus A, B) and BPIV3, and exhibit no cross-reaction with other viruses like the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). The assay performance was further assessed with clinical samples, and demonstrated good performance in comparison to real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Moreover, the RT-RPA LFD assay was comparitively rapid and required minimal training.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114793, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728317

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fangji Huangqi Decoction (FHD) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). FHD has been hypothesized to inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which may positively impact breast cancer prevention and treatment. However, its exact mechanism of action is still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to screen potential targets of FHD for the treatment of EMT in breast cancer through network pharmacology, and to verify their therapeutic effects in vitro experiments and high-throughput second-generation sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data sets of effective components and targets of FHD were established through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database. The GeneCards and OMIM databases were used to establish breast cancer-related target datasets, which were then matched with the TCM target data. The interaction between key target proteins was analyzed using the STRING database; the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases were used to identify the associated biological processes and enriched signal pathways, respectively. The active ingredient disease target network was analyzed using Cytoscape. Finally, next generation sequencing was used to verify the related pathways of FHD intervention in EMT in breast cancer. High-content screening was used to identify the genes/pathways affected by FHD. MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1937 breast cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the impact of FHD on migration, invasion, and EMT. RESULTS: Eighty possible significant targets were identified for the treatment of breast cancer EMT with FHD; GO and KEGG were used to identify 173 cell biological processes associated with breast cancer (P < 0.05), including the NF-κB and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. The high-throughput sequencing and network pharmacology results were highly consistent. The migration and invasion ability of MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced and their EMT status could be reversed by DSHR2 knockdown. The results of morphology and scratch assays showed that FHD could improve the EMT status of HCC-1973. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides more evidence to support the clinical application of FHD, which has reliable interventional effects on breast cancer EMT. Its therapeutic effects may involve a multi-target, multi-pathway, and multi-mechanism effect.

16.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(1): e32-e33, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028420

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 68-year-old woman with melanoma in the left heel underwent sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy and radioguided biopsy. The sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy with SPECT/CT detected 3 foci of increased activity in the popliteal fossa and inguinal region. When coregistered to CT, the sentinel node was localized in the inguinal region, and the popliteal foci were considered tracer retention in lymphatic vessel. In another patient with melanoma in the foot, sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy detected 3 foci of increased activity in the popliteal fossa and inguinal region, which were all identified to be nodal uptake in SPECT/CT. The sentinel node was finally localized in popliteal fossa in this patient.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfocintigrafia , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/cirurgia , Linfonodo Sentinela/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Cancer Cell ; 40(1): 70-87.e15, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971568

RESUMO

We performed proteogenomic characterization of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) using paired tumor and adjacent liver tissues from 262 patients. Integrated proteogenomic analyses prioritized genetic aberrations and revealed hallmarks of iCCA pathogenesis. Aflatoxin signature was associated with tumor initiation, proliferation, and immune suppression. Mutation-associated signaling profiles revealed that TP53 and KRAS co-mutations may contribute to iCCA metastasis via the integrin-FAK-SRC pathway. FGFR2 fusions activated the Rho GTPase pathway and could be a potential source of neoantigens. Proteomic profiling identified four patient subgroups (S1-S4) with subgroup-specific biomarkers. These proteomic subgroups had distinct features in prognosis, genetic alterations, microenvironment dysregulation, tumor microbiota composition, and potential therapeutics. SLC16A3 and HKDC1 were further identified as potential prognostic biomarkers associated with metabolic reprogramming of iCCA cells. This study provides a valuable resource for researchers and clinicians to further identify molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities in iCCA.

18.
Med Res Rev ; 42(1): 259-305, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957000

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke caused by arterial occlusion is the most common type of stroke, which is among the most frequent causes of disability and death worldwide. Current treatment approaches involve achieving rapid reperfusion either pharmacologically or surgically, both of which are time-sensitive; moreover, blood flow recanalization often causes ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, even though neuroprotective intervention is urgently needed in the event of stroke, the exact mechanisms of neuronal death during ischemic stroke are still unclear, and consequently, the capacity for drug development has remained limited. Multiple cell death pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Here, we have reviewed these potential neuronal death pathways, including intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, ferroptosis, parthanatos, phagoptosis, and pyroptosis. We have also reviewed the latest results of pharmacological studies on ischemic stroke and summarized emerging drug targets with a focus on clinical trials. These observations may help to further understand the pathological events in ischemic stroke and bridge the gap between basic and translational research to reveal novel neuroprotective interventions.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 61(1): 105-112, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918511

RESUMO

The self-assembly of electron-deficient protonated N, N'-dipyridyltetrachloroperylenediimide (4Cl-DPPDI) and electron-rich polyoxometalate acids HnXM12O40 (POMs; X = P or Si; M = W or Mo) resulted in four isomorphous donor-acceptor hybrid crystals 1-4 with segregated POM anions and one-dimensional racemic hydrogen-bonded 4Cl-DPPDI networks as electron-donor and -acceptor components, respectively. Because of the compact contacts between the POM anions and 4Cl-DPPDI tectons induced by anion-π interactions, besides enhanced photochromism, these four unique isostructural hybrids exhibited unusual room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emissions. More interestingly, owing to the facial compact contacts of two racemic 4Cl-DPPDI tectons induced by lone pair-π-assisted π-π interactions, they also showed unprecedented photon upconversion by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA).

20.
J Environ Manage ; 305: 114395, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972049

RESUMO

Ultrasonication has been mechanically applied widely in the recycling of spent lithium-ion (SLI) batteries while its influence on chemical pathways has barely been reported. In this study, ultrasonication and sulfate radicals were used in a coupling system to obtain efficient recoveries of Co and Li from SLI batteries. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sulfate radicals on recycling was quantitatively analysed by significance analysis and surface responses in a central composite design. The employment of persulfate significantly affected the whole recycling process during the sonication. Factors including acoustic time, operating powers, and temperature all had a significant effect on the recoveries of Co and Li. The maximum recovery efficiencies of Co and Li of 97.33% and 99.25%, respectively, and the minimum loss rate of Al of 4.13% were simultaneously obtained by the fitting predictor. The optimal combination of factors for the sonication system included an acoustic time (min) of 5.5, an operating power (W) of 168, a temperature (°C) of 86, and a ratio of cathode foil to S-solution (mg/mL) of 1:60. A moiety of cathode active material was directly separated from the aluminium collector by sulfate radical-related reactions. Co and Li cations dissolved from LiCoO2 by carbon dioxide radicals were reprecipitated by excess oxalate. The research demonstrated the positively synergistic influence caused by ultrasonication and sulfate radicals on achieving efficient recoveries of Co and Li from SLI batteries, explicitly expanding the technical choices for the recycling procedure.

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