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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 134: 112256, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744172

RESUMO

The incidence of allergic reactions has risen steadily in recent years, prompting growing interest in the identification of efficacious and safe natural compounds that can prevent or treat allergic diseases. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. has long been applied as a treatment for allergic diseases, whose primary component is phellodendrine. However, the efficacy of phellodendrine as a treatment for allergic diseases remains to be assessed. Mast cells are the primary effectors of allergic reactions, which are not only activated by IgE-dependent pathway, but also by IgE-independent pathways via human MRGPRX2, rat counterpart MRGPRB3. As such, this study explored the effect and mechanism of phellodendrine through this family receptors in treating allergic diseases in vitro and in vivo. These analyses revealed that phellodendrine administration was sufficient to protect against C48/80-induced foot swelling and Evans blue exudation in mice, and suppressed C48/80-induced RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells degranulation, and ß-HEX, HIS, IL-4, and TNF-α release. Moreover, phellodendrine could reduce the mRNA expression of MRGPRB3 and responsiveness of MRGPRX2 by altering its structure. It was able to decrease Ca2+ levels, phosphorylation levels of CaMK, PLCß1, PKC, ERK, JNK, p38, and p65, and inhibit the degradation of IκB-α. These analyses indicate that berberine inhibits the activation of PLC and downregulates the release of Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum by altering the conformation of MRGPRB3/MRGPRX2 protein, thereby inhibiting the activation of PKC and subsequently inhibiting downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling, ultimately suppressing allergic reactions. There may thus be further value in studies focused on developing phellodendrine as a novel anti-allergic drug.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730892

RESUMO

(1-x)(Ba0.75Sr0.1Bi0.1)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3-x(Sb0.5Li0.5)TiO3 (abbreviated as BSBiTZ-xSLT, x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1) ceramics were prepared via a conventional solid-state sintering method under different sintering temperatures. All BSBiTZ-xSLT ceramics have predominantly perovskite phase structures with the coexistence of tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthogonal phases, and present mainly spherical-like shaped grains relating to a liquid-phase sintering mechanism due to adding SLT and Bi2O3. By adjusting the sintering temperature, all compositions obtain the highest relative density and present densified micro-morphology, and doping SLT tends to promote the growth of grain size and the grain size distribution becomes nonuniform gradually. Due to the addition of heterovalent ions and SLT, typical relaxor ferroelectric characteristic is realized, dielectric performance stability is broadened to ~120 °C with variation less than 10%, and very long and slim hysteresis loops are obtained, which is especially beneficial for energy storage application. All samples show extremely fast discharge performance where the discharge time t0.9 (time for 90% discharge energy density) is less than 160 ns and the largest discharge current occurs at around 30 ns. The 1155 °C sintered BSBiTZ-0.025SLT ceramics exhibit rather large energy storage density, very high energy storage efficiency and excellent pulse charge-discharge performance, providing the possibility to develop novel BT-based dielectric ceramics for pulse energy storage applications.

3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 418: 110741, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733636

RESUMO

Plant volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) have gained increasing attention for their role in preventing fungal spoilage and insect contamination in postharvest agro-products owing to their effectiveness and sustainability. In this study, the essential oil was extracted from fresh M. alternifolia (tea tree) leaves, and the fumigation vapor of tea tree oil (TTO) completely inhibited the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar plates at a concentration of 1.714 µL/mL. Terpinen-4-ol was identified as the major component (40.76 %) of TTO volatiles analyzed using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Terpinen-4-ol vapor completely inhibited the A. flavus growth on agar plates and 20 % moisture wheat grain at 0.556 and 1.579 µL/mL, respectively, indicating that terpinen-4-ol serves as the main antifungal constituent in TTO volatiles. The minimum inhibitory concentration of terpinen-4-ol in liquid-contact culture was 1.6 µL/mL. Terpinen-4-ol treatment caused depressed, wrinkled, and punctured mycelial morphology and destroyed the plasma membrane integrity of A. flavus. Metabolomics analysis identified significant alterations in 93 metabolites, with 79 upregulated and 14 downregulated in A. flavus mycelia exposed to 1.6 µL/mL terpinen-4-ol for 6 h, involved in multiple cellular processes including cell membrane permeability and integrity, the ABC transport system, pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Biochemical analysis and 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining showed that terpinen-4-ol induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in A. flavus mycelia. This study provides new insights into the antifungal effects of the main TTO volatile compounds terpinen-4-ol on the growth of A. flavus.

4.
5.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: GL-V9 exhibited anti-tumour effects on various types of tumours. This study aimed to verify if GL-V9 synergized with oxaliplatin in suppressing colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore the synergistic mechanism. METHODS: The synergy effect was tested by MTT assays and the mechanism was examined by comet assay, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Xenograft model was constructed to substantiated the synergy effect and its mechanism in vivo. RESULTS: GL-V9 was verified to enhance the DNA damage effect of oxaliplatin, so as to synergistically suppress colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In HCT-116 cells, GL-V9 accelerated the degradation of Wee1 and induced the abrogation of cell cycle arrest and mis-entry into mitosis, bypassing the DNA damage response caused by oxaliplatin. Our findings suggested that GL-V9 binding to HSP90 was responsible for the degradation of Wee1 and the vulnerability of colon cancer cells to oxaliplatin. Functionally, overexpression of either HSP90 or WEE1 annulled the synergistic effect of GL-V9 and oxaliplatin. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings revealed that GL-V9 synergized with oxaliplatin to suppress CRC and displayed a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of oxaliplatin.

6.
J Adv Res ; 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768811

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The combination of a photosensitizer and indoleamine-2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor provides a promising photoimmunotherapy (PIT) strategy for melanoma treatment. A dual drug delivery system offers a potential approach for optimizing the inhibitory effects of PIT on melanoma proliferation and metastasis. OBJECTIVE: To develop a dual drug delivery system based on PIT and to study its efficacy in inhibiting melanoma proliferation and metastasis. METHODS: We constructed a multifunctional nano-porphyrin material (P18-APBA-HA) using the photosensitizer-purpurin 18 (P18), hyaluronic acid (HA), and 4-(aminomethyl) phenylboronic acid (APBA). The resulting P18-APBA-HA was inserted into a phospholipid membrane and the IDO inhibitor epacadostat (EPA) was loaded into the internal phase to prepare a dual drug delivery system (Lip\EPA\P18-APBA-HA). Moreover, we also investigated its physicochemical properties, targeting, anti-tumor immunity, and anti-tumor proliferation and metastasis effects. RESULTS: The designed system utilized the pH sensitivity of borate ester to realize an enhanced-targeting strategy to facilitate the drug distribution in tumor lesions and efficient receptor-mediated cellular endocytosis. The intracellular release of EPA from Lip\EPA\P18-APBA-HA was triggered by thermal radiation, thereby inhibiting IDO activity in the tumor microenvironment, and promoting activation of the immune response. Intravenous administration of Lip\EPA\P18-APBA-HA effectively induced anti-tumor immunity by promoting dendritic cell maturation, cytotoxic T cell activation, and regulatory T cell suppression, and regulating cytokine secretion, to inhibit the proliferation of melanoma and lung metastasis. CONCLUSION: The proposed nano-drug delivery system holds promise as offers a promising strategy to enhance the inhibitory effects of the combination of EPA and P18 on melanoma proliferation and metastasis.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775855

RESUMO

This research aimed to explore the impact of nodosin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The study involved administering nodosin orally at doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight orally to rats for 7 days before induction of AKI. Toward the end of the study, urine, blood, and kidneys were gathered from the rats to undergo biochemical and molecular examination after sacrificing them. Serum Scr, BUN, urine NGAL, and KIM-1 levels were significantly decreased in nodosin-treated AKI rats. Besides, nodosin administration resulted in a significant reduction in kidney MDA and 4-HNE levels. In contrast, antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST levels increased, as well as Nrf2, NQO1, and HO-1 levels increased, while Keap-1 mRNA levels decreased in AKI rats. In addition, AKI rats treated with nodosin reversed excessive ferroptosis in the kidneys of LPS-induced AKI rats, as evidenced by increased mRNA and protein levels of GPX4, SLC7A11, and FTH-1. The administration of nodosin significantly reduced levels of inflammatory markers including TLR4, MYD88, NF-κB p65, IkKß, and IL-1ß, while IL-10 levels increased in the AKI-induced rats. Besides, histopathological changes were reduced in AKI-induced rats treated with nodosin. Nodosin proves highly beneficial in safeguarding the kidney from AKI by regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and ferroptosis. The treatment of AKI could greatly benefit from this option.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202406485, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770612

RESUMO

Herein, we disclose a new strategy that rapidly and reliably incorporates bromine atoms at distal, secondary C(sp3)-H sites in aliphatic amines with excellent and predictable site-selectivity pattern. The resulting halogenated building blocks serve as versatile linchpins to enable a series of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond-formations at remote C(sp3) sites, thus offering a new modular and unified platform that expedites the access to advanced sp3 architectures possessing valuable nitrogen-containing saturated heterocycles of interest in medicinal chemistry settings.

9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 371, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore a method for screening and diagnosing neonatal congenital heart disease (CHD) applicable to grassroots level, evaluate the prevalence of CHD, and establish a hierarchical management system for CHD screening and treatment at the grassroots level. METHODS: A total of 24,253 newborns born in Tang County between January 2016 and December 2020 were consecutively enrolled and screened by trained primary physicians via the "twelve-section ultrasonic screening and diagnosis method" (referred to as the "twelve-section method"). Specialized staff from the CHD Screening and Diagnosis Center of Hebei Children's Hospital regularly visited the local area for definite diagnosis of CHD in newborns who screened positive. Newborns with CHD were managed according to the hierarchical management system. RESULTS: The centre confirmed that, except for 2 newborns with patent ductus arteriosus missed in the diagnosis of ventricular septal defect combined with severe pulmonary hypertension, newborns with other isolated or concomitant simple CHDs were identified at the grassroots level. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic coincidence rate of the twelve-section method for screening complex CHD were 92%, 99.6% and 84%, respectively. A total of 301 children with CHD were identified. The overall CHD prevalence was 12.4‰. According to the hierarchical management system, 113 patients with simple CHD recovered spontaneously during local follow-up, 48 patients continued local follow-up, 106 patients were referred to the centre for surgery (including 17 patients with severe CHD and 89 patients with progressive CHD), 1 patient died without surgery, and 8 patients were lost to follow-up. Eighteen patients with complex CHD were directly referred to the centre for surgery, 3 patients died without surgery, and 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Most patients who received early intervention achieved satisfactory results. The mortality rate of CHD was approximately 28.86 per 100,000 children. CONCLUSIONS: The "twelve-section method" is suitable for screening neonatal CHD at the grassroots level. The establishment of a hierarchical management system for CHD screening and treatment is conducive to the scientific management of CHD, which has important clinical and social significance for early detection, early intervention, reduction in mortality and improvement of the prognosis of complex and severe CHDs.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Recém-Nascido , China/epidemiologia , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Plant Physiol ; 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753366

RESUMO

Sclerotinia disease is one of the most devastating fungal diseases worldwide, as it reduces the yields of many economically important crops. Pathogen-secreted effectors play crucial roles in infection processes. However, key effectors of Ciboria shiraiana, the pathogen primarily responsible for sclerotinia disease in mulberry (Morus spp.), remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the effector Cs02526 in C. shiraiana and found that Cs02526 could induce cell deathin a variety of plants. Moreover, Cs02526-induced cell death was mediated by the central immune regulator BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1), dependent on a 67-amino acid fragment. Notably, Cs02526 homologues were widely distributed in hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungi, but the homologues failed to induce cell death in plants. Pre-treatment of plants with recombinant Cs02526 protein enhanced resistance against both C. shiraiana and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the pathogenicity of C. shiraiana was diminished upon spraying plants with synthetic dsRNA-Cs02526. In conclusion, our findings highlight the cell death-inducing effector Cs02526 as a potential target for future biological control strategies against plant diseases.

11.
Phytomedicine ; 129: 155647, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent for patients with colorectal cancer. However, its anti-cancer efficacy is restricted by drug resistance occurring through several mechanisms, including autophagy. Liensinine exerts a considerable anti-tumor effect and can regulate autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy is a strategy to reverse resistance to oxaliplatin. The aim of this study was to check if liensinine can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer and if so, elucidate its mechanism. METHODS: Two colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and LoVo, and one normal intestinal epithelial cell, NCM-460 were used for in vitro experiments. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, and flow cytometry assays were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of liensinine and oxaliplatin. Network pharmacology analysis and Human XL Oncology Array were used to screen targets of liensinine. Transfections and autophagy regulators were used to confirm these targets. The relationship between the target and clinical effect of oxaliplatin was analyzed. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were used to validate the effects of liensinine and oxaliplatin. RESULTS: CCK-8 and colony formation assays both showed that the combination treatment of liensinine and oxaliplatin exerted synergistic effects. Results of the network pharmacology analysis and Human XL Oncology Array suggested that liensinine can inhibit autophagy by targeting HIF-1α/eNOS. HIF-1α was identified as the key factor modulated by liensinine in autophagy and induces resistance to oxaliplatin. HIF-1α levels in tumor cells and prognosis for FOLFOX were negatively correlated in clinical data. The results from three PDX models with different HIF-1α levels showed their association with intrinsic and acquired resistance to oxaliplatin in these models, which could be reversed by liensinine. CONCLUSIONS: Research on the relationship between HIF-1α levels and the clinical effect of oxaliplatin is lacking, and whether liensinine regulates HIF-1α is unknown. Our findings suggest that liensinine overcomes the resistance of colorectal cancer cells to oxaliplatin by suppressing HIF-1α levels to inhibit autophagy. Our findings can contribute to improving prognosis following colorectal cancer therapy.

13.
AME Case Rep ; 8: 38, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711893

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) with the Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) V600E had a relatively poor prognosis. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion and the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition factor (MET) amplification have been recognized as potentially important therapeutic targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, both of them are of extremely lower frequencies (<2%) in metastatic CRC, and few studies have mentioned the real application of their inhibitors in CRC treatment. Case Description: A 49-year-old Chinese male was diagnosed with ascending colon adenocarcinoma (cT3N+?M1) with liver metastases. The patient performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) using tissue and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), and the results showed a BRAF V600E mutation. He received an initial combination treatment with cetuximab, dabrafenib, and trametinib with a partial response (PR) assessment. We changed the therapy regimen on this patient several times because of the patient's intolerance to the drugs or the inefficacy of the treatment. During this period, we detected the c-MET amplification and tropomyosin 4 (TPM4)-ALK fusion by NGS after triplet targeted therapy (tislelizumab, dabrafenib, and trametinib), thus he was finally treated with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor (tislelizumab), MET/ALK inhibitor (crizotinib) plus multikinase inhibitor (regorafenib). Imageological examinations showed that PR was achieved and ctDNA sequencing results indicated a significantly reduced BRAF mutation frequency, MET amplification and TPM4-ALK fusion were undetectable. NGS analysis of peripheral blood showed a recurrence of the MET acquired resistant amplification mutation over 2 months of ongoing treatment. but the patient was assessed as PR and still under treatment of crizotinib, tislelizumab and regorafenib within good physical condition. At the last follow-up on October 2021, the patient died of symptomatic treatment fail for obstructive jaundice. The patient finally achieved 11 months overall survival. Conclusions: This study reported a co-existence of a BRAF V600E mutation, c-MET amplification and TPM4-ALK fusion in a CRC patient. Administration of crizotinib combined with regorafenib and tislelizumab obtained an obvious response. Furthermore, continuous ctDNA detection appears to be a promising technique to monitor tumor burden, which may provide better clinical decision support during the disease course.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 1439-1457, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707616

RESUMO

Background: Acteoside, an active ingredient found in various medicinal herbs, is effective in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease (DKD); however, the intrinsic pharmacological mechanism of action of acteoside in the treatment of DKD remains unclear. This study utilizes a combined approach of network pharmacology and experimental validation to investigate the potential molecular mechanism systematically. Methods: First, acteoside potential targets and DKD-associated targets were aggregated from public databases. Subsequently, utilizing protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, alongside GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, we established target-pathway networks to identify core potential therapeutic targets and pathways. Further, molecular docking facilitated the confirmation of interactions between acteoside and central targets. Finally, the conjectured molecular mechanisms of acteoside against DKD were verified through experimentation on unilateral nephrectomy combined with streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. The underlying downstream mechanisms were further investigated. Results: Network pharmacology identified 129 potential intersected targets of acteoside for DKD treatment, including targets such as AKT1, TNF, Casp3, MMP9, SRC, IGF1, EGFR, HRAS, CASP8, and MAPK8. Enrichment analyses indicated the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, Metabolic, and Relaxin signaling pathways could be involved in this therapeutic context. Molecular docking revealed high-affinity binding of acteoside to PIK3R1, AKT1, and NF-κB1. In vivo studies validated the therapeutic efficacy of acteoside, demonstrating reduced blood glucose levels, improved serum Scr and BUN levels, decreased 24-hour urinary total protein (P<0.05), alongside mitigated podocyte injury (P<0.05) and ameliorated renal pathological lesions. Furthermore, this finding indicates that acteoside inhibits the expression of pyroptosis markers NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18 through the modulation of the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway. Conclusion: Acteoside demonstrates renoprotective effects in DKD by regulating the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway and alleviating pyroptosis. This study explores the pharmacological mechanism underlying acteoside's efficacy in DKD treatment, providing a foundation for further basic and clinical research.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Glucosídeos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Fenóis , Polifenóis , Estreptozocina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Animais , Ratos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 173210, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750753

RESUMO

Controlling the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a global concern. While commonly used chlorine disinfectants can damage or even kill ARB, dissolved oxygen (DO) may affect the formation of reactive chlorine species. This leads to the hypothesis that DO may play roles in mediating the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection for antibiotic resistance. To this end, this study investigated the impacts of DO on the efficiency of chlorine disinfection for antibiotic resistance. The results revealed that DO could increase the inactivation efficiency of ARB under chloramine and free chlorine exposure at practically relevant concentrations. Reactive species induced by DO, including H2O2, O2-, and OH, inactivated ARB strains by triggering oxidative stress response and cell membrane damage. In addition, the removal efficiency of extracellular ARGs (i.e. tetA and blaTEM) was enhanced with increasing dosage of free chlorine or chloramine under aerobic conditions. DO facilitated the fragmentation of plasmids, contributing to the degradation of extracellular ARGs under exposure to chlorine disinfectants. The findings suggested that DO facilitates disinfection efficiency for antibiotic resistance in water treatment systems.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 162024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acid metabolism (FAM) contributes to tumorigenesis and tumor development, but the role of FAM in the progression of stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) has not been comprehensively clarified. METHODS: The expression data and clinical follow-up information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). FAM pathway was analyzed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and single-sample GSEA (ssGSEA) methods. Univariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to select prognosis genes. Molecular subtypes were classified by consensus clustering analysis. Furthermore, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) analysis was employed to develop a risk model. ESTIMATE and tumour immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) algorithm were used to assess immunity. pRRophetic package was conducted to predict drug sensitivity. RESULTS: Based on 14 FAM related prognosis genes (FAMRG), 2 clusters were determined. Patients in C2 showed a worse overall survival (OS). Furthermore, a 7-FAMRG risk model was established as an independent predictor for STAD, with a higher riskscore indicating an unfavorable OS. High riskscore patients had higher TIDE score and these patients were more sensitive to anticancer drugs such as Bortezomib, Dasatinib and Pazopanib. A nomogram based on riskscore was an effective prediction tool applicable to clinical settings. The results from pan-cancer analysis supported a prominent application value of riskscore model in other cancer types. CONCLUSION: The FAMRGs model established in this study could help predict STAD prognosis and offer new directions for future studies on dysfunctional FAM-induced damage and anti-tumor drugs in STAD disease.

17.
J Eye Mov Res ; 17(1)2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694262

RESUMO

Although Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2) is primarily recognized as a respiratory disease, mounting evidence suggests that it may lead to neurological and cognitive impairments. The current study used three eye-tracking tasks (free-viewing, fixation, and smooth pursuit) to assess the oculomotor functions of mild infected cases over six months with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected volunteers. Fifty symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected, and 24 self-reported healthy controls completed the eye-tracking tasks in an initial assessment. Then, 45, and 40 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected completed the tasks at 2- and 6-months post-infection, respectively. In the initial assessment, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected exhibited impairments in diverse eye movement metrics. Over the six months following infection, the infected reported overall improvement in health condition, except for self-perceived mental health. The eye movement patterns in the free-viewing task shifted toward a more focal processing mode and there was no significant improvement in fixation stability among the infected. A linear discriminant analysis shows that eye movement metrics could differentiate the infected from healthy controls with an accuracy of approximately 62%, even 6 months post-infection. These findings suggest that symptomatic SARSCoV- 2 infection may result in persistent impairments in oculomotor functions, and the employment of eye-tracking technology can offer valuable insights into both the immediate and long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Future studies should employ a more balanced research design and leverage advanced machine-learning methods to comprehensively investigate the impact of SARSCoV- 2 infection on oculomotor functions.

18.
Front Genet ; 15: 1368358, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746055

RESUMO

Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. It plays a vital role not only in maintaining plant growth and development, but also in regulating plant response to environmental hazards. However, the systematic phylogenomic analysis of CHS gene family in a wide range of plant species has not been reported yet. To fill this knowledge gap, a large-scale investigation of CHS genes was performed in 178 plant species covering green algae to dicotyledons. A total of 2,011 CHS and 293 CHS-like genes were identified and phylogenetically divided into four groups, respectively. Gene distribution patterns across the plant kingdom revealed the origin of CHS can be traced back to before the rise of algae. The gene length varied largely in different species, while the exon structure was relatively conserved. Selection pressure analysis also indicated the conserved features of CHS genes on evolutionary time scales. Moreover, our synteny analysis pinpointed that, besides genome-wide duplication and tandem duplication, lineage specific transposition events also occurred in the evolutionary trajectory of CHS gene family. This work provides novel insights into the evolution of CHS gene family and may facilitate further research to better understand the regulatory mechanism of traits relating to flavonoid biosynthesis in diverse plants.

19.
J Environ Manage ; 360: 121167, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749136

RESUMO

Organic amendment substitutes mineral fertilizers has been proven to increase the organic matter content of soils, which in turn may induce phosphorus (P) mobilization by triggering the redox reaction. However, under flooded conditions according to local agricultural practices, as one of the factors restricting the decomposition of organic matter, the role ammonium plays in P transformation and leaching from soils with different organic matter remains unclear. To address the knowledge gap, the calcareous soils were collected from a long-term field trial (>13 years) containing two treatments with equal P inputs: a long-term mineral fertilization and a long-term organic amendment. Both long-term mineral fertilized soil and long-term organic amended soil were split into ammonium applications or no ammonium applications. A series of column devices were deployed to create flooded conditions and monitor the P leaching from the collected soils. The K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure and sequential extraction method were employed jointly to detect soil P fractions and speciation, and the P sorption/desorption characteristics of soil were evaluated by Langmuir fitting. The results showed a reduction of cumulative leached P from soils by 33.2%-43.3% after ammonium addition, regardless of previous long-term mineral fertilization or organic amendment history. A significant enhancement of soil labile P pool (indicated by the H2O-P fraction and NaHCO3-P fraction) after ammonium addition results in the reduction in soil P leaching. The reduced P sorption capacity coupled with the transformation from hydroxyapatite to ß-tricalcium phosphate indicated that the phosphate retention is attributed to the precipitation formation rather than phosphate sorption by soil. The present study highlights that the ammonium addition could affect the phosphate precipitation transformation. This may be attributed to the effect of ammonium addition on the calcium and magnesium ion content and molar ratio in this soil, thereby regulating the form of soil phosphate precipitation. The mechanisms revealed in this study can support developing optimized agricultural management practices to alleviate soil P loss.

20.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(6): 358, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated malnutrition is highly prevalent in advanced lung cancer, and 50% of global cancer-related deaths are attributed to cancer-associated malnutrition. Platinum-containing chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced lung cancer. Unfortunately, it can cause exacerbated toxicities, which can also have a negative impact on patient's prognosis and quality of life. The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria have been proposed as the world's first accepted diagnostic criteria for malnutrition. However, the effectiveness of GLIM criteria in predicting chemotherapy toxicities in patients with advanced lung cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to apply the GLIM criteria to assess the prevalence of pre-treatment diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to determine the impact of nutritional status on patient's chemotherapy toxicity. METHODS: We conducted a study of hospitalized patients with pathologically and clinically diagnosed advanced NSCLC who presented to our hospital from May 2021 to January 2022. Initially, the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) was used for nutritional risk screening, and nutritional status was assessed using the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and GLIM criteria. Chemotherapy toxicity was assessed and graded according to CTCAE5.0, and chemotherapy efficacy was assessed according to RECIST1.1. Kappa test was used to analyze the agreement between PG-SGA and GLIM criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between malnutrition and chemotherapy toxicity. RESULTS: A total of 215 patients with advanced NSCLC were evaluated for nutritional status. Most of the patients had normal BMI (61.86%) before the start of treatment, 40% were well-nourished as assessed by the PG-SGA tool, and 51.17% were well-nourished as assessed by GLIM criteria. Consistency analysis showed moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.463, P < 0.001) and their correlation was also moderate (Spearman, rs = 0.475, P < 0.001). The objective response rate (ORR) (P = 0.040) and disease control rate (DCR) (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in malnourished patients diagnosed according to GLIM criteria than in well-nourished patients. Multivariate analysis showed that malnutrition (OR = 1.531,95%CI 0.757-3.009; OR = 6.623,95%CI 1.390-31.567, P = 0.046) diagnosed by GLIM criteria was an independent predictor of chemotherapy toxicity. Conclusions Malnutrition diagnosed by GLIM criteria better predicts toxicity during chemotherapy, determines the degree of clinical benefit of chemotherapy, and may affect patient prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Desnutrição , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Adulto
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